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Understanding Dropped Objects

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0 HI-DROPS Objects Falling from Height – Awareness & Prevention
Before you start, ensure you have the correct presentation and all necessary handouts. You will need: DROPS Calculator RISK ASSESSMENT PROMPT CARD STOP / TRA Card DROPS Reliable Securing Booklet – latest edition Any alerts you wish to share There are opportunities to note comments on a white board, so if possible have a board/flip chart available! If you choose to play any of the DVD products, please make sure you have set up the sound on your computer! Run through housekeeping issues – be sure to consider all emergency scenarios and comfort issues. Session duration – approx 30mins Note that when the symbol >> is used in the presenter’s notes, this is your prompt to click for the next slide, bullet point or animated feature. HI-DROPS Harsco Infrastructure - Dropped Object Prevention Scheme Objects Falling from Height – Awareness & Prevention CHSG | September 19th 2012 Tony Horsfall, CHSG Director/Trustee

1 Understanding Dropped Objects

2 Understanding Dropped Objects
What is a Dropped Object? Any item / object that falls from its previous position Has a capability for harm and damage derived from its kinetic energy Any item / object that falls from its previous static position under its own weight – gravity Any item / object that falls from its previous static position due to applied force from manual handling, equipment/machinery, vibration, high wind, additional weight or the force of a moving object – like a collision during lifting – now considered a dynamic dropped object First let’s make sure we understand what a dropped object is. NOTE: (To help explain, look for something in the room or area you are presenting in – see if you can find an example of potential Dropped Objects (perhaps a projector, blackboard, air conditioning unit, stacked tables etc). You can use this to discuss the basic understanding of what a dropped object is and how it can occur.) >>What is a Dropped Object? Ask the class. >>(Reveal answer) A dropped object is any item or object that falls from its previous position. (use your prompts around you. A projector, a screen, a picture frame, an airconditioning unit, a lighting fixture…basically anything stored, fixed or used at height. Let’s say you select a lighting fixture. If this fell from the ceiling, it would be a dropped object) >>(Reveal second sub item) We can consider a pen falling from a table or a book slipping from your hands on to the floor as a dropped object – and sure there may be consequences as a result. But we are focusing on objects and items that have the ability to cause harm or damage, typically heavy pieces of scaffolding equipment, stacked materials, tools, lifting equipment, host structure fabric and even entire sections of scaffold structure. It is important for us to analyse these objects and define them further. Ask delegates if they know what the two definitions of a dropped object are. >> Static - any object that falls from its previous static position under its own weight – where gravity takes over. Let’s say this is a 1.8m (6ft) scaffold tube which rolls from a storage location or a ginn wheel that falls because the fixings are loose. >> Dynamic - any object that falls from its previous static position due to applied force from equipment/machinery or moving object. This can include manual handling, vibration, wind, additional weight or a sequence of events that starts with an accidental collision. Our 1.8m tube could be knocked or dropped during handling. Our ginn wheel could fail due to overloading. It is important to understand that the majority of incidents are dynamic related – where collision has occurred or where materials are being handled and dropped accidentally. The weather plays a big part too. Wind can cause even a heavy loose item to be blown from height. Constant wind can cause stress on fixings leading to failure. >>

3 The Law says … The Work at Height Regulations 2005: Regulations 10 & 11, state Every employer shall take suitable and sufficient steps to prevent, as far as reasonably practicable, the fall of materials or objects Where the above cannot be achieved, steps must be taken to ensure that persons cannot be struck by falling objects and materials Areas presenting danger of fall or being struck by objects must be clearly marked with entry prevented

4 Objectives Understanding Dropped Objects
What is it and how bad is the problem? What are the consequences? How to identify and assess potential Dropped Objects Hazard observation, pre-start Task Risk Assessment, supervisor inspections How to prevent Dropped Objects Education, awareness and communication Task pre-planning The tools and systems we can employ The improvements we can make Run through the main objectives. We will RAISE AWARENESS of dropped objects. All to often it takes a real incident to focus our attention. In this presentation we will be looking at real dropped object incidents that have occurred during our activities and discuss what we can do to prevent them happening again. You will see there are many opportunities for us to improve and share lessons learned. We will work together to UNDERSTAND DROPPED OBJECTS: We will be asking: What are they and how do they occur? What constitutes a dropped object and what is the difference between a static and dynamic dropped object? We do regularly identify the potential for dropped objects - check for the most obvious signs of damage, check for loose equipment and structure and remove unnecessary items left at height. But they still keep on happening. We need to understand how they happen and what causes them to occur. We will use examples and images to show how to IDENTIFY and ASSESS POTENTIAL DROPPED OBJECTS. We will be asking you to identify potential dropped objects on the screen, how to assess them using the DROPS Calculator and how to consider this during your task risk assessment. We will look at HOW TO PREVENT DROPPED OBJECTS by using the tools and systems available, many of which you will be familiar with. We will consider the basic principles of: Eliminate (removing redundant or unnecessary equipment for example) Substitute (such as changing equipment or moving it to lower levels) Control (the application of engineered solutions, procedures etc) We will also take the opportunity to discuss our performance, how changing the way we work may bring about improvements and what new tools and techniques we can trial and implement. >>

