2The Catering Industry Types of outlets: Commercial Catering: Hotels, restaurants, clubs, wine bars and pubs.Run to make a profit.Types of outlets:Public Sector Catering or Welfare Catering:Hospitals, prisons, schools and Armed Forces.Do not make a profit.Transport Catering:Railways, cruise liners.Run to make a profit.Outside/ Franchise Catering:A catering company who goes out to events and does the catering for them.Run to make a profit.Industrial Catering:Run by industries to feed workers, assuming better fed workers produce better work.Run to make a small profit, meals subsidised for staff
3Section chef (chefs de partie) A Traditional Staff Structure in a HotelHotel ManagerBarRestaurantHousekeepingHead Bar PersonBarmen / maidsManagerSupervisorsWaitersWine waiterHousekeepersChambermaidsKitchenFront-of-House StaffHead chefSous chefSection chef (chefs de partie)Commis chef(trainee)Kitchen porter(pot washer)ReceptionistPorter / Concierge
4A Flexible Staff Structure in a Hotel Hotel ManagerBarRestaurantHousekeepingHead Bar PersonManagerHousekeeperKitchenFront-of-House StaffHead chefSous chefReceptionist
5Catering Manager/Head Chef: Hiring, firing, ordering food, menu planning, kitchen brigade organisation (organising the chefs), communication with restaurant staff, checking orders for quantity & quality, health, safety & hygiene, training of staff.Restaurant Manager/Head Waiter:Hiring, firing, ordering equipment, napkins etc, restaurant brigade organisation (organising the waiting staff), communication with kitchen staff, checking orders for quantity & quality, health, safety & hygiene, training of staff, hosting, seating & greeting and customer service, dealing with complaints.
6Head Chef/ Chef- Skills required Organisational- plan menu and quantities of ingredients, timingPreparation- weighing and measuringCooking- grilling, poaching, boilingPersonal- personal hygiene, teamworkMotivational- leading others to produce quality work.Creative- Create menus with the right mix of flavour, texture and colour.Front-of-house- Skills requiredQualifications- eg. NVQ Catering studies Front of HouseKnowledgeable- Understanding of what they will be serving.Serving- To serve Guéridon-style and cook in front of customers or free-pour drinks instead of measuring.Personal- personal hygiene, teamwork, friendly and willing to interact with customers, smile!
7Food Service Restaurant Service Plated- The most common type of table service where the main part of the meal is plated and vegetables are served in a creative way.Family- The most suitable for ethnic restaurants where people often share a range of dishes. Food is put on the table and customers help themselves.Silver- The most traditional style of service and is usually found in the dining restaurants and hotels. Guéridon service can be part of this style of dining, where some dishes are cooked in front of the customer.
8Customer Service Customer Needs Customers have expectations that their needs, such as a comfortable bed, plenty of hot water and a tasty meal, will be met. Customer satisfaction is created by meeting needs.The five main customer expectations are:Value for money- They must feel that the price paid for goods and services is fair. This does not always mean cheap.Accuracy and reliability- The service or goods promised should be delivered as expected.Information, advice and help- Customers expect that they will be given information and advice before they even ask for it. Eg. Expect a waiter to explain the menu.Problems and complaints dealt with correctly- Staff must sort problems as quickly and correctly.Health, safety and security- There is a duty of care towards customers within an establishment to keep the customers safe and secure.
9Communication & Record-keeping Good communication is essential in the catering industry as it is a ‘service industry’.
10Different types of communication: VerbalNon-verbal- unspoken for example body language.WrittenTelephoneFaxInternet-Internet, , web.Different types of communication are needed in different circumstances. E.g. some customers may have communication difficulties- partially sighted or blind, deaf or hard of hearing.The main purpose of staff employed in the industry is to look after customers’ needs. Good communication= a successful business and happy customers.
11Good communication is a combination of: Observing-Watching customers and offering them help and advice.Listening- Listening carefully to what is being said.Thinking- Thinking carefully about what to say to using easy to understand language, not jargon.Knowing- What the establishment offers.Describing- Describing items on menu and the services provided by the establishment.Suggesting- E.g. wine, food, alternatives.
12Uses of ICT in the industry: Reservation systems- A customer can ring or a central reservation number/ address and a room can be booked for any hotel in the group.Management system- Room reservation, guest billing, guest history.Electronic point of sale (EPOS)- A number of machines are linked to a central computer. Guests can order from the bar, restaurant or shop. All transactions are passed through a central computer for bills to be generated automatically.
13Uses of ICT in the industry 2: Stock control system- These hold details of suppliers. They generate orders automatically when stock level fall.Food and beverage management systems- A database of recipes, quantities needed , ingredients codes etc.Events management- Used when planning, organising and running large events. Data from one event can be saved and used for similar future events.Dietary analysis programs- Nutritional analysis of menus, recipes and ingredients.
14Record-Keeping Stock control sheets Invoices Staff rotas It is very important to keep accurate, appropriate records. The types of records used are:Stock control sheetsInvoicesStaff rotasFood and drink ordersRestaurant bookingsDetails of accidents.
15Setting a Table for Lunch and Dinner Setting up a table for lunch or dinner depends on the type of menu being served.The basic two type of menu served are:a la cartetable d’ hote.
16For À la Carte Menu:À la carte refers to individually priced dishes placed on an extensive menu. This way, there is more of a choice but the ingredients are more extravagant and therefore the price is higher. This a table setting normally laid in a high class restaurant, dining room or hotel in readiness for served of either lunch or dinner. It would consist of the following:Fish PlateNapkinFish knifeFish forkSide plateSide knifeWater or wine glass.
18Table d’ hôte Menu:This literally means in French, ‘the host’s table’ but in menu planning terms, means a fixed price menu. Cooking methods tend to focus on heartier methods, for example, braising a joint of beef. The table would consist of the following:NapkinSoup spoonFish knifeFish forkWater or wine glassSweet spoonSweet forkSide plateSide knife
20Laying the table with cutlery / flatware To use the right cutlery or flatware and set the table properly with the correct knives and forks is not really difficult and when you sit down to eat just remember to start from the outside and work inwards. The idea should never be to intimidate your guests, instead you will put them at their ease.
21Setting the table properly makes life easier for the guest Setting the table properly makes life easier for the guest. They will see a table which looks good and feel, quite rightly, that you are making them feel welcome. A well laid table speaks volumes to a guest.
22Setting the table properly makes life easier for the guest Setting the table properly makes life easier for the guest. They will see a table which looks good and feel, quite rightly, that you are making them feel welcome. A well laid table speaks volumes to a guest.Left is a picture of a place setting .(This particular design is called Windsor. This is a plain, simple yet stylish cutlery design.)This table is set for soup, a main course and a dessert.A small butter knife has been placed on a small plate to the left of the place setting. This could be used for bread rolls or later for the cheese course.
23The diagram below shows the layout of a table set to include a fish course. On the far right is a soup spoon.Then from the outside to the inside this illustration shows: fish knife andfork, dinner ( or table) knife and fork, dessert knife.Above the dinner plate is a dessert fork and dessert spoon.Glasses may be in a triangle or a straight line and napkin on the breadwhich should already be on the plate.
24Equipment: Hand Blender Domestic hand blenders can be used to blend small amounts of soups and sauces. However, when blending large catering quantities, a specialist industrial hand blender is required.LiquidisersThe same rule applies for liquidisers. When the number of customers increases, the size and the sturdiness of the equipment must increase also. They also blend small amounts of soups and sauces.Food ProcessorsThey have multiple applications, including chopping, slicing, liquidising etc. They have separate attachments to do each task. Food processors are best used for large quantities.Mixing MachinesThey use a whisk attachment or a dough hook. They make pastry and bread dough and meringues on a large scale. Attachments can also be added to mince or blend.
25Large Equipment: Guéridon Trolley Also known as a flambé trolley. It is a portable waiter/waitress station used for cooking the finishing of flambé items. For example in the preperation of crêpe Suzette the pancakes would already be made but the person making the pancakes would make the suzette sauce, heat the pancakes in the sauce and serve directly to the customers at the tableCoffee, Espresso and Cappuccino MachinesThey filter the coffee through and water is dripped through.Food Display UnitCan be kept at either ambient temperature (room temp) or chilled (same temp as fridge below 5°C).
26Other Equipment: Salamander Other name for grill Griddle unit This unit is like a grill but doesn’t require open flames.Bain-MarieA container of water used to keep foods hot without fear of burning or to cook delicate foods.OvensInduction hob- Uses electromagnetic induction to heat a pan (ceramic hob). They are hotter.Convection oven- Fan assisted transferring heat around the oven.
27Small Equipment: Palette knife A small, flat knife with no edges used to pick items up.MandolinA professional slicing instrument with adjustable blades used to cut up vegetables.Special cutter- Parisienne cutter (scoop)Otherwise known as a melon baller. Used to cut small spheres out of food Eg. Melon.SpatulaA plastic utensil used to scrape the last ingredients out of the bowl.
28Knives Used in Industry A cooks knife (for chopping)A filleting knife (for fish)A boning knife (for meat)A palette knife for lifting,scraping and mixingA steel (for keeping knives sharp)A small paring or vegetable knife(for peeling and cutting small foods)A peeler (for peeling fruit and veg)
29Knife Safety Use the correct knife for the job Knives must always be sharp and cleanHandles must be free from greasePoints must be held downwardsKnives should be placed on a flat surface so that the blade is not exposed upwardsKnives should be wiped clean with the edge away from the handsDo not put knives into a washing ups sink
30Nutrition & Menu Planning A balanced diet contains a wide variety of foodsFood contains a mixture of different nutrients which have different functions in the body.A healthy diet will provide adequate amounts of all nutrients needed by the body for good health.
31Nutrition & Menu Planning Foods containing…proteincarbohydratefat…provide the body with energy.Food also provides…fibre;water;vitamins and minerals.These substances do not provide the body with energy, but are all needed to fulfil some important ‘support’ functions for the body.
32Nutrition: The Eatwell Plate The Balance of Good Health is based on five food groups which are:Fruit and vegetablesBread, other cereals and potatoesMeat, fish and alternativesMilk and dairy foodsFoods containing fatFoods containing sugar
33Nutrition: The Eatwell Plate Fruit and Vegetables Aim for at least 5 portions a day.Fresh, dried, frozen, canned and juiced - they all count.Main nutrients: carotene (in carrots), vitamin C, folates and fibre. Vit C needed for immune system and to prevent scurvey, fibre to prevent constipation and bowel cancer.
34Nutrition: The Eatwell Plate Bread, other cereals and potatoes Eat plenty of foods rich in starch and fibre.Fill-up on wholemeal bread, potatoes, rice, pasta and yams.Main nutrients: carbohydrate (starch), some calcium and iron, vitamin B, and fibre. Carbohydrate and starch needed for slow release energy. Fibre (NSP) needed to aid digestion to prevent bowel cancer. Vitamin E in cereals, nuts and oil helps growth of body and to develop red blood cells
35Nutrition: The Eatwell Plate Meat, fish and alternatives Help the body to grow and stay healthy.Eat a range of meat, fish eggs, nuts, seeds, tofu, beans, and pulses.Main nutrients: iron, protein, B vitamins (B12), zinc, magnesiumProtein and iron help the body to grow and stay healthy.Vitamin A helps eye sight and overall health, found in liver and eggs
36Nutrition: The Eatwell Plate Milk and dairy foods Help bones and teeth to grow strong and stay healthy.Try lower-fat options.Main nutrients: calcium, protein, vitamin B12, vitamins A & DProtein is needed for growth and repair and calcium for strong bones, Vit A&D also needed for strong bones as well as skin and eyes.
37Nutrition: The Eatwell Plate Foods containing fat / Foods containing sugarDon’t eat too many foods that contain a lot of fat. Leads to obesity.Don’t have sugary foods and drinks too often.Leads to tooth decay.
38Target Group Requires Baby Children Teenager Adult Older Adult Breast milk which contains special proteins, antibodies and white blood cells which help to protect the baby against infection. It also contains a substance to help the baby grow.ChildrenFoods that are high in energy as they grow quickly. Calcium is needed for healthy tooth development and, vitamin D, helps make bones stronger.TeenagerCalcium for bones (teenagers have growth spurts). Girls and boys differ in how much they need; boys need more protein and energy than girls due to their greater growth spurt. Girls need more iron than boys once their periods start.AdultPlenty of starchy foods and fruit and vegetables, meat or its alternatives, milk and only small amounts of foods and drinks containing fat and sugar.Older AdultVitamin B to help release energy and Vitamin C to help fight infection
39Types of vegetarians There are three main categories of vegetarians: Vegans do not eat the flesh of any animal (no meat, poultry or fish) and no eggs, milk, cheese, honey etc.Lacto-vegetarians do not eat the flesh of any animal (no meat, poultry or fish) but they do eat eggs, milk, cheese.Semi vegetarians often choose to eat a mainly vegetarian diet because they don’t eat red meat. They sometimes do eat white meat (poultry and fish) and eggs, milk, cheese etc.
40Protein is obtained mainly from beans, lentils, peas, Some people choose not to eat certain foods. There can be a variety of reasons for this:Because of their ethnic beliefs.Because of their religious beliefs.For medical reasons.They do not like the taste or texture of some foods.A vegetarian diet is considered healthy because of the emphasis…on fresh fruit and vegetables.Protein is obtained mainly from beans, lentils, peas,nuts and wholegrain cereals, which are also rich invitamins and minerals.
41There are many reasons why people chose a vegetarian diet: They may have strong feelings about the way animals are kept and slaughtered.Land used to feed animals could feed many more if it was used as crops.Many cases of food poisoning arelinked to meat.A vegetarian diet is considered to be healthier (lower in fat and cholesterol, higher in fibre) than one that relies on meat.
42Menu Planning Government Guidelines: eat less fat, less sugar, salt, alcohol and eat more fibreshould be considered in menu planning toprovide a balance of dishes.Menus should be a balance of differentstarters, mains, desserts – not repetitive interms of types of dishes e.g. fish, meat, poultry (chicken,turkey, duck), vegetarian, dishes suitable for those dieting,people who can’t eat milk products (lactose intolerance)or wheat, consider religious and cultural implications.Colour, texture and value for money must also be considered when presenting a menu. It must be presented correctly and in a attractive and appealing manner to the consumer.
43Before you start planning a menu, consider the 4W’s: WHO is going to eat the food (age, sex, occupation, specific dietary needs)?WHEN is it going to be eaten (time of year, time of day)?WHERE is it going to be served/eaten (venue, space and facilities available)?WHAT type of food is going to be eaten (sit down meal, buffet, breakfast, lunch, dinner, special occasion)?
44Other points to consider: Nutritional needs, including specific dietary needs.Time of yearWeatherTypes of customerTime availablePricePortion controlAbility of the cookAbility of the waiting staffEquipment available (for preparation, serving, cooking)Balance (colour, flavour, texture, shape, variety of ingredients)Presentation
45Planning a good menu. Tips- Children's menus- should be fun and include healthy alternatives to children's favourites. E.g. potato wedges instead of chips. Children could have more choice by offering smaller portions of main meal dishes from the adult menu.Specials- Many restaurants have ‘specials boards’, which is a good way of adding seasonal dishes to the menu.Breakfast-Even simple breakfasts should offer a choice of hot (bacon, egg, sausage, tomato etc.) and cold continental (rolls, croissants, cheese, cold meats, etc.) Hot and cold drinks and a tasty selection of preserves should be offered.
46Planning a good menu. Tips- Lunch- Often needs to be served quickly for customers who have limited time.Sandwiches, wraps and baguettes are ideal. An ideal menu will offer a variety of breads with a selection of hot and cold fillings, together with snack items such as jacket potatoes, salads, pastries, cakes and muffins.Evening meal- Vegetarian and healthy choices should be offered as well as dishes using a variety of cooking methods.In the UK, the most popular menus offer hot and cold starters, a variety of main courses and a selection of desserts that include chocolate and fruit.
47Choosing a menuDecide on the main course ‘protein items’ first, for example chicken breast, pork fillet, lamb cutlets, liver, cod, salmon, tuna, quorn, tofu and cheese.Decide on the desserts-these should ‘balance’ the protein items for colour, flavour, texture and nutrients.Choose the vegetables- these should ‘balance’ the other dishes chosen, especially regarding colourChoose the starters.
48Types of menuTable d’hôte or set-price menu- a fixed or set-price menu with a limited selection of dishes for every course.A la carte menu- all dishes are individually priced.Party or function menu- Usually a fixed-price menu offered for parties or functions such as wedding receptions. Some party's menus offer a limited choice.Ethnic or speciality menu- Can be fixed price or á la carte. Some offer dishes from particular countries. E.g. China, Italy. others offer specialised food, e.g. fish or vegetarian dishes.Fast-food menu- This is similar to a speciality menu. Food tends to have ‘themes’ such as burgers, chicken or baked potatoes. Items are priced individually.Rotating menu cycle- Often used in primary schools. A fixed pattern of menus is used to cover a fixed number of days. The minimum number of days is eight, so that menus are never repeated on the same day each week.
49Nutrition & Menu Planning Commodities:Considerations when selecting & storing:Vegetables & FruitChoose fruits & vegetables in season for the best quality. Check for bruising and signs of mould. Check fruit is ripe or a little under ripe, not over ripe so it is wasted. Should be stored in a dry cool area, carefully so that it does not become damaged. Not near smelly food so it becomes tainted.Meat & PoultryMeat should be kept in the fridge, raw meat should be kept away from cooked meat. It should be used by the specified date and be in good condition, not bruised.FishOily fish – salmon, trout, tuna should beWhite flat – Lemon sole, halibut bright eyes,Round – Bass, cod, hake not slimy or smelly.
50Nutrition & Menu Planning Commodities:Considerations when selecting & storing:EggsCome in 4 sizes depending on size & graded A to C for quality. Eggs have to have use by dates and quality control to prevent salmonella. Should be stored in a cool dry place or fridge, away from raw meat, hands should be washed before & after handling, don’t use cracked eggs.DairyDairy products have to be kept in the fridge and must be used within use by dates. Milk & cream should always be kept in the container in which it was delivered. Cheese is best served after it has been taken out of the fridge and allowed to reach room temperature.Dry goods Should be kept in a cool, dry place off the ground.Cook-chill foods Kept in the fridge & reheated thoroughly. Before use by date.Canned foods must be kept in a cool place, used on rotation before use by date.Convenience (partly prepared foods) can be use along side fresh foods to make for more efficient and more quickly prepared dishes.
51CostingIt is vital to cost dishes accurately to make a reasonable profit. Portion control(keeping the size of a portion the same every time by using the same size container or serving spoon).The total cost of a food item depends upon 3 things:Food or materials cost the cost of the raw materials or ingredients.Labour costs - Direct labour cost e.g. the wages of the chefs, Indirect Labour costs - other people who work in the restaurant.Overheads - the cost of rent, rates, heating, lighting, electricity, gas.Sales - Food Cost = Gross ProfitSales - total cost = Net ProfitFood cost + Gross Profit = SalesGross Profit is usually around 40%Net Profit (after Labour & overheads have been taken out) is around 20%
52Portion ControlPortion control is extremely important. Customers need to feel they are getting ‘value for money’ and having the same size portion as everyone else.It helps the caterer when planning (how many portions will these ingredients make?) considering selling price (how much should I charge to cover costs and make a profit?) and avoids waste.Using standard recipes can help a caterer by determining how many ingredients will make 10, 20, 30 or more portions.Using standard size dishes will also help.
531 portion is total price ÷ 8. CostingGateau Recipe £ p3 eggs75g caster sugar75g flour250ml double creamsmall punnet of strawberriesTotal costOnce you have the total price of the gateau you need to calculate the price per portion.The gateau made 8 portions therefore the price of1 portion is total price ÷ 8.The gateau cost £3.31 for 8 portions therefore1 portion costs £3.31 ÷ 8.This works out at 42 pence per portion (to the nearest p)
54Selling PriceThe ‘selling price’ of food is calculated (worked out) according to the amount of profit that an establishment wants to make.This is because the selling price has to take into account:The actual food cost (the cost of the ingredients)Overheads (the cost of rates, gas, electricity, etc.)Labour cost (staff wages)ProfitThe mathematical formula used in the Catering industry is:Food cost x 100 ÷ 40This would give a 60% gross profit to cover profit overheads and labour.A simple way of working out the selling price is to multiply the food costs by 3.Example: food costs £2.50suggested selling price would be £2.50 x 3 = £7.50.
55Culinary Terms usedCulinary Terms appear every year on the examination paper, make sure you know the following words and there meanings-Terms usedMeaningPhotoAccompanimentsItems offered separately to the main dish e.g. vegetables and sauces.Al denteLiterally means ‘to the tooth’, i.e. firm to the bite.Au gratinSprinkled with cheese and/or breadcrumbs and browned under the grill.
56Terms usedMeaningPhotoBrûlée‘Burned’, e.g. crème brûlée or burned creamBouquet garniA bundle of herbsCoulisA sauce made of fruit or vegetable puréeCroutonsCubes of toasted or fried breadEn croute‘In a pastry case’, e.g. salmon en crouteEntréeA meat dish usually served as a main course
57Terms usedMeaningPhotoFlambéTo cook with a flame by ‘burning’ away the alcohol, e.g. crêpe suzette.GarnishA savoury decoration for food, trimmings served with a main item.JulienneThin, matchstick-sized strips of vegetables.MarinadeA richly spiced liquid used to give flavour to help tenderise meat and fish.Mise-en-place‘Put in place’, i.e. preparation either before starting to cook or before serving.PuréeA smooth mixture made from food passed through a sieve or liquidised in a food processor.
58Terms usedMeaningPhotoReduceTo concentrate a liquid by boiling or simmering.RouxA mixture of fat and flour used as a basis for sauceSautéTo toss in hot fat, e.g. sauté potatoes
59Correct Ratios of Ingredients ProductIngredientFunctionToo muchToo LittleCheese SauceFlourTo thicken the sauceSauce is thick and LumpySauce is thin and wateryBreadYeastTo make it riseBread will be full of big holes like a crumpetBread will be heavy and not riseBiscuitsButterTo bind, add flavour, and make a dough that can be moulded.The biscuits may spread too much in the oven and not setThe dough will not stick together and the biscuits will be dry and flavourlessQuicheEggCoagulates to set the quiche fillingFilling will be rubbery, chewy and dryFilling will not setMilkMakes the filling softer and less like scrambled eggThe filling will not set
60How are proportions of ingredients and quality of the product controlled? MeasuringWeighingFollowing a recipe accuratelyThorough preparationUse of correct techniques e.g. Sieving, whiskingAccurate shaping e.g. Cutters and mouldsCorrecting errors
61Key WordsQuality Control – using checks to ensure the product is made to a high standard e.g. Sensory checks, measuring depth and width, checking quantities like the number of slices of pepperoni on a pizza, checking toppings are evenly spread etc Consistent - the same standard e.g. The size of a frozen pizza has to be consistent, partly to keep customers happy and maintain good value for money, partly so that it will fit in the box. Proportion – the ratio of ingredients e.g. 50g of flour, margarine and sugar to 1 egg using the all in one cake making method. Technique - way of doing something e.g. Rubbing –in, whisking Tolerance - an agreed allowance for a quality target e.g. The cake should be 5cm deep + / - 20mm
62Food Presentation: Customer complaints must be dealt with immediately: Meals must be presented with the consideration of:The importance of colour, texture, flavour, shape, temperature and time.The customers needs/situation/occasion/types of menu.An appropriate eating environment.A wide range of culinary skills.Customer complaints must be dealt with immediately:Apologise and remove the offending item.Offer a replacement or substitute.Inform the kitchen of the problem.Provide the replacement or substitute ASAP.Offer a free dessert or tea or coffee.Do not charge for the item that had to be replaced.Inform management.
63Smart Foods? What are smart foods? Smart foods are those that have been developed through the invention of new or improved processes, for example, as a result of man-made materials/ingredients or human intervention; in other words, not naturally occurring changes.Smart foods may:have a function, other than that of providing energy and nutrients;perform a particular function never achieved by conventional foods;have been developed for specialised applications, but some eventually become available for general use.
64Smart foods include: 1. Modified starches. 2. Functional foods, e.g. cholesterol lowering spreads, probiotic yogurts, fortified eggs.3. Meat analogues, e.g. textured vegetable protein (TVP), myco-protein and tofu.4. Encapsulation technology, e.g. encapsulated flavours in confectionery5. Modern biotechnology, e.g. soy bean, tomato plant, modified enzymes, e.g. chymosin.
65Meat AnaloguesIngredients that mimic the organoleptic properties of meat.Myco-protein is used in fillets to provide a ‘chicken like’ texture.Tofu absorbs flavours, so is used as a meat alternative in stir-fries.TVP is used in vegetarian shepherd’s pie to provide the main source of protein.
66Genetically Modified Foods Specific changes to a plant or animal at a genetic level.Potatoes can be altered to reduce the absorption of fat during frying.Maize is modified to control pests, minimising crop damage.Chymosin, a modified enzyme, is used to produce ‘vegetarian’ cheese.
67Encapsulation Technology The coating of a particle with an outer shell.Jellybeans use encapsulated flavours for enhanced sensory appeal.Some breads use encapsulated leavening agents to prevent premature release and reaction.Specially formulated ‘sports’ bars are fortified with encapsulated nutrients.
68Functional FoodsFoods that contain an ingredient that gives health promoting properties.Some eggs contain Omega-3 fatty acids, known to benefit heart health.Specially formulated spreads help to lower cholesterol levels in the body.Probiotic drinks are designed to improve the health of the large bowel.
69Modified Starches:Starches that have been altered to perform additional functions..Modified starch is used in ‘cup-a-soups’ to improve mouth-feel, thicken the drink/sauce with the addition of boiled water, and blend uniformly with no lumps.The noodles in ‘pot snacks’ are pre-gelatinised, so boiled water will re-heat and 'cook' them.
70Modified Starches: Modified Starch Starches that have been altered to perform additional functions..Modified StarchModified starch is used as a fat replacer in low-fat meals.To prevent ‘drip’ after a pie is defrosted, modified starch is used in the sauce.Pre-gelatinised starch is used to thicken instant desserts without heat.
71Marketing Techniques: Restaurants use many different types of marketing to encourage consumers to choose their product:PromotionsAdvertisingDirect MailMerchandising – displaying products appealinglyPackaging Materials:Different materials are used for different purposes:Biodegradable Aluminium FoilRecycled Cardboard & oven proofVacuum packed (the air removed) paperboard.Cling film Plastics
72Computer Applications: The most valuable thing for any business is up to date information. Therefore computers are vital. They can be used for:Computer Operations software packages used for Point of Sales (tills), and management systems. Used for stock control, pricings, ordering, accounts can be kept more accurately etc.Menu Design and Nutritional AnalysisInternet to keep up to date and monitor competitors, marketing of the restaurant on a website.Keeping customer detailsKeeps information securely and reduces the amount of paper
74Legislation Food Labelling Regulations 1996 Other legislation The Food Safety Act 1990Trade Description Act 1968Weights & Measures Act 1985Specific legislation covering some foodse.g. bread, jam, chocolate, milkFood Safety Actoffence to sell food that is not of the ‘nature or substance or quality’ demanded by the purchaserTrade Description Actoffence to make false or misleading statements about goodsWeights & Measures Act 1985 makes short weight an offenceother regulations also relevant e.g regs on quantity marking & abbreviations of unit; 2001 regs on metrication.
75What must be on a label? name of food list of ingredients (in descending order)QUID (Quantitative Ingredient Declaration) information (if needed) e.g. pork sausages or fruit pienet quantity of food present (unless under 5g)date mark (use by and best before)any special conditions or conditions of usename & address of manufacturer, packager or sellerplace of origin (if leaving out would mislead)any necessary instructions for useMandatory informationingredients - appear in descending order of weight as used during preparation of food (25% rule - removing for some foods)QUID - e.g. pork sausages or fruit piefor some foods there are standard amounts e.g. bread 400g or 800g. ‘e’ for nominal weight/volume (+ drained weight for solid food sold in liquid media)Best before date - date up to & including which the food will retain its optimum condition (e.g. it will not be sale)Use by date - for foods that are highly perishable e.g. dairy products. Date is up to & including if it has been stored correctly (e.g midnight)place of origin if leaving this out would mislead (e.g. French stick)Andalcoholic strength by volume for beverages containing more than 1.2% by volumeOptional information may inc
76Other informationinformation on additives & other ingredients not legally required to be labellednutrients present in foodnutrition &/or health claimsinformation on allergens present in foodprocessing or production methods (e.g. organic)logos & endorsementsguideline daily amountsOptional information may include..Processing aids & any solvent/carrier used only for technical reasonsGM - Only approved GM foods may be sold and if a food contains any GM ingredients, this must be shown on the labelLabelling regulations require any food containing novel GM material (the DNA that has been altered or the proteins that the DNA produces) to be labelledHighly processed food ingredients (such as refined vegetable oils) that are produced from a genetically modified source but that no longer contain any GM DNA or protein, currently do not have to be labelled because they are indistinguishable from those produced from non- GM sources.Small amounts (below 1%) of GM material that are accidentally present in non GM ingredients do not have to be labelled
77Labelling jargon RDA - Recommended Daily Amount - part of EU directive on Nutrition Labellingestimates of the amount of vitamins & minerals needed to meet or more than meet the needs of a group of adultsGDAs - Guideline Daily Amounts
78Nutrition LabellingNot mandatory unless a nutrition claim is madeMust be in 1 of 2 formatsGroup 1 declaration- energy, protein, carbohydrate & fatGroup 2 declaration- as above plus sugars, saturates, fibre and sodium EU Council Directive on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs (90/496/EEC)Group 1 also known as Big 4Group 2 also known as Big 8
79Nutrition LabellingIn addition, these nutrients can be included in a nutrient declaration on a voluntary basis:Starchmonounsaturates, polyunsaturates or cholesterolspecified vitamins and nutrients present insignificant amountsIf a claim is made about these nutrients they MUST be labelled saturates must also be declared if other fats are labelled15% of the RDAOther nutrients can only be declared if a claim has been made about it & if it is a component of a nutrient defined in the regulations e.g. fructose
81Recycle The choice of packaging materials. Recycling of tins, plastic, glass, card and paper.Composting.
82ReuseProducts that can be reused for either the same or a new purpose.Reuse of leftover ingredients to make other food products.Bread and Butter Pudding: Dry slices of bread.Wraps: Leftover meat and vegetablesFish cakes: fish, potato, breadcrumbsPasta Bake: Leftover vegetables, meat.
83ReduceReduce the effects on health by using balanced recipes, low in fat, salt and sugar.Reduction in the use of processed foods.Reduce energy in methods of cooking.Transportation of food and materials. Eco Footprint.Ways of reducing waste food.Reduce the use of pesticides. Organic food production.Buy products with little or no packaging.
84Refuse Issues relating to sustainable design in packaging Refuse high fat, salt and sugar foods.Over packagingbiodegradable form of plastic made from vegetable starchCorn based bio-plastic packaging
85Rethink Rethink the average UK high-fat diet Examine the impact of food products on healthRethink the use of healthy ingredients in creative designs.
86Repair Repair electrical equipment The function of nutrients in repairing and maintaining a healthy body.NutrientWhy we need itToo much /not enough?ProteinTo build and repair muscleToo much: Is used for energy or stored as fatFatsTo keep us warm and to help absorb some vitaminsCan cause obesity, stroke or coronary heart diseaseCarbohydratesTo give us fuel for energy, keep us going. 2 types, sugars and starches.Can cause obesity if not burned off because they are stored as fat. Too much sugar can also cause dental decayVitaminsA = Healthy Eyes and BonesB = Releases energy from foodC = Helps us absorb ironD= Strong teeth and bonesNot enough can causeA: vision problems, dry skinB: beri beriC: scurvy / slow healingD: rickets / osteoporosisMineralsCalcium – strong bones / teeth & bloodIron – transports oxygen round bodyCalcium: Rickets, weak teeth, muscle and nerve problemsIron: Anaemia
87Vegetables Roots Tubers Bulbs Flowerheads Stems and shoots Leafy Pods and seedsFruitingFungiCarrotsParsnipTurnipPotatoesYamSweet potatoesOnionGarlicShallotsBroccoliCauliflowerGlobe artichokeCeleryBenasproutsKohlrabiCabbageSpinachSwiss chardPeasButterbeansMange toutButternut squashPumpkinMarrowMushroomsTrufflesCepesOnce vegetables have been washed, peeled or seeded (depending on the vegetables) they can be prepared into a variety of specialist vegetable cuts.Baton(3mm x 3mmx 18mm)JulienneThin strips(3 - 4cm long)BrunoiseVery small dice(2mm x 2mmx 2mm).MacedoineDice(0.5cm x 0.5cmx 0.5cm).MirepoixRoughly cutthin pieces.
89Cooking TechniquesBoiling- Bring the liquid to 100°C. This turns the fluid into vapour, which reduces any volume in the pan. A variety of meats, fish poultry and vegetables can be boiled.Blanching- There are a number of different uses for blanching, such as, to par cook or to remove the skin from vegetables.Par cooking- Partly cooking food. In a hotel, it is sensible to par cook vegetables precisely the right degree and cooled, drained and presented ready for a function later on that day.Removing the skin- From tomatoes, remove the core from the base of the tomato, place a criss-cross on the top of the tomato (to help remove it) and then place the tomatoes into the boiling water for approximately 10 seconds. Then place the tomato into very cold water until cool. Then skin then can be easily removed.Steaming- This makes sure that vitamins and minerals are not lost. The vegetables are elevated above the bubbling water. It is not touching it.Poaching- A slow and gentle method of cooking used for vegetables, meat, fish, poultry or egg. It cooks the food in simmering water.
90Cooking TechniquesBraising- A combination of moist and dry heat whereby a piece of meat is first sealed in hot fat and then cooked slowly in a sauce or stock for a long time until tender.Stewing- Is similar to braising, except the pieces of meat or poultry are quite small and the liquid is served with the dish. It can be done on top of the oven in a pan, or in a casserole dish in the main oven.Deep Frying-Using a temperature controlled deep-fryer (with adjustable basket) is far safer than a pan filled with oil over an open heat. This method is used to cook most items including goujons of fish, meat samosas and even deep-fried ice-cream.Shallow Frying- Cooking a product in a small amount of hot oil in a shallow pan over an open heat.Baking- Dry heat without any oil or fat, which can be done in an oven. The air is forced around to create a more even distribution of heat and a more consistent end result.Roasting- In a pot in the oven (pot roasting) or rotating over a centre spit over a naked flame.
91Preserving Food Freezing Freezing is the most common method of food preservation as it allows food to be stored for longer periods.The drawback is if there is a power failure – all the food will spoil.It is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions as incorrect freezing will damaged (rupture) cells and result in loss of nutrient value.Long periods of storage will also result in nutrient loss.
92Smoking This method is great for meat. Meat that is smoked retains most of the nutrients and the taste is delicious.
93Dehydrating or drying food Drying is excellent for most fruits and vegetables.When you dry a food you take out the water or moisture from it and this prevents spoilage.The advantages are that the dried product weighs very little and the size is reduced for easy storage.The food retains almost all of its nutrients.There are several ways to dry food: sun-drying, oven-drying and drying in a dehydrator.The first two methods are difficult.
94CanningYou can preserve raisins, coconut, grains, beans, any kind of dried fruit or vegetable, pasta, rice or legumes.Anything dry will be good for this method of preservation.
95The science of heatCooking is the transfer of heat energy from a source to the food.In the kitchen there are three devices that are used to cook food:the hobconventional ovenmicrowave oven.Each of these devices are designed around a different method of heat transfer.
102Safety At Work (HASAWA) Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 The law means that employers must ensure the health, safety and welfare of staff. It also states that staff (employees) must:Take care of their own health, safety and welfare and other persons that they work with.Co-operate with the employer to comply with all health & safety matters.Not interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety and welfare.Employers must ensure they provide safe premises, equipment, provide supervision and training, have a written safety policy and consult with unions and have a safety committee.
103The Catering IndustryThe major causes of accidents in the catering industry are due to:Slips, trips, lifting heavy or sharp objects, exposure to hazardous substances, hot surfaces & steam. Struck by moving articles including hand tools, walking into objects, machinery (slicers, mixers etc), falls, fire & explosion, electric shock and fork lift trucks.Accident Prevention:It is essential that people are capable and trained in using tools and are aware of the possible accidents. That people are not rushed or distracted. Everyone is responsible to observe safety rules, accidents should be recorded in a book or on a form.
104First Aid:Since 1982 it has been a legal requirement that adequate first aid equipment and personnel are provided at work. If an injury is serious they should be treated by a doctor or nurse or an ambulance called.First Aid boxes must be easily identified and accessible and checked regularly.Cuts: covered immediately with a waterproof blue dressing. Direct pressure may be applied to stop heavy bleeding.Burns (dry heat) & Scalds (wet): Place under slowly running or in a bowl of cold water until the pain ceases. If serious the burn should be covered with a sterile dressing and the person sent to hospital. Do not apply any creams, do not cover with a plaster.
105Fire Safety:Fires need 3 things to burn so if you take one of these away the fire does not happen or is put out:Fuel – something to burnAir – oxygen to keep the fire goingHeat – gas, electricity etcMethods of extinguishing fires:Starving – removing the fuelSmothering – removing the oxygenCooling – removing the heat.
106Indicator colour and Type Fire Extinguishers:Indicator colour and TypeBest ForDangersRed WaterSolids - Wood, Cloth, Paper, Plastics, etc.Do not use on burning fat or oilDo not use on electrical appliancesBlue Dry Powder Multi-PurposeLiquids - grease, fats, oil, paint, petrol, etc.Electrical equipmentDo not use on chip or fat pan fires.Does not easily penetrate equipment - fire may re-ignite.Does not cool fire well - fire may re-ignite.Smouldering material - fire may re-ignite.Blue Dry Powder StandardCream AFFF Multi-Purpose (Aqueous film-forming foam)Cream Foam StandardLimited number of liquid fires.Not normally used at the University.Black Carbon Dioxide CO2Fumes from CO2 extinguishers can be harmful if used in confined spaces.Red Fire BlanketEspecially for clothing and chip and fat pan firesIf blanket does not completely cover the fire, it will not extinguish the fire.
107Fire Regulations: Raise the alarm Call the fire brigade. If possible, turn off gas supply, electricity, fansTry to fight the fire with the appropriate extinguisherClose doors and windowsLeave the building and go to the assembly pointDo not delay in raising the alarm or calling the fire brigadeDo not use liftsDo not stop to collect belongingsCare must be taken to use the correct fire extinguisher
108Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point HACCP:Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointThis is a process which assess each stage of food manufacture and identifies where a risk or hazard might occur. It is usually drawn onto a flow chart, then these risks can be checked to avoid problems.Examples of CCP’s (Critical Control Points) are:Inspection of goods on deliveryStorage & handling of ingredients & finished productTemperature of fridges, freezers & ovensCleaning procedures for equipmentCross-contaminationPersonal hygiene & health standardsProficiency of use and cleaning of equipment
109Environmental Health Officer Food Safety Act:Keep yourself clean.Keep the workplace clean.Wear suitable clothing.Protect food from contamination.Store, prepare & serve food at the correct temperature.Inform a manager if you are ill.Do not work with food if you have symptoms of food poisoning.E.H.O.Under the Food Safety Act , the Environmental Health Officer enforces hygiene, health & safety legislation.The E.H.O. has the authority to:Close down dirty premises on the spotIssue an Improvement Notice which must be acted upon within a certain time limit.Prosecute any person who does not comply with the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Food Safety Act 1995Impose fines of £20,000 or imprisonment(NOTE: Premises can be inspected at anytime.)
110What is Food Hygiene?The good practices which lead to clean workplaces and the safe production of foodIt’s purpose is to preserve health by:Reducing the risk of producing harmful foodPreventing infestations by pests like flies, micePoor hygiene can also lead to:Food wastageInfestation by pestsLoss of customers and profitLegal action against you or the firm you work for
111What does it involve? Personal Hygiene Cleaning and disinfecting Preventing any organisms multiplyingDestroying any harmful bacteria by cookingDiscarding unfit or contaminated food
112Vulnerable GroupsFood poisoning is more likely to affect people with lowered resistance to disease than healthy people who might show mild symptoms or none at all.The following are particularly vulnerable to food poisoning: -Elderly or sick peopleBabiesYoung childrenPregnant women
114In order to grow and multiply germs need: WarmthTimeMoistureFood(Particularly high-risk foods)Remember it like this…TooManyFliesWaiting
115High-risk foods They must be handled with care: Don’t use after the use-by date.Transport in a cool temperature.Store covered in fridge and separate from other foods.Prepare on separate coloured chopping board.Cooked meats and poultryRaw meat and poultryCooked meat products suchas pies, gravys made by meatstockMeat and fish patésLightly cooked milk and eggproducts such as mousse andmayonnaiseShellfish and seafoodCooked rice
116Coloured Chopping Boards Correct use of boards for food preparation, in order to avoid cross-contamination.White- Bakery & Dairy ProductsRed- Raw MeatBlue- Raw FishGreen- Salad & FruitsYellow- Cooked MeatsBrown- Raw Vegetables
117In ideal conditions where there is Moisture, Food and Warmth (37degrees centigrade is ideal), bacteria can double every 10 to 20 minutes (in Time). They do this by dividing in to two.This is called…Binary Fission
119Time : 9.30 Bacteria : 0 Time : 9.40 Bacteria : 12,000 Time : 9.50 cooking chicken to a core temperature of 75°C should kill most of the bacteriaTime : 9.30Bacteria : 0Time : 9.40Bacteria : 12,000Knife contaminated by bloodTime : 9.50Bacteria : 24,000Time :Bacteria : 48,000Time :Bacteria : 96,000Time :Bacteria : 192,000Time :Bacteria : 384,000Time :Bacteria : 768,000Time :Bacteria : 1.5 millionFrom 0 to 1,536,000 in only 80 minutes !!!!!!
120Spore: This is a protective coating around the bacteria. This prevents it fromgetting killed in normal cooking andhave to be heated at very highteperatures.
121ToxinsSome bacteria release poisons known as toxins which cause food poisoning. Some toxins, known as exotoxins multiply in food. These toxins are not easily destroyed by cooking and may remain in food once they have developed. Other bacteria produce toxins inside the human body only after the food has been eaten. These are called endotoxins
122Types of bacteriaSpoilage: Not particularly harmful bacteria which cause food to go offBeneficial: “Good Bacteria” which are used to make yoghurt and cheesePathogenic: Illness causing bacteria
123Food Poisoning bacteria Usually need millions of bacteria to cause illness.The multiplication of bacteria within the food plays an important part in the disease
124Symptoms of food poisoning VomitingDiarrhoeaHeadacheStomach crampFever
125Staphylococcus Aureus Found in human nose and throat (also skin)ListeriaFound in soil, meat, poultry, soft cheese and salad vegetablesClostridium PerfingensFound in animals and birdsSalmonellaFound in animals, raw poultry and birdsClostridium BotulinumFound in the soil and associated with vegetables and meatsCampylobacterFound in raw poultry and meatBacillus Cereus Found in soil, vegetation, cereals and spicesE ColiFound in the gut of animals and humans
126SalmonellaSources - The intestines of ill people and carriers, animals and animal food, raw meat, raw poultry, raw milk, raw eggs, food pestsCommon food vehicles – Undercooked or contaminated cooked meat, raw milk and eggsOnset period – Can take up to 48 hrs for symptoms to show. Can last for 3 wksSymptoms - Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting and fever.Specific characteristics – It survives refrigeration. The illness is caused by a large number of bacteria and can be fatal.
127Staphylococcus Aureus Sources - Human nose, mouth, skin, hands, spots, boils, septic cuts etcCommon food vehicles – Dairy products. Cold cooked meat and poultry, peeled cooked prawnsOnset period – 1 to 7 hours. Lasts up to 2 days.Symptoms - Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting.Specific characteristics – Transferred to food from hands, nose or mouth. Usually requires millions of bacteria to cause illness. It can survive refrigeration and Toxin may survive boiling for up to 30 minutes.
128ListeriaSources - soil, vegetation, meat, poultry, soft cheese, salad vegetablesCommon food vehicles – meat, poultry, soft cheese, salad vegetableOnset period – 2 weeksSymptoms - Range from flu-like symptoms to meningitisSpecific characteristics – Pregnant women, the very old and the very young are most at risk
129Clostridium perfingens Sources - The intestines of humans and animals, faeces and sewage, soil food pests, raw meat and poultryCommon food vehicles – Meat joints, casseroles, stews, sauces and meat pies when cooking has removed oxygenOnset period – Normally after 8 – 18 hrs. Duration is usually 12 to 48 hours.Symptoms - Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, (vomiting is rare) and fever.Specific characteristics – Usually requires millions of bacteria to cause illness. Produces spores and so may not be killed by normal cooking.
130Bacillus Cereus Sources - Cereals, dust and soil Common food vehicles - Reheated rice, cornflour and spices.Onset period - 1 to 5 hours. Exotoxin produced in food. (Toxic food poisoning) Symptoms - Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting. Occasionally subnormal temperatures. Duration between 12 and 24 hours.Symptoms - 2 types of illness:Diarrhoea and abdominal pain after 8 – 18 hrs. Vomiting after 1 – 5 hrs. Usually lasts under 24 hrs.Specific characteristics - Forms spores which survive under normal cooking conditions. Illness can be caused by a small number of bacteria.
131Clostridium Botulinum Sources - Human nose, mouth, skin, hands, spots, boils, septic cuts etcCommon food vehicles – Dairy products. Cold cooked meat and poultry, peeled cooked prawnsOnset period – 1 to 7 hours. Lasts up to 2 days.Symptoms - Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting.Specific characteristics – Transferred to food from hands, nose or mouth. Usually requires millions of bacteria to cause illness. It can survive refrigeration and Toxin may survive boiling for up to 30 minutes.
132E Coli Sources - Gut of animals and humans. Common food vehicles - Raw & undercooked meats, raw vegetables.Onset period - Can take up to 5 days for symptoms to show.Symptoms - Diarrhoea, fever. Can be fatalSpecific characteristics - Illness caused by small numbers of bacteria. Can survive refrigeration and freezing
133Campylobacter Sources - Found on raw poultry and meat Common food vehicles - raw poultry and meat.Onset period - 2 to 5 days after eating contaminated food.Symptoms - Fever, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhoeaSpecific characteristics - Illness caused by small numbers of bacteria. Food is contaminated when it comes into contact with animal faeces.
134Preventing Food Poisoning: Personal Hygiene- Hand washing, preventing cross-contamination (where bacteria is passed from one thing or person to the food), care when using chemicals and waste materials, wearing the correct protective clothing, not working when sick etc.Correct food storageFridge temperature (1°- 4°C), freezer temperature (-18° to -22°C). Bacteria breed fastest at body temperature (36/37°C), are killed over 70°C and become dormant (sleep) below freezing.High Risk Foods – high protein foods, animal products e.g. eggs and meat.Low Risk Foods - low protein foods e.g. fruit and vegetables.Meat & poultry should always be defrosted thoroughly.