If you understand basic immunology you can explain... How vaccines work and why vaccine failures occur Adverse events and their timing Why the schedule is as it is Why vaccines cannot overload the immune system
Physical barriers Skin – 2 m² Mucosal membranes – digestive, respiratory, reproductive tract – 400 m²
Innate immunity Phagocytosis Macrophage - WBC Rapid action 0-4 hours Non-specific – same response each time No memory – same response at each encounter May destruct the antigen
Adaptive immunity Second level of defence Effectiveness increases with each encounter Specific immune response
Types of (adaptive) immunity Active Immunity Passive Immunity
Transfer of maternal antibodies Administration of antibodies
Active Immunity Antibodies produced in response to an infection Antibodies produced in response to a vaccination
Types of antibody IgG – the only type that crosses the placenta (after 32 weeks) IgA – in breast milk – gives some mucosal protection IgE – over production associated with anaphylaxis Also IgM – maybe further reading!
Active versus passive immunity ACTIVE Long lasting Takes time to be effective PASSIVE Only short term Immediate protection
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