5 How bad is the problem in UK industry?
HSE Statistics – UK Industry Serious Injuries 2001 – 2009 HSE Statistics – UK Industry Fatalities 2001 – 2009 The problem is all around us. In the UK alone, we regularly hear of actual incidents that have caused serious injury. But how many incidents go unreported, how many near misses that could have resulted in fatality? And what about damage to equipment or damage to the reputation of the business? These statistics from the HSE paint a worrying picture. The first graph shows fatalities. These figures show all industries. >> Now look at Serious Injuries. We don’t hear about these people, individuals who have suffered injuries that have resulted in lost time, broken limbs and in some instances severe brain injuries and paralysis. These figures only represent incidents that have been reported because someone has actually been injured or killed. How many other near misses have there been?

6 Communication - HI SHEQ Portal

7 - Incident Management System
Incident Reporting - Incident Management System

8 HI-DROPS Reporting Since the introduction of HI-DROPS we have been collating our own data on incidents and can begin to see where we need to focus our attentions in preventing dropped objects. Review handouts. Use Calculator to identify Potential Consequence.

9 Average Height (m) & Weight (kg) of Dropped Objects
Average Weight (kg) Average Height (m)

10 Has anything changed? Globally in 2011, Harsco Infrastructure reported 33 near misses and 39 minor injuries as a result of objects falling from height Vehicles, windows, equipment have been damaged and potentially our reputation If the circumstances were slightly different, if we hadn’t planned No Go zones, along with a modicum of luck, we could have experienced a number of serious injury incidents We need to put a stop to this, now. The solution, we could say, “is in our hands’’ But is anything different than before? No. It is because we are focused on improved reporting since that this concern, which all the industry knows about, jumps out of the page at us The situation is clear. We need to do something before someone else gets killed or seriously injured. Our livelihoods are at stake here. Dropped Objects do harm and do kill. But why would we want that to happen?

11 Dropped Object Prevention Scheme

12 What are we doing about it?
HI-DROPS is a company-wide initiative focused on preventing objects falling from height Scope applies to all personnel at all worksites and facilities and is to apply to our customers, contractors and outside agencies HI-DROPS reflects industry standards and best practice The HI-DROPS Steering Committee and Working Groups are developing improved methods of handling material at height, implementing training and awareness campaigns and continually monitoring performance Summarise the HI-DROPS initiative, inform delegates that this is a continuously evolving and fully inclusive programme that requires attention, interaction and feedback. Together we will make a difference.

13 Dropped Objects Objects that could and do fall from height at a worksite Scaffolding components, boards, clamps, ties (loose, stacked, stored, handled, unsecured) Ladders, gates, lifting equipment, baskets Hand tools (spanners, hammers, spirit levels, measuring tapes, tool belts) Items from host structure (nuts, bolts, bricks, lights, aerials, slates, rivets, rubble, windows, brackets) Scaffold structure (design, footings, ties, overload, wind, vibration etc) PPE (hard hat, safety glasses, fall arrest equipment) Debris on the scaffold (loose items, litter, rubble) Bottles, cans, phones, radios, personal items Customer / contractor materials, tools and equipment Discuss examples of Dropped Objects at the worksite now, how they happen, what to look for, how these are considered during task risk assessments. Consider both static and dynamic potentials. Add these to the white board. Discuss weight of items and how far they could fall.

14 Contributory Factors Incorrect fittings
Poor inspection, repair and maintenance Poor housekeeping, no control of items aloft Environmental conditions (wind, rain, snow and ice) Lack of experience, hazards not identified. It is important to study Dynamic Dropped Objects as these are by far the most likely type of incident. >>Over 70% of dropped objects are dynamic and of these around 85% are Near Misses / Dangerous Occurences. Ask delegates: What are the likely causes of dynamic dropped objects? >>These are broad descriptions. Discuss these in more detail, consider activities where these incidents might occur. >> Invite delegates to consider What are the Contributing Factors? >> Reveal these and ask delegates how our actions, combined with other factors can result in a serious incident. Unnecessary distractions whilst undertaking task Not following the plan or procedure Failure to recognize and manage change Lack of experience or knowledge.

