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Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Spring 2011 Gillian Ferguson (Dundee city council) & Sarah Watts (TVAWTC) Working with substance misusing.

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Presentation on theme: "Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Spring 2011 Gillian Ferguson (Dundee city council) & Sarah Watts (TVAWTC) Working with substance misusing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Spring 2011 Gillian Ferguson (Dundee city council) & Sarah Watts (TVAWTC) Working with substance misusing women experiencing domestic abuse – building not barriers, but bridges.

2 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Our Challenge If a substance misuse agency ignores a woman’s safety she may never get sober. If domestic violence providers ignore her drug use she may never be safe. Marai Larasi, NIA Project

3 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Learning objectives for the day: Thinking about the connection between domestic abuse and substance misuse. Exploring the additional impact upon substance misusing women of domestic abuse. Understanding the effects upon parental capacity of domestic abuse and substance misuse. Improving practice working with women with complex and multiple needs.

4 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Breaks & lunch Fire drills Loos Mobile phones Self care & time out Group agreed contract Housekeeping

5 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium The Chatham House (RIIA) Rule originated at Chatham House with the aim of providing anonymity to speakers and to encourage openness and the sharing of information: "When a meeting, or part thereof, is held under the Chatham House Rule, participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed". Chatham House,1927

6 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium ‘It’s just much easier to deal with one problem … so I think that [workers] try and put people in silos and say, “Well, we can deal with this problem and let’s hope everything else gets sorted out.’ (female drugs worker) ‘It’s difficult for them to see it and name it for what it is because they don’t feel confident or capable to, because they haven’t been trained.’ (female women’s service worker) ‘Particular refuges have not been well staffed … so have always felt that they have limited ability to cope with women with additional substance use issues. They feel they can cope with one issue, but they can’t cope with additional issues.’ (Drug Action Team worker)

7 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Exercise 1 What role do you think drugs/alcohol play in domestic abuse? In small groups, take ten minutes to discuss and flipchart what you think the role substances play in domestic abuse.

8 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Substance misuse and domestic abuse Statistics show a connection…but does that show cause and effect? - ice cream sales and drowning - recession and lipstick wearing

9 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium As an excuse: “it’s only when he drinks…” The disinhibition theory vs learned disinhibition theory Societal and individual beliefs about the links between alcohol and violence may encourage a person to drink to find courage to commit violent behaviour. Potentially violent men may drink to provide themselves with an excuse for violent behaviour. Finney (2004) Home Office findings

10 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium But also when he doesn’t drink… “The connection between domestic abuse and alcohol does not account for economic control, sexual violence, and intimidation, which are often part of a [abuser’s] ongoing pattern of abuse. This has little or no identifiable connection to his use or dependence on alcohol.” Zubretsky & Digliroamo (2007) “It’s no excuse, no excuse whatsoever cause if they do it when they’re straight as well as when they’ve had something how can they use it as an excuse?” (Helen)

11 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Some other theories of correlation Cognitive distortion (disrupting his thinking) To cope with feelings about perpetration (double bind) To cope with guilt and shame about own abuse Part of his socialised ideas of what is ‘manly’ Co-etiology of ipv & su (intensifying his motivation for personal power)

12 Understanding intimate partner violence: intimate terrorism *Disaggregated data: sex of repeat victimisation violent resistance situational couple violence 97% intimate terrorism; 56% situational 1970s Pittsburgh sample Johnson,2001

13 With the kind permission of Nel Whiting - SWA Functional v Expressive Violence Expressive violence Annoyance-motivated aggression Does not serve a specific purpose Impulsive or a release of tension? Functional violence Goal-orientated Motive-driven Controlled and controlling.

14 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Time for a tea refill!

15 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Exercise 2 ‘ No Boundaries’ scenario one clip (a – c) How might the perpetrator employ substance misuse on his own or his partner’s behalf within the domestic abuse? In your same small groups, take a few minutes to think about how substance misuse is used to support domestic abuse by Billy.

16 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium How can the perpetrator use addiction to extend his power and control? -Justifying own abuse -Enabling own abuse -Introducing or forcing use, including poly drug use - Being the primary or only supplier (and withdrawing supply) - Being the only person who mediates her use - Spending a woman’s earnings - Threats of disclosure e.g. social services, schools, family - Limiting or sabotaging access to services

17 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium How/why do women use substances? More likely to enter drug using career via intimate partner relationship (than men) To cope with the direct abuse (15x more likely to use alcohol, 9x more likely to substance misuse) To cope with the indirect abuse (prostituting to fund both dependencies) To cope with historical abuse/trauma (more likely to have experienced childhood abuse) To appease the abusive partner (“I know I’m not better than you”) and to help ‘manage’ his use.

18 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Lunch!

19 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium a.What might be the impact upon parental capacity of domestic abuse? b.What might be the impact upon parental capacity of substance misuse? c.What might the consequences be for the child of living with both? Children’s Experiences of Living With Dual Issues Exercise X – ‘No Boundaries’ scenario 4 (a – d)

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22 Key Policy Context

23 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium The three planets (Work of Marianne Hester) Domestic abuse: considered a crime (civil and criminal law); range of support violent male partner Child protection: (public law) welfare approach; state intervention in abusive families; mother seen as failing to protect Child contact: (private law); negotiated or mediated outcome; good enough father

24 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium What Do I Do If I Know My Client is Perpetrating Domestic Abuse? No excuses! Do not collude with or condone the violence. His substance use is not to blame. Highlight that as adults we are responsible for our behaviour. Give him positive feedback on disclosing. Explore how he uses his behaviour to control and manipulate his partner. Ask him what effects his violence has on his partner. Are there child protection issues? Does your organisation have a protocol for dealing with this? What work is done with perpetrators in your area? From Stella Project Toolkit.

25 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Perpetrators – Quantitative Findings Bennett 1994 – 46% of substance misusers were perpetrators, 70% of perpetrators misused substances Brown 1997 – 58% reported at least one incident of physical aggression towards partner in the last year Gondolf & Foster 1991 – 20% clinical reports, 52% self report, 82% partner report of domestic abuse

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28 Responding to Disclosure Believe her and say so. Reassure her that she was right to disclose Acknowledge her experience and accept her evaluation of the danger of her current situation Avoid saying ‘why don’t you?’ – it’s never that simple

29 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Cycle of Change (based on the work of Prochaska and Diclemente)

30 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium The Leaving Process Stage 1 – Managing the situation Stage 2 – Distortion of perception/reality Stage 3 – Defining abuse Stage 4 – Re-evaluating the relationship Stage 5 – Ending the relationship Stage 6 – Ending the violence Based on the work of Liz Kelly.

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32 Best Practice guidelines suggest: Displays of information Policy Statements Routine Screening Partnership / Liaision Review and monitoring referrals Systems and how they support safetyg Responding and understanding

33 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Contact details for substance misuse Addaction Dundee: Monday to Thursday 10am to 1pm & 2pm to 5pm. Saturday 10am to 3pm. Harm Reduction Service: / Tayside Substance Misuse Service: (TDPS and TAPS) Tayside Council on Alcohol: Social Work Drug Alcohol and BBV team: , ,

34 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Contact details for Domestic Abuse Dundee Women’s Aid – Perth & Kinross Women’s Aid – AWARE (Angus Women’s Aid) - WRASAC (Dundee & Angus) – WRASAC (Perth) – National Domestic Abuse Helpline (24 hours) Tayside police domestic abuse officers – Barnardo’s Domestic Abuse Project – , ,

35 Tayside Violence Against Women Training Consortium Thank you for your time and attention


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