2Objectives To have an overview of the APP approach. Consider the model and become familiar with process of arriving at and agreeing judgements.To outline expectations with regards to moderation of judgements.To consider the benefits of this approach and how this could be used in individual school settings.
3A Consistent ApproachThere are many sets of criteria (… and products) that claim to assist teachers in making judgements related to national standards. Some are commercial, some have been developed by local authorities and others are ‘home grown’ within schools or groups of schools.Stephen Anwyll, Curriculum Division, QCA 2008The aim now is to achieve consistency in assessment so that all parties involved in assessing children are judging them by the same criteria.
4What is APP?APP is a tool to assess pupils’ progress periodically against National Curriculum levels.The APP approach places a much greater emphasis on teachers’ ongoing knowledge of pupils’ progress in reading, writing and mathematics.APP is aiming to fill that gap and standardise judgements across schools and local authorities.
5APP BackgroundQCA has been working with the National Strategies for several years to develop materials to strengthen teachers’ ongoing and periodic judgements.APP materials already used in KS3.APP has been piloted in Lancashire schools and other authorities.Need to strengthen teacher assessment as it’s a national issue with the potential of implementing single level testing.
6Features of Current System National standards communicated through test scores.Teachers reliant on short tests for evidence of achievement.Dominant assessment techniques are specific events rather than part of daily teaching and learning.NOWProgress is articulated through numbers(2, a/b/c, 3).High value assessments at the end of stages, not useful for individual progress.Assessments seen as reliable because external to the school.Separation of day-to-day assessment from national standards.
8APPIs based on the successful introduction of using teacher assessment rather than just test results at the end of KS1.Builds on the effective assessment practices that are well established in EYFS.Provides a process that is consistent across both literacy and mathematics.Means strengthening teachers understanding and awareness of levels as well as national expectations.Need to strengthen teacher assessment as it’s a national issue with the potential of implementing single level testing.It gives a more rounded view than we are seeing from the current features and teacher and pupil perspectives.
9Assessment: Ways of Looking APP SITS HEREChange to flowersPupil’s Public viewformal recognition of achievementinfluences future opportunities and next choicesTeacher’s Public viewrelated to national standards; often externally validatedfor next teacherlimited impact on own teaching used for teacher and school accountabilitycurriculum often narrowed to the form and criteria of final assessmentPupils Close-upimmediate feedback in specific aspectsrelevant next stepsreflection on learning as it is happeningTeachers Close-updetailed interaction with learnerswithin particular contextschanges in short-term planningClose-upStanding backPublic view
10What’s Missing? For teachers For pupils How well are my pupils achieving overall?Can I see the wood as well as the trees?Where are the gaps in learning?How do national standards inform my teaching?How am I doing in this subject/aspect as a whole?What are the main areas where I need to improve?Where do I show what I know and can do?
11How Does APP Close the Gap Helps make connections between techniques promoted through ‘Assessment for Learning’ and judgements relating to national standards.By setting out criteria in each assessment focus the full range of the subject is covered and a broad curriculum is promoted.By describing characteristic features of children’s performance at each level, APP allows a full picture of children’s strengths and weaknesses to be seen.By relating to national standards, it offers a secure basis for pupil tracking.Pupil tracking within and at the end of each year.
12How Does APP Close the Gap Gives insights which directly inform future planning, teaching and learning in the course of a year.Engages teachers and learners in all year groups in periodic assessment to raise attainment.The materials are not a checklist for ‘spotting and ticking’ in the course of day-to-day teaching and learning, but broader criteria which teachers can use periodically to identify progress.
13APP Materials The materials are made up of two elements: assessment guidelines – sheets for assessing pupils’ work in relation to National Curriculum levelsstandards files and training files – exemplars of pupils’ performance at National Curriculum levels of attainmentmaterials are available on the National Strategies websiteBased on the assessment focuses (AFs) that underpin National Curriculum assessment, the APP approach improves the quality and reliability of teacher assessment. It has proved to be robust, manageable and effective in practice.Find these on the primary frameworks website.
14APP MaterialsUsing APP materials teachers can make level judgements for each of the following National Curriculum attainment targets (ATs):readingwritingusing and applying mathematicsnumbershape, space and measureshandling data.
