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3 SUPPLY AND DEMAND II: MARKETS AND WELFARE. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Learning 7 Consumers, Producers, and the Efficiency of Markets.

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Presentation on theme: "3 SUPPLY AND DEMAND II: MARKETS AND WELFARE. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Learning 7 Consumers, Producers, and the Efficiency of Markets."— Presentation transcript:

1 3 SUPPLY AND DEMAND II: MARKETS AND WELFARE

2 Copyright © 2006 Thomson Learning 7 Consumers, Producers, and the Efficiency of Markets

3 Table 1 Four Possible Buyers’ Willingness to Pay Copyright©2004 South-Western

4 Copyright © 2006 Thomson Learning The Demand Schedule and the Demand Curve

5 Figure 1 The Demand Schedule and the Demand Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Price of Album 0Quantity of Albums Demand 1234 €100 John’s willingness to pay 80 Paul’s willingness to pay 70 George’s willingness to pay 50 Ringo’s willingness to pay

6 Figure 2 Measuring Consumer Surplus with the Demand Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning (a) Price = €80 Price of Album €100 Demand 1234 Quantity of Albums John’s consumer surplus (€20)

7 Figure 2 Measuring Consumer Surplus with the Demand Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning (b) Price = €70 Price of Album €100 Demand 1234 Total consumer surplus (€40) Quantity of Albums John’s consumer surplus (€30) Paul’s consumer surplus (€10)

8 Figure 3 How the Price Affects Consumer Surplus Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Consumer surplus Quantity (a) Consumer Surplus at Price P Price 0 Demand P1P1 Q1Q1 B A C

9 Figure 3 How the Price Affects Consumer Surplus Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Initial consumer surplus Quantity (b) Consumer Surplus at Price P Price 0 Demand A B C DE F P1P1 Q1Q1 P2P2 Q2Q2 Consumer surplus to new consumers Additional consumer surplus to initial consumers

10 Table 2 The Costs of Four Possible Sellers Copyright©2004 South-Western

11 Copyright © 2006 Thomson Learning The Supply Schedule and the Supply Curve

12 Figure 4 The Supply Schedule and the Supply Curve

13 Figure 5 Measuring Producer Surplus with the Supply Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Houses Painted Price of House Painting € (a) Price = €600 Supply ’ Nana’s producer surplus (€100)

14 Figure 5 Measuring Producer Surplus with the Supply Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Houses Painted Price of House Painting € (b) Price = €800 Georgia’s producer surplus (€200) Total producer surplus (€500) ’Nana’s producer surplus (€300) Supply

15 Figure 6 How the Price Affects Producer Surplus Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Producer surplus Quantity (a) Producer Surplus at Price P Price 0 Supply B A C Q1Q1 P1P1

16 Figure 6 How the Price Affects Producer Surplus Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity (b) Producer Surplus at Price P Price 0 P1P1 B C Supply A Initial producer surplus Q1Q1 P2P2 Q2Q2 Producer surplus to new producers Additional producer surplus to initial producers D E F

17 Figure 7 Consumer and Producer Surplus in the Market Equilibrium Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Producer surplus Consumer surplus Price 0 Quantity Equilibrium price Equilibrium quantity Supply Demand A C B D E

18 Figure 8 The Efficiency of the Equilibrium Quantity Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity Price 0 Supply Demand Cost to sellers Cost to sellers Value to buyers Value to buyers Value to buyers is greater than cost to sellers. Value to buyers is less than cost to sellers. Equilibrium quantity


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