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Presentation on theme: "PERSONALITY & INDIVIDUAL"— Presentation transcript:


2 Strong and weak situations
Table 3.1

3 The study of individual difference
Genetic influences Environmental influences - Family - Society, community and culture - Experience

4 Relationship between the determinants of personality
Figure 3.1

5 Nomothetic perspectives
Eysenck and the study of personality types: Extroversion Neuroticism Cattell and personality characteristics - 16 factors Including: Warmth Liveliness Sensitivity self-reliance The ‘Big Five model: Extraversion Emotional Stability Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to experience

6 Eysenck and personality types
Figure 3.2

7 Cattell and personality characteristics
Figure 3.3

8 Cattell and personality characteristics
Figure 3.4

9 Idiographic perspectives
Cooley: The looking-glass self - We begin to see (understand) ourselves as others see us through the responses that we generate from others Mead: I - The unique, spontaneous and conscious aspects of the individual Me - The internalized norms and values learned through experience within society

10 Rogers’ View of the ‘I’ and ‘me’
Figure 3.5

11 Freud and psychoanalysis
There are three levels of mental activity: Unconscious Pre-conscious Conscious The mind consists of three areas: Id Ego Superego The main forms of ego defence mechanism: Sublimation Repression Denial Projection Reaction formation Regression Isolation Undoing

12 Jung and the cognitive approach
Three levels of personality: A conscious level An unconscious level A collective unconscious Four different approaches to information gathering: Sensing Intuiting Thinking Feeling

13 Jung’s cognitive styles
Figure 3.6

14 Differences between Jung’s cognitive styles
Table 3.2

15 Personality dimensions particularly relevant in organizations
Table 3.3

16 Other personality traits relevant in organizations
Locus of Control - Rotter, (1966) Need for Cognition - Cacioppo & Petty (1982) Self-monitoring - Snyder (1974) Proactive Personality Need for Achievement ) Need for Power ) McClelland Need for Affiliation )

17 Developing psychometric tests
Step 1. Initial ideas often emerge from practical need Step 2. The development of appropriate test items is a creative process Step 3. The final forms of the test are developed and the administration arrangements designed Step 4. The standardization and ‘norming’ process Step 5. Reliability and validity analyzes applied to data

18 Psychometrics Three ways in which tests can measure individual difference: Performance versus standard Norm-referenced measurement Criterion-referenced measurement There are different forms of validity and reliability: Face validity Predictive Construct validity Test/retest reliability Alternative form reliability Split half reliability

Physical abilities - people’s capacity to control and deploy their bodies and to manipulate their physical environment Cognitive abilities - a broad range of mental capabilities. The most often general terms for these abilities is intelligence Intelligence - the general mental ability to solve problems and successfully deal with environmental conditions and demands in varying situations Emotional intelligence - the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought

20 Emotional intelligence
Dulewicz and Higgs model: The drivers - The two traits of motivation and decisiveness are responsible for energizing individuals to achieve their goals The constrainers - The two traits of conscientiousness and integrity, and emotional resilience perform the function of modifying the potential of the drivers to push to excess or in the wrong direction The enablers - The three traits of sensitivity, influence and self-awareness help to ensure that the other traits operate in the social context involving the individual and other people

21 Organizational applications of individual difference
Recruitment and selection Development Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) Assessment Centres Discrimination Stress and bullying The testing business


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