15The APP Cycle Day-to-day teaching and learning Planning from learning objectives (PNS)Evidence for AFsAPP supports teachers in providing a broad curriculum and developing their skillsand judgements for assessing pupils’ progress. It involves ‘stepping back’ periodicallyto review pupils’ ongoing work and relate their progress to National Curriculum levels.Informing planning and teaching and learningPeriodic assessment using AFs
16How Does it Work?In the initial stages, teachers gather evidence for a sample group of approximately 6 pupils in order to get an overview of progress and attainment.Periodically the teacher reviews a range of evidence (written, spoken, observed) for each assessment focus.Assessments are taken from a wide range of evidence based on normal teaching approaches (no extra testing!).APP is formative and summative. We need to ensure that there is rigorous moderation (internal and external) to support accurate levelling and teachers adapt their plans in the light of their findings/ children’s next steps.Tell them that levels 1 and 6 have recently been added6-8 pupils should represent the range of ability across the class eg levels 2-3, 3-4, 4-5A range of evidence is gathered from normal classroom teachingThere are standards files with examples of pupils’ work and levels given using APP materials.
17APP in Mathematics Teachers will need: Evidence of the pupil’s mathematics that shows most independence.Other evidence about the pupil as a mathematicianA copy of the relevant assessment guideline.This evidence may be written on plans, jotted in a notebook, recalled by the teacher TA etc, gathered from books/marking
18Making a Level Judgement Go through the statements, and decide whether the child has achieved in these areas. Evidence needs to show that the child is confident and independent in a range of situations and demonstrate their knowledge regularly and consistently.This is NOT a ticklist and does not show coverage/what has been taught.Taking all evidence into account has the child achieved the statement?If so, then indicate this by highlighting or ticking.
19Have a go!Using evidence from the Standards Training Files, look at Peter’s evidence for MA2.Complete the grid and give Peter a level (high, secure or low).Feedback.Example from standards filesThese files should be used for standardisation purposes prior to implementation of APP.The most valuable evidence has to come from dialogue with child.Opps for teachers to build in a time where they will sit with a group of pupils to talk to them ‘guided group work’ without the guiding. Not about giving a task to do and then going round the groups.Give time for them to look at Peter’s evidence – what do they notice about the evidence.During feedback point out that this is NOT what teachers would be expected to produce for evidence.Teachers need to think before they include written evidence – what does it add.The most important part of evidence is what the teacher knows about the child. Take care though that this is not just saying ‘The child can…’ and then copying out statements from the assessment guidelines. Teachers need to give examples as to why. This might be verbal or written. It could come from teacher’s record book, planning evaluations, be linked to some work in books etc.
20Securing Evidence 1 Shade of the grid. 5 Need to consider what we use as evidence. We do not expect teachers to recreate the standards files, however, they have to be secure in their judgements.Which of these satisfactorily shows that the child is able to answer the question?Following a trick, whatever I multiply the numerator by I need to multiply the denominator by. More than original simple exercise. Need to show understanding, not just a process. Can’t use method if the presentation changesThis is often why children underperform on tests, because they are seeing something in a different way and cannot apply that skill to another format.The example on the right gives more of an indication as to whether the knowledge and understanding has been embedded as it shows whether children can apply that knowledge.
21Securing Evidence (2) 87 - 31 81 - 37 80 7 - 30 1 50 6 80 1 - 30 750 6Jane has several pages of calculations which look like the one on the left, all correct.Teacher assesses Jane through looking at her work and decides that she understands this concept and marks as such on assessment guidelines.Next term, Jane is asked to do the following calculation and completes it like the example on the right.From the first set of examples, Jane has created a misconception that you always take the smallest number away from the greatest. This misconception allows her to complete subtractions correctly where there is no exchange involved.It is only when the next stage of learning (exchange) is introduced that the misconception becomes apparent. If the teacher had relied more on evidence from guided group work/talking to children. This misconception could have been identified earlier on.Guided work and group discussion can be one of the most effective forms of gathering evidence.
22Types of EvidenceLook at samples of evidence, which would be considered good examples of evidence?From guided group work, teacher has engaged in questioning and dialogue with the children.
23Types of EvidenceEven though this looks like a really scrappy piece of paper, the evidence is a teacher’s notes from group work so is really valuable.
24Types of EvidenceMarked incorrectly, does not show that the child can understand place value, shows that they can do a trick split numbers put a 0 after the first one. Child cannot even do this consistently.
25Types of EvidenceAgain, tricks to work out doubles. Need this in terms of consolidation and practice, but it is not enough alone to show that children understand doubles/near doubles. Children need to show that they can demonstrate skills in a range of contexts, independently and consistently.
26Types of EvidenceWhat a teacher knows about a child but with specific examples in so is more useful.
