Presentation on theme: "Sustaining Technological Progress in Agriculture"— Presentation transcript:
1Sustaining Technological Progress in Agriculture Cees de HaanWorld Bank
2Overview of Presentation Three key words of the title:Agriculture;Technology;DevelopmentDeliverySustainability.…. Implementation and cooperation
3Agriculture technology is important Agriculture still the engine of rural growth;Source of employment for half developing countries labor force;Agriculture is facing new productivity challengesIncreasing land and water scarcity, shifting demand (“the Livestock Revolution”, other high value products)Agriculture is facing new quality challengesTrade liberalization, urbanization and increased consumer demands,
6With an apparent low share for research Total Loan Commitments in the Research and Extension Portfolio, 2002
7Key components of agricultural growth: Improvement in the productivity of the entire food chain, by improving factor productivity, competitiveness, access to markets;Diversification of agriculture and boosting high-value products;Reduction of post-harvest losses andTailoring agenda according to the major farm typesSource: Reaching the Rural Poor
9C: Subsistence Farmers StrategyTargeting investments to poorer regions, minorities, etcStrengthening local institutions and organizations that can best support farmers with scarce resources and develop market-oriented enterprises.Facilitating participatory development of local infrastructure and technology in collaboration with NGOs.Poverty ImpactDevelopment of human and social capital necessary to address wider problems.Development of niche commodities such as organic produce that are labor intensive.Reduction of vulnerabilityEmployment generation
10B: Small Market Oriented Farmers StrategyDeveloping an efficient agricultural technology system to meet the needs of small farmers.Supporting innovative communication systems to supply relevant information on production, markets and alternative crops.Promoting small farmers’ organizations to coordinate input and marketing needs.Poverty ImpactBroad-based growth to generate income for small-scale farmers.Increased productivity to reduce food prices for non-tradables.
11A: Commercial Farmers Poverty impacts Strategy Assistance to develop and employ food and biosafety regulations and systems for quality assurance, traceability and certificationStrengthening of legal frameworks for property rights to promote private R&D and secure tenancy.Strengthening producer organizations to represent member interests and promote initiatives in the industry.Supporting development of diverse and competitive agricultural/agro-industrial innovation systems based on user-financing and private service delivery.Poverty impactsDevelopment of labor-intensive high-value systems to generate employment for the poor.Increasing productivity to reduce food prices for non-tradables
13Focus in Technology Generation Technology generation should become more holistic:Cover the entire food chain (farm to table);Greater attention to efficiency of input use (water, feed grain);Use all tools (traditional breeding and bio-technology, agro-ecological approaches, IT);Become much more client driven; andStrengthen public and private partnerships and private investments.i.e. technological progress in agriculture needs to become more pluralistic and knowledge intensive, less dependent on the “silver bullet”
14Focus in Technology Delivery Evolving concepts and approachesGreater differentiation between public, commercial and private servicesPublic services, where market failures occur (poor, NRM, organizations)Commercial and private services where markets functionPluralistic institutional arrangementsDecentralized, participatory, competitive.Experimentation with new approachesICT, mass media, etc.
15Issues in Technological Services Crowding out by the State and donors;Seed (testing, parastatals), fertilizer (subsidies), emergency aid;Poor being marginalizedEconomies of scale in food safety and qualitySustainability of investments;Financial and institutional
20Project documentation on poverty focus by sector [FY99-00, n=92 projects]
21Conclusion: Seek to increase investments in agriculture; Enhance the poverty impactPay particular attention to post-investment financing mechanisms; andDevelop pluralistic approaches to technology generation and delivery.
22RRP approach: development of sustained political support for the sector Two main thrusts:Develop national “home grown” rural strategies, involving all stakeholders, for integration in new development planning instruments (PRSP, CAS) to establish domestic power base for rural areas; andScale up areas of good practice to reach increased number of poor to convince politicians of the benefits of rural investments.
23Key Issue: How to get into the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) Poverty focused, client (country) driven, multi-sectoral, strategy papersMain input into Bank’s Country Assistance Program (CAS);Leading to fewer, programmatic, multi-sectoral lending operations.How can we ensure that the need for technological progress is adequately heard in this broader and more competitive environment
24Key issue: How do we scale-up good practices? Criteria for up-scalable good practice:Contribution to poverty reduction, cover large population, low investment per capita, suitable for partnering and programmatic lending.Key candidates: CDD, land reform, watershed development, financing mechanisms for technology generationKey issue: HOW,
25InstitutionalVertical scaling up through policy or administrative changeSocio-economic, technicalHorizontal scaling up,e.g. farmer to farmerInnovationwith impactHumanNatural resourcelocalprovincenational
26Inputs into scaling up “good practice” ElementsUnbundling the practiceEvaluating the practiceSuccesses and failuresIntroduction into the policy dialogue and priority setting; anddemand vs. supply drivenKnowledge management, including learning mechanisms.
27Key areas of cooperation Working jointly on agricultural approach paperExpanding the political foundationAssisting in development of “homegrown” rural strategies;Working jointly on institutional issues in technologