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Apprenticeship supply in the EU - Findings from a comparative survey - Christiane Westphal European Commission DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.

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Presentation on theme: "Apprenticeship supply in the EU - Findings from a comparative survey - Christiane Westphal European Commission DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Apprenticeship supply in the EU - Findings from a comparative survey - Christiane Westphal European Commission DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Vocational Training Brussels 29 June 2012

2 Policy context: youth unemployment crisis EU youth unemployment over 22 % = 5.5 million unemployed aged under 25 Nearly 1/3 of low skilled youth on the labour market are unemployed Over 7.5 million young people not in education or training or employment (NEET)

3 EU Youth Opportunities Initiative Priorities: - preventing early-school leaving  - developing skills that are relevant to the labour market  - helping gain first work experience/training  apprenticeships and traineeships  - helping access the labour market and get a job Delivery: European Semester, Structural Funds, EU actions

4 Good arguments for apprenticeships… Combine theory imparted at schools with practical training in real work situations (enterprises) Facilitate rapid school-work transitions for young people Also used (by individuals or enterprises) as a tool for LLL Facilitate identification of skill shortages and influence of companies on the VET training supply => linkage between productive system and training system Provide “recruitment”, “productive” and “new Knowledge” benefits for enterprises

5 Where do we stand?  VET often not regarded as valuable option, but: increasing importance attributed to workplace-based training Constant definition dilemma Strong differences in apprenticeship-type schemes Different intensity of workplace training Different roles and relationships amongst parties involved

6 Some aggregate figures (2009) EU-27: approximately a total of 3.7 million students in apprenticeship in the strict sense Another 5.7 million students attend other apprenticeship-type schemes (i.e. mainly school-based VET training with compulsory work-based training) Together, EU businesses supplied company training positions for a total of 9.4 million students = apprenticeship-type students represent approximately 85.2% of total secondary VET students and 40.5% of total secondary students in the EU-27.

7 Insufficient vocational pathways

8 Variety of systems All MS: schemes at upper secondary level where workplace training plays a significant role => apprenticeship-type schemes In 24/27 MS: VET schemes which can be labeled as mainly company based (i.e. > 50% of training in companies) -> apprenticeship system in a strict sense. In 18/24 MS, company based apprenticeship coexists with other mainly school-based training schemes

9 Country %work-based training % School based training and time distribution Denmark 66%-90%10%-35%By blocks of 5-10 weeks Estonia 66%33%Flexible arrangements France 66%33% 2-3 weeks company/ 1 week VT centre Germany 60%40%1-2 days/week Poland 4-6 summer weeks 4-6 weeksWhole academic year Slovak Republic >=60%<=40%1-2 days/week Spain 20%-30%70%-80%At the beginning of training cycle The Netherlands >=60%<=40%1-2 days/week United Kingdom <=70%>=30%1 day/week

10 Are all actors involved? Actors involvedDKSKFRDEPOSLESNLUK State at central level  Regional/municipal authorities  Social Partners  Vocational schools 

11 Who decides company participation ? Denmark: Trade committee of respective branch Estonia:Vocational schools France:Chambers Germany:Special bipartite VT committee Poland:Vocational schools Slovakia:Vocational Training Institutions Spain:Training centre Netherlands: 17 sector VET knowledge centres United Kingdom:Very few requisites for employers

12 Student/Company relationship Critical factors: Parties involved Contents Remuneration Exams and degrees

13 Some crisis effects  More students interested in pursuing VET in some countries  Downward trend in the amount of apprenticeships and in- company training placements offered by enterprises  Reduced public resources for promoting apprenticeship- type schemes  Use of apprenticeship students as a kind of cheap labour  Increasing share of experienced unemployed professionals who try to find a job through an apprenticeship

14 Wide range of challenges…  System design  Access and Provision  Inclusion

15 Further information supply-in-the-member-states-of-the-european- union--pbKE /http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/apprenticeship- supply-in-the-member-states-of-the-european- union--pbKE /


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