27Framework SupportBlock notes from renewed framework now contain guidance for teachers as to what they may want to assess in each block and unit, and what they can look for in different contexts. This gives support to less confident teachers.There also needs to be support available within school as to what to do with the results of these assessments.
28Key Points for Mathematics Not every child who is a secure level 3 has the same profile, it is the different aspects of level 3 that children have attained that show their overall level, these may be in different areas – teachers need to take account of these gaps when planning.To make a secure judgement, a range of open ended tasks needs to be planned.Probing questions require subject knowledge.There are not particular objectives that are 3c, 3b, 3a etc It is the amount of the objectives within that level that have been achieved that determine the overall level.This is why one of the most valuable parts of APP is that it links formative and summative assessment and allows teachers to feed these gaps in to planning.Gaps are often common across the group and may have appeared from a difficulty in teachingAssess all children… fill in the APP grid for 6! When the grids have been completed for those 6 children, the teacher would then take the two sets of guidelines for the relevant group (i.e. two from the middle ability group and use them to level the rest of the children in that group by saying well if Freddy is a secure 3, then Billy can also do this part, this part, this part etc but can’t do this consistently so on balance they are also a secure 3, high 3 etc)Further guidance about levels will be given on the 2 day training.
29APP in Writing Teachers will need: A range of evidence of independent work (from literacy lessons and cross curricular opportunities as they arise).A copy of the assessment guidelines for the level borderline that is the starting point.Making a level judgement handout.This evidence may be written on plans, jotted in a notebook, recalled by the teacher TA etc, gathered from books/marking
30Making a Level Judgement The process initially looks complicated but once teachers become familiar with it, they understand why it is written as it is. It clarifies the importance and weighting of different assessment focuses at different levels eg in reading the child cannot be given level 3 unless they are working at level 3 in Inference and Deduction. In writing, they cannot achieve level 2 unless they are at working at level 2 in at least one of the assessment focuses regarding sentence construction and punctuation.Headteachers find the process harder than teachers! Y2 and Y6 teachers adapt to APP process very quickly because they are very familiar with levelling work.Talk through how to give a level judgement.
31Have a GoUsing evidence from the Standards Training Files, look at Kylie’s evidence for writing.Complete the grid and give Kylie a level (high, secure or low).Feedback.Have a go at levelling writing to gain an overview of the process.Point out that they need to read the introductions to the tasks in order to ascertain what writing is independent and what has been scaffolded.Feedback particularly regarding the quality of the evidence.
32Securing Evidence A range of evidence of independent work Pilots demonstrated it needs to be clear what is scaffolded and what is independent workYear 4 child who is assessed at low level 2.Point out that this piece of evidence makes it clear what the child has written independently and what has been given/scaffolded eg connectives used as sentence openers are given as prompts so the child can’t be given credit for these.
33APP in Reading A range of evidence Oral, observed, written evidence Quality first teaching of readingWriting tends to be the easier APP strand to implement. In order for APP in Reading to be successfully implemented, Quality First teaching of reading needs to be taking place. Teachers who are teaching reading by using comprehension questions from text books may struggle to find evidence to level children’s reading.Again there needs to be a range of evidence. This can be oral or observed eg guided reading, hot-seating, role playing, drawing and labelling or adding speech bubbles as well as written evidence.
34Making a Level Judgement Go through handouts –Reading – how to make a level judgement.You don’t have to have everything in the level to be awarded that level –it’s best fit.Note for early readers AF1 (strategies to decode) is assessed but not for level 3 and above.Read through step 3.Writing – how to make a level judgement-go through briefly, pointing out that to get level 2, child needs to get 2 out of AF7 (approp and effective vocab), AF8 (spelling), & handwriting (so level 2 can’t be given to children whose writing can’t be read without mediation)Time to look at example completed ones for reading and writing –pupils S and T. Pupil T reading – note – evidence from guided reading,child using info from reading to make own non fiction booklet, teacher noting child’s comments on post its.
35Child A Year 5 St Anne and St Joseph’s Reading Evidence ExamplesFrom “The Midnight Fox” unitSome examples of reading evidence provided by one of the pilot schools.From The Midnight Fox year 5/6 unit of work.
36The book centres on the main character (Tom) who reluctantly goes to stay on his Aunt and Uncles’s farm one summer. This activity involved the child drawing the bedroom in which Tom is staying and then discussing how Tom might feel. Evidence for literal retrieval presented in different formats, and some inference.
37Then the children had to write in role as Tom to his best friend explaining how he felt. Af3.
38For this activity the children had to collect evidence of the author’s use of language used to describe the fox, comment upon it and record it in a group poem. Af4 author’s use of language.
39At the end of the book, Tom’s uncle wants to kill the fox At the end of the book, Tom’s uncle wants to kill the fox. Here, the children had to present reasons for and against killing the fox from different characters’ points of view, and then finish off with a class debate on whether the fox should or shouldn’t be killed. AF3 inference and deduction plus AF6 the overall effect of the text on the reader.
40Key PointsTeachers initially struggle to identify evidence for reading (in contrast to writing).Teachers need to ensure that they are offering significant opportunities for independent work.Improved questioning and dialogue lead to a wider range of better quality evidence.There are not particular objectives that are 3c, 3b, 3a etc It is the amount of the objectives within that level that have been achieved that determine the overall level.This is why one of the most valuable parts of APP is that it links formative and summative assessment and allows teachers to feed these gaps in to planning.Gaps are often common across the group and may have appeared from a difficulty in teachingWeighting is for supporting with trackingGive out handout for how to arrive at a complete level judgement through weightings.Assess all children… fill in the APP grid for 6!
41Feedback from the Pilots School leaders need to be fully supportive and engaged with APP.Teachers had more confidence when planned time was arranged to discuss with colleagues. The evidence collected and judgements made were more consistent.The use of the APP materials was more effective where teachers had good subject knowledge.
42Feedback from the Pilots Teachers found that completing the APP grids was a simple process and enabled them to reflect on:classroom practiceareas not covered / gaps in learningknowledge of children’s attainmentmoderating their end of year assessmentInclusion of more open ended and independent tasks provided children with an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding.
43APP – Long Term Aims Understanding Standardisation and moderation to secure standards and improve understanding of progression, use of APP resources in classrooms, collecting & acting upon evidence.ImplementingAPP informing learning and teaching as part of school improvement cycle.EmbeddingTeachers working collaboratively to develop their understanding of pedagogy and their subject knowledge.Understanding – Acting on evidence (e.g. curriculum planning, target setting, intervention planning).Implementing (i.e. using APP to inform learning and teaching strategies and the support needed for the preparation and planning needed to develop these).Embedding (i.e. as reflective practitioners on a learning journey supported within a professional learning community).
44Implementing APP CPD SMT planning/implementation In-school standardisationCPDTeachers collecting evidence & making judgementsNeed to plan for the implementation and give a high priority.The statements 2, 3 and 4 need to reoccur on a cycle to ensure consistency of judgements is maintained.In-school moderationCluster moderation
45Implementing APP An example: Trial with 6 children in one subject in two classes (e.g. subject leader and other).Whole school trials with 6 children in one subject.Scale up for use with all children in class for one subject.Whole school trials with 6 children in second subject whilst maintaining first subject.Scale up for use with all children in class for two subjects.Whole school trials with 6 children in third subject whilst maintaining first two.This is an example of how a school might implement the process (each statement will appear when clicked). Discuss each as it appears.The end aim is that schools will use the APP process to assess all children in reading, writing and mathematics. The timescale required for implementation will vary from school to school.Emphasise that this is a gradual process and that it is important for it to be collaborative between the whole staff and the senior leadership team.Scale up for use with all children in class in all subjects.Regular moderation and collaboration throughout the implementation and beyond.
46Staffing and Responsibilities School Senior Leader ResponsibilitiesProvide practical support to lead subject teachers.Chair in-school moderation meetings and have the final say in resolving any differences in judgements that arise.APP Lead Teacher for the Subject ResponsibilitiesAttend external APP training and standardisation sessions.Organise and deliver in-school APP training and conduct in-school standardisation and moderation meetings.Understanding – Acting on evidence (e.g. curriculum planning, target setting, intervention planning).Implementing (i.e. using APP to inform learning and teaching strategies and the support needed for the preparation and planning needed to develop these).Embedding (i.e. as reflective practitioners on a learning journey supported within a professional learning community).
47Summary APP is an opportunity to: Improve understanding of the characteristics of performance over the range of NC levels.Gain greater confidence and accuracy of assessments being made on the basis of an improving range of evidence.Develop more ownership of responsibility for standards and children’s progress among teachers.Integrate assessment with planning for teaching and learning.Schools should now complete the form to indicate whether they wish to follow maths MA2 or writing.They should have made the decision prior to attending this training as that was what the letter suggested.