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Marketing Research & Information System b Marketing Research (MR) DefinitionDefinition Scope of MRScope of MR MR ProcessMR Process Ethical Issues in MREthical.

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Presentation on theme: "Marketing Research & Information System b Marketing Research (MR) DefinitionDefinition Scope of MRScope of MR MR ProcessMR Process Ethical Issues in MREthical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marketing Research & Information System b Marketing Research (MR) DefinitionDefinition Scope of MRScope of MR MR ProcessMR Process Ethical Issues in MREthical Issues in MR b Marketing Information System MKIS & MR Basic MKIS Commercial Databases Database Marketing MIS in Action Marketing Decision Support System Additional Reading: Bearden, Chp 3)

2 Marketing Research (M R) b Definition & Concept A By AMA: The Process that links the customer, consumer and the public through information. This information is used to: Identify & define the marketing opportunities Identify & define the marketing opportunities Generate, refine and evaluate the marketing actionsGenerate, refine and evaluate the marketing actions monitor the marketing performancemonitor the marketing performance improve the understanding of marketing as a processimprove the understanding of marketing as a process B By Evans: The systematic gathering, recording and analysing of information about specific issues ( related to the marketing of goods, services, organisations, people, places and ideas).

3 Marketing Research (MR) (Cont.....) b MR Tasks Specifies the information required to address the issues;Specifies the information required to address the issues; Designs the methods for collecting information;Designs the methods for collecting information; Manages and implements the data collection process;Manages and implements the data collection process; Analyses the results;Analyses the results; Communicates the findings and implications.Communicates the findings and implications. b From the definition & concepts as wells as the tasks, we could say that the emphasise of MR is the GENERATION of INFORMATION that assists in MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING

4 MR: The Roles b Professional Roles Role of Consultant; Designer; Analyst; Information CommunicationRole of Consultant; Designer; Analyst; Information Communication b Managerial Roles In Planning - Guidance in DM and to allocate the use of resources more effectively;In Planning - Guidance in DM and to allocate the use of resources more effectively; Problem Solving;Problem Solving; Control.Control.

5 Managerial Roles of MR b Planning: What Kinds of People buy our products, where do they live? How much do they earn? How many of them are there? What Kinds of People buy our products, where do they live? How much do they earn? How many of them are there? Are the markets for our products increasing or decreasing? Are there promising markets that we have not yet reached? Are the markets for our products increasing or decreasing? Are there promising markets that we have not yet reached? Are the channels of distribution for our products changing? Are new types of marketing institutions likely to evolve? Are the channels of distribution for our products changing? Are new types of marketing institutions likely to evolve? b b Problem Solving: Product - Which of various product designs is likely to be the most successful? What kind of packaging should we use? Price - What price should we charge for our products? As production costs decline, should we lower our prices or try to develop higher quality products? Place - Where & By whom, should our product be sold? What kinds of incentives should we offer the trade to push our products? Promotion - How much should we spend on promotion? How should it be allocated to products and to geographic areas? What combination of media should we use?

6 Managerial Roles of MR (Cont.....) b Control: What is our market share overall? In each geographicWhat is our market share overall? In each geographic area? By each customer type? Are customers satisfied with our products? How is our record for service? Are there many returns? Are customers satisfied with our products? How is our record for service? Are there many returns? How does the public perceive our company? What is our reputation with the trade? How does the public perceive our company? What is our reputation with the trade?

7 Marketing Research: The Scope b Industry & Market Characteristics & and Trends - Customer satisfaction studies, advance technology & single source data collection are among the growing trends.; b Market-Share Analysis; b Demand Analysis; b Concept Development and Testing; b Product Satisfaction; b Advertising Effectiveness; b Competitive-Pricing Analysis.

8 MR: Process Issues & Problems Definition Research Design Implementation Data Analysis & Interpretation Data Collection Developments of Data Collection Forms

9 Issues & Problems Definition Issues & Problems Definition b Problems of business Research problems need to be understand clearly by both, the managerial people as well as the researcherResearch problems need to be understand clearly by both, the managerial people as well as the researcher Differences between the way things should be and the way things areDifferences between the way things should be and the way things are Focusing the real problems not the symptoms, by anticipating how the information will be used.Focusing the real problems not the symptoms, by anticipating how the information will be used. A good problems definition directs the research process toward collecting and analysing appropriate information for the purpose of decision making.A good problems definition directs the research process toward collecting and analysing appropriate information for the purpose of decision making.

10 Issues & Problems Definition (Cont.....) b Vague Research Topic (exploratory) Why are sales decliningWhy are sales declining Is advertising effective?Is advertising effective? Will a reduction in price increase sales volume?Will a reduction in price increase sales volume? b Precise Research Topic (Conclusive) Why is turnover of sales personnel so high? Do adults recall an advertisement the day after it appears? Will a 10 % price reduction have a significant impact on sales? If uncertain, then use exploratory!!!!

11 Research Design b The strategies and plan of actions for addressing the research problems and the data collection and data analysis process b Problem definition normally suggests the approaches for determining the research design to use. b Research generally has three purposes: Exploratory, Descriptive and causal.Exploratory, Descriptive and causal.

12 Research Design (cont.....) b Exploratory Designs For better understanding, to develop preliminary background and suggest issues for a more detailed follow-up studiesFor better understanding, to develop preliminary background and suggest issues for a more detailed follow-up studies Literature Reviews, Case Analysis, Interviews with knowledgeable persons, in- depth interview, focus groups.Literature Reviews, Case Analysis, Interviews with knowledgeable persons, in- depth interview, focus groups. E.g: Evaluation of new-product concepts, environmental trend analysis, identification of product attribute importanceE.g: Evaluation of new-product concepts, environmental trend analysis, identification of product attribute importance b Descriptive Designs A formal research questions or hypothesis Cross-sectional surveys, panel studies, product movement surveys, store audits, telephone, mail, personal interviews. E.g. Market potential, image studies, competitive positioning analysis, market characteristic examinations

13 Research Design (cont...) b Causal Design To identify the cause & effect relationshipsTo identify the cause & effect relationships Experimental designs (lab & Field Studies)Experimental designs (lab & Field Studies) Market testsMarket tests E.g. Evaluation of alternative marketing mix combination, (varying price levels, changing promotional appeals, reallocations of saleforce efforts).E.g. Evaluation of alternative marketing mix combination, (varying price levels, changing promotional appeals, reallocations of saleforce efforts).

14 Data Collection b Primary Data Vs Secondary Data PD: Collected for specific purposesPD: Collected for specific purposes SD: Already collected for some other purposesSD: Already collected for some other purposes b Data Collection methods Primary DataPrimary Data –Survey (Mail, Telephone) – Interviews (Mall Intercepts, Personal Interviews –Focus Group –Observation (personal & mechanical) Secondary Data Internal Data (company Records, MDSS Data)Secondary Data Internal Data (company Records, MDSS Data) – External Data (Proprietary -Custom research, syndicated services) (non- proprietary - Published report, census data, periodicals)

15 Data Collection (Cont....) b Data Collection Instruments Survey or QuestionnaireSurvey or Questionnaire Pre-test or Pilot test (on representative sample), revise accordingly.Pre-test or Pilot test (on representative sample), revise accordingly. Unambiguous, concise, unbiased questionsUnambiguous, concise, unbiased questions Structured & Unstructured, semi-structuredStructured & Unstructured, semi-structured Questions:Questions: –Scale (likert agree - disagree, semantic differential e.g. important - unimportant) – Multichotomous (multiple choice) –Categorical –Open-ended

16 Developments of Data Collection Forms b Sampling: Decisions & Data collection Issues Basic Research Questions Probability Versus Non-probability sampling Sample Size Specification of Sampling Frame Data Collection: Sampling, Follow-up & Verification Time, Cost & Precision Constraints

17 Developments of Data Collection Forms (cont.) b Sampling: Requires analysis of selected people or objects in the designated population, rather than all of them. Approaches: Approaches: –Probability (random, stratified, clustering) –Non-Probability. (non-probability for limited cost & time)- Based on judgement & convenience. Sizes: large more accurate but costly, based on judgement: large enough to give the user confidence in the results.Sizes: large more accurate but costly, based on judgement: large enough to give the user confidence in the results. Frame: The outline of working description of the population used in sample selection.Frame: The outline of working description of the population used in sample selection.

18 Developments of Data Collection Forms (cont.) b Field Work The process of contacting respondents, conducting interviews and completing surveys.The process of contacting respondents, conducting interviews and completing surveys.

19 Data Analysis & Interpretation b Techniques: Varies & determined at the design stage. Appropriate to the data collection method. Focus on the original problems and objectives of the research.Appropriate to the data collection method. Focus on the original problems and objectives of the research. Complex - multivariate statistical tests;Complex - multivariate statistical tests; Straight forward frequency distributions, means and percentages.Straight forward frequency distributions, means and percentages. b Statistical differences typically look at group differences or strength of association between marketing variables (e.g. ads. & sales, prices & sales). Most frequently used :Most frequently used : –Mean differences ( t-tests, analysis of variance) – Correlation tests (Chi-Square cross classification tests, Pearson correlation, regressions)

20 Evaluating the Research Design b Provide enough and accurate information? b How well the problems were addressed? b Information justify the research cost? b Validity & generalisability of the result? b Ethically sounds? Incomplete reporting of results, misleading reporting and nonobjective researchIncomplete reporting of results, misleading reporting and nonobjective research Subsequent use of data, confidentiality of information Subsequent use of data, confidentiality of information Consistent with relationship perspective (not for other parties).Consistent with relationship perspective (not for other parties). b Covering all the research aspects?

21 Implementation b Researcher communicate and present the research findings for the decision making, Planning, control and problem solvingPlanning, control and problem solving b The findings / information should be presented in a simple and understandable form. b Report should focus on the original problems and objective of the research. b The result is presented to the appropriate parties for further actions.

22 International Considerations b Eight common errors in conducting international research projects. Global Vs Domestic (experience is important)Global Vs Domestic (experience is important) Rigidity standardising methods across countries e.g. postal problems, communication systems)Rigidity standardising methods across countries e.g. postal problems, communication systems) Interviewing in English Interviewing in English Inappropriate sampling techniquesInappropriate sampling techniques Communication with local research companies (working culture)Communication with local research companies (working culture) Considerations in language (especially in interpretation) Considerations in language (especially in interpretation) Misinterpreting data across countries Misinterpreting data across countries Effectiveness in conducting the qualitative research (training in psychology - for focus group in Europe), In asia, mixed-sex group do not yield useful information Effectiveness in conducting the qualitative research (training in psychology - for focus group in Europe), In asia, mixed-sex group do not yield useful information


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