15 Dropped Object incidents
Invite delegates to give details of any dropped object incident(s) they may have been involved in or witnessed. Don’t restrict to workplace incidents, ask delegates to consider home environment as well. Where incidents are similar, do not dwell but move on to another anecdote. Objective is to discuss a broad range of incidents. For each incident, ask the delegate what happened and how it happened. Ask them (and the other delegates) why they think it occurred (prompt response as necessary, eg was it poor management, poor housekeeping, poor procedures, poor planning etc). Finally, ask if any changes were made as a result of the incident. Note details of a few examples on white board as these can be revisited later. Images shown on the right – extract from Fatal Accident Costa Rica (see separate presentation) Have you witnessed a dropped object incident? What happened? Did anyone get hurt? What damage occurred? Why did it happen? Could it have been prevented? Has anything changed as a result?

16 When PPE Becomes Essential

17 PPE Saves a Life

18 Rogues Gallery TRANSOM (3kg) BATTEN (6kg) BOARD (11kg) WHEEL (7.5kg) COUPLER (1.4kg) We can spend the rest of the day looking at real examples of dropped objects at our worksites, all manner of items that have fallen due to poor planning, lack of awareness, poor handling, bad housekeeping and poor securing. So many of these thankfully result in no injuries, but we still suffer equipment damage and lost time, potential environmental incidents and real damage to our reputation. >> Many examples, all heavy enough to cause serious injury or a fatality…it’s just a matter of time before one of us becomes yet another statistic. We need to work together to understand why these incidents continue to happen and put controls in place to prevent them occurring…and at the very least eliminate the risk to personnel. We cannot accept another injury to our colleagues caused by dropped objects. We need to improve our techniques, our tools and our methods. We need to identify POTENTIAL dropped object hazards and eliminate or control these before we undertake our activities.

19 Consequences How do we know what would happen if any item fell from height and struck a person below? It’s not guess work. We have the DROPS Calculator to help us. It is a tool, widely used in industry and uses proven factors to determine the potential consequence based on the capability for harm to a human derived from the kinetic energy generated (Joules). Let’s say the coupler shown on the previous slide fell 10.7m (35ft) to the ground below after it was dropped during installation. Use the DROPS Calculator to work out the consequence. >>The DROPS Calculator appears. Discuss the colour coding. Discuss the legend and and explain the terms. >> Recap on the scenario (Coupler falls 10.7m after being accidentally dropped, it weighs 1.4kg) >>First sliding bar shows weight against the bottom axis >>Second sliding bar shows height against the side axis. This is an exponential or logarithmic axis so take time to explain how it is read. Consequence = Fatality – the worst case scenario. Think about all of the different parts of the human body it could strike. Which parts are protected by PPE. Emphasise that the calculator assumes that PPE is being worn. Consider surviving this incident. What might the long term effects be? Add to this the investigation and associated lost time and money – and reputation damage too. Now read the Calculator guidance. It can only determine the consequence of a blunt object falling. What if a ledger was to fall vertically? Could it pierce the body? What about glass, metal ties and rods or shards of corroded material? Try another exercise. What would happen if a plastic litre bottle full of drinking water fell from the same height? Review some of the examples and anecdotes from earlier, map these on the calculator. FAT = LTI = RWC = FAC / MTC = FATALITY 10.7m IF THE SWIVEL COUPLER FALLS 5 LIFTS AND STRIKES A PERSON ON THE GROUND WEIGHT: 1.4kg (approx 3lb) FALLING FROM: 10.7m (35ft) What is the Potential Consequence? 1.4kg

20 Prevention - Procedural Controls
Company Policy Industry Standards Equipment Maintenance and Certification Site Inspections Safe Working Practices Permits Toolbox Talks Customer Programmes

21 Preventive and Mitigating Controls
Preventive Controls Mitigating Controls We are going to look at specific controls now. Always consider that whatever control measure you put in place, you may have just introduced new hazards with additional risks. So let’s look at our controls. We have put them in two distinct groups. (Where the Bow Tie Model is used, please select the icon top right to jump to the Bow Tie Model slide, then use the Return button on the Bow Tie slide to return here) Ask delegates what the term PREVENTIVE CONTROLS means. >>Preventive Control: a control that prevents an incident by reducing the likelihood it will occur. (Pick any example of an item secured at height – use this to explain the differences). Ask delegates to list Preventive Controls (NOTE THAT IF YOU HAVE ALREADY STUDIED THE BOW TIE MODEL, USE THIS TO RECAP). >> When we identify hazards, we implement preventive controls, controls that will prevent the hazard from becoming a dropped object. These controls would be the primary fixings - welds, the screws, nuts and bolts, and the maintenance and inspection of these, regular inspections, individual awareness, planning, registers of equipment and tools at height etc. We would anticipate that the correct implementation of these controls would actually eliminate the problem altogether. Note our references to STOP / TIME OUT (insert your system here). These are all controls that we can use to prevent dropped objects by effective planning and risk assessments – effective use of procedures and guidance, and application of STOP and TOFS. Ask delegates what the term MITIGATING CONTROLS means. >>Mitigating Control: a control that reduces the consequence of an incident if the preventive controls fail or are ineffective. These are the controls we put in place when we are at high risk of dropped objects occuring. Ask delegates to list Mitigating Controls (AGAIN, IF YOU HAVE ALREADY STUDIED THE BOW TIE MODEL, USE THIS TO RECAP). >>To reduce the consequences when a dropped object occurs due to the failure of our preventive controls, we have mitigating controls in place. These mitigating controls would include secondary retention – like split pins, safety wires, lock nuts – and would also include implementation of Red Zones and use of barriers, warnings, watchmen, designed to eliminate the risk of exposure to personnel. Lanyards on approved tools and correct use of PPE are also in this category. Remember, we must not rely solely on just one of these controls. They must all be considered and applied. Sometimes the implementation of a control measure may in itself create additional risks. Consider this short story. In the Land Seismic industry, Chainsaw Activities is the number two killer – second only to Drowning. Campaigning on proper use of chainsaws, retraining and improved equipment maintenance had little impact on the numbers. On further investigation, it was found that the deaths were not being caused by chainsaws themselves but by falling objects. Trees, branches, falling on the chainsaw operator. Why was this happening when there are look-outs posted? In assessing the hazards of this task, the focus was on PPE. Excessive noise required hearing protection. This in turn created a new risk – the risk that the chainsaw operator would not hear the branches falling or the warning calls from the look outs. The industry is now considering improvements in communication! Effective Planning Risk Assessment Primary Fixings / Secondary Retention Site Inspections, Maintenance Tools and Equipment Aloft Registers and Log Books Management of Distractions Observation (STOP), Individual Awareness and Vigilance HI-DROP Training Safety Securing Systems Effective Use of Barriers Restricted Access Areas (Red Zones / No Go Zones) Tools at Height Kits PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) Communications, Standby Persons and PA Warnings PREVENTING AN INCIDENT BY REDUCING THE LIKELIHOOD THAT AN INCIDENT WILL OCCUR REDUCING THE CONSEQUENCES OF AN INCIDENT IF PREVENTIVE CONTROLS FAIL OR ARE NOT EFFECTIVE

22 Prevention - Incident Reporting/Learnings
Quality of reporting is critical in understanding dropped object incidents so we can focus on elimination and prevention strategies So we know what the problem is, we know how bad it is too. We’re all in agreement that there is an opportunity to improve. The first steps we need to take on our journey are the most important of all. We need to acknowledge the importance of Incident Reporting. Let’s review the system we currently follow and see if we can improve this. We know, based on statistics that incidents occur as a result of an unsafe act or condition. Those incidents that result in injury or damage to property are always reported. This is a mandatory requirement under health and safety law. The report and subsequent investigations provide us with important data – not just for legal purposes. We make use of the data to improve our knowledge, improve our methods and share our learnings with others. However, we know that there are many dropped object incidents that go unreported because they did not result in any injury or damage to property. Dropped tools, hard hats, scaffolding tube, couplings, debris and much more besides – falling from racks, from trucks, from baskets during lifting, from scaffolding platforms during every activity we undertake. >> We call these Dangerous Occurences or Near Misses. In our industry, anything that falls from height is likely to cause injury or damage. We need to report all of these instances so that we can analyse the data provided and take action to implement informed improvements. >> We can go a step further too. Where we identify unsafe acts or conditions, it is our responsibility to stop work and make it safe. This is where we are identifying potential dropped objects and eliminating them from the worksite. Let’s report these instances too as they are just as important for understanding how unsafe conditions occur, how we observe these and how we put them right. These are probably the most important learnings of all and need to be shared across all of our operations. In our reporting of unsafe conditions and dangerous occurences relating to dropped objects, we need to be able to record potential severity – ie what would the most likely consequence be if the item that could fall / did fall actually struck a person below. To work this out, we need to know the weight of the item and the distance it could / did travel. We use the Dropped Object calculator to do this. (Hand out DROPS Calculators) OBSERVATION & SUBSEQUENT ACTIONS = BENEFITS OF REPORTING UNSAFE ACT OR CONDITION Recommendations and Corrective Actions identified and implemented Opportunities for Learning Greater Awareness of Hazards Improved Tools and Equipment Improved Procedures and Working Practices Shared Best Practice Industry Safety Alerts YES DROPPED OBJECT INCIDENT = INJURY OR DAMAGE? REPORT AND SUBSEQUENT INVESTIGATION DANGEROUS OCCURENCE? YES NO REPORT AND SUBSEQUENT INVESTIGATION =

23 Prevention - Training in the Basic Rules
Set up an exclusion zone wherever possible Tether tools when working at height Wear the correct gloves to provide improved grip of the materials being handled at height (ATG – Maxitherm) Be cautious and exercise proper technique when handling heavy materials and awkward to carry objects, especially when working at height Strap hard hat on properly, do up the chin strap and ensure all PPE being used fits securely Keep the working area tidy to prevent any debris falling or being kicked from the scaffold/platform Use hands free lifting methods to take objects to height eg hoists Use same methods to bring objects down to ground - NEVER ‘bomb’ objects Cost of Accidents: In the Real World

24 Prevention - Site Inspections
Scafftag is a requirement for compliance and is a legislative control. >>Site Inspections offer an ideal opportunity to identify and correct potential dropped objects >>Key Safety Arrangements are observed and recorded >>Controls such as these flag up issues like this.

25 Prevention - Securing Methods
Nets Lanyards Securing Wires IS THE METHOD SUITABLE? ARE NEW RISKS INTRODUCED? DOES IT CONFORM TO BEST PRACTICE? IS IT CERTIFIED / RATED? IS IT CORRECTLY INSTALLED? HOW IS IT TESTED AND MAINTAINED? HAS IT BEEN RECORDED IN THE EQUIPMENT ALOFT REGISTERS? IF IT IS REMOVED, IS IT REINSTATED CORRECTLY? From earlier you’ll recall that a Primary securing device is the principal means of securing the item to a structure. Examples of primary security include Nuts, bolts, screws, Turnbuckles, Clamps, Brackets and Welding. Secondary Retention is a device fitted to retain the item if the primary securing arrangement fails. Examples of secondary securing devices include Wire slings, Encasement, Lock Nuts, Split pins, roll pins, spring clips, Lock Washers, tab washers, Clamp and safety chains and Lock Wire. With all these measures, it is important that the correct and best method of securement is used – there are anti-locking nuts/bolts and washers for instance or those that are pre-tensioned. It is important also that if installing improved retention systems and the like that these are risk assessed as it may be by “fixing” one problem you import another. Also consider Torque, and the need to retain torque in the bolt by means of the nut. Secondary retention is of course the locking washer. Be aware that in some instances, the split pin is being incorrectly identified as the secondary retention for the bolted connection. HI-DROPS safe handling of tools at height Best Practice in development MITIGATING CONTROLS

26 Prevention - Planning for safe material storage
At the design stage (before work commences), it is imperative to plan for the safe storage of material during scaffold erection, methods of stopping objects falling and creating an exclusion zone during scaffold erection (and when other services are using the scaffold platform)

27 Safe Zone Design for materials on a work platform
Strengthened platforms to be included in the scaffold design and scaffold plan The strengthened platforms to be highlighted on the design drawing

28 Material Storage Zone on Working Platform
Storage of materials in fixed pallets

29 Material safe zones on a work platform
Caution: during dismantling, the risk of overloading the work platform increases if dismantling speed exceeds transport speed ie removing the material from the work platform and site

30 Go Home Safe, Tools at Height

31 Summary What are you going to do about preventing Dropped Objects in your workplace Communicate, raise awareness, intervene where appropriate Reliable Securing – recognise its role List inherent hazards so others may learn Plan for the prevention of dropped objects Dropped Objects occur everywhere, be vigilant Thank you for your time and interest - Any Questions?

32 0844 335 8860
All rights, including copyright and trademarks, are expressly reserved and no part of these materials may be reproduced or distributed outside of the customer's organization in any form without our (Harsco Infrastructure Services Limited) prior written consent.

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