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Master Template1 Global forecasting service Economic forecast summary – March 2013 www.gfs.eiu.com.

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1 Master Template1 Global forecasting service Economic forecast summary – March 2013

2 Post-election, the political scene continues to suffer from sharp ideological differences between the parties. Following a mini-deal on raising taxes at end-2012, further confrontations loom over federal spending and the federal debt ceiling. Loose monetary policy and a recovering housing market will partly offset contractionary fiscal policy. We maintain our GDP growth forecast for 2013 at 2.1%, down slightly from an estimated 2.2% in We forecast average growth of 2.3% in

3 The existence of the ECB’s OMT bond- buying programme (as yet unactivated) continues to foster a period of financial calm, easing Spain and Italy’s funding pressures. The real economy remains weak although it should emerge from recession by mid-year: euro area unemployment reached a record highs in late The ECB’s move buys time. Structural issues of competitiveness and solvency still need to be addressed. Fiscal consolidation will remain a constraint on growth in the medium term.

4 We forecast 0.9% growth for 2013, rising to 2% in Demand will be boosted by the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies of Shinzo Abe. The consumption tax rate is forecast to rise from 5% at present to 8% in April 2014 and then to 10% in October We forecast average annual inflation of around 1.3% between 2014 and A weaker yen will provide some relief to Japan’s exporters. Over the long term the ageing of the population, combined with disorderly public finances, will make it difficult for policymakers to engineer a self- sustaining recovery in domestic demand.

5 Growth in 2012 was constrained by sluggish OECD demand and a policy- induced slowdown in China designed to deflate a housing bubble. Chinese data started to strengthen in the final quarter of Stimulus measures and an increase in bank lending support our view that the economy will strengthen in 2013 and grow by 8.5%. Growth in Brazil is expected to improve in 2013, but remain relatively modest at 3.5%. We estimate that India’s growth will pick up in 2013 to 6.5%, after growth of just 5.4% in 2012.

6 Oil consumption growth will pick up slightly in 2013 as China returns to stronger economic growth and US consumption turns slightly positive. Overall, consumption growth will average around 1.7% a year in , led by the developing world. Geopolitical risks continue to weigh on the supply picture, particularly the tensions between the West and Iran. Still weak demand growth and ample supply will constrain prices in 2013, assuming no unforeseen disruptions to supply or heightened political risk.

7 Demand will remain relatively subdued in 2013, constrained by weak OECD growth, but will pick up supported by a pick up in China’s consumption Rising emerging market incomes and urbanisation will underpin medium- term demand growth. Years of underinvestment, particularly in agriculture, will support prices. Nominal prices will remain historically high in , but prices will ease back in real terms.

8 The Fed’s current monetary stimulus, a third round of QE, worth US$85bn in monthly bond purchases, is open- ended and will last until at least The ECB has said it will buy short- term bonds of euro zone governments without limit, subject to strict conditions. Given indications that the eurozone will exit recession in mid-2013 we no longer expect the ECB to cut interest rates this year. Emerging market central banks are adopting an easier monetary stance.

9 Europe’s debt crisis and a protracted recession will remain potential sources of pressure on the euro. All the same, the dollar has little fundamental support, given the combination of loose monetary policy, fiscal tightening and a large external funding requirement. We forecast an average euro:dollar rate of 1.34 in EM currencies will be sensitive to changes in global risk appetite. They should be supported over the medium term by positive growth and interest rate differentials with OECD economies.

10 - One or more countries leave the euro zone - Tensions over currency manipulation lead to protectionism - The global economy falls into recession + A sustained decline in oil prices provides a global economic fillip - Tensions over disputed islands rupture Sino-Japanese ties

11 - Social and political disorder undermine stability in China - US economy stumbles in the wake of a wave of fiscal tightening - Economic upheaval leads to widespread social and political unrest - An attack on Iran results in an oil price shock + Co-ordinated monetary stimulus kick-starts a global recovery

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13 Master Template13 Access analysis on over 200 countries worldwide with the Economist Intelligence Unit T he analysis and content in our reports is derived from our extensive economic, financial, political and business risk analysis of over 203 countries worldwide. You may gain access to this information by signing up, free of charge, at Click on the country name to go straight to the latest analysis of that country: Further reports are available from Economist Intelligence Unit and can be downloaded at G8 Countries * Canada Canada * FranceFrance * GermanyGermany * ItalyItaly * JapanJapan * RussiaRussia * United KingdomUnited Kingdom * United States of AmericaUnited States of America BRIC Countries * BrazilBrazil * RussiaRussia * IndiaIndia * ChinaChina CIVETS Countries * ColombiaColombia * IndonesiaIndonesia * VietnamVietnam * EgyptEgypt * TurkeyTurkey * South AfricaSouth Africa Or view the list of all the countries.view the list of all the countries Should you wish to speak to a sales representative please telephone us: Americas: Asia: Europe, Middle East & Africa: +44 (0)

14 Master Template14 Access analysis and forecasting of major industries with the Economist Intelligence Unit I n addition to the extensive country coverage the Economist Intelligence Unit provides each month industry and commodities information is also available. The key industry sectors we cover are listed below with links to more information on each of them. Automotive Analysis and five-year forecast for the automotive industry throughout the world providing detail on a country by country basis Commodities This service offers analysis for 25 leading commodities. It delivers price forecasts for the next two years with forecasts of factors influencing prices such as production, consumption and stock levels. Analysis and forecasts are split by the two main commodity types: “Industrial raw materials” and “Food, feedstuffs and beverages”. Consumer goods Analysis and five-year forecast for the consumer goods and retail industry throughout the world providing detail on a country by country basis Energy Analysis and five-year forecast for the energy industries throughout the world providing detail on a country by country basis Financial services Analysis and five-year forecast for the financial services industry throughout the world providing detail on a country by country basis Healthcare Analysis and five-year forecast for the healthcare industry throughout the world providing detail on a country by country basis Technology Analysis and five-year forecast for the technology industry throughout the world providing detail on a country by country basis

15 Master Template15 Media Enquiries for the Economist Intelligence Unit Europe, Middle East & Africa Grayling PR Jennifer Cole Tel: + 44 (0) Sophie Kriefman Tel: +44 (0) Ravi Sunnak Tel : +44 (0) Mobile: + 44 (0) Asia The Consultancy Tom Engel / Ian Fok / Rhonda Taylor Americas Grayling New York Ivette Almeida Tel: +(1) Katarina Wenk-Bodenmiller Tel: +(1) Australia and New Zealand Cape Public Relations Telephone: (02) Sara Crowe M: Luke Roberts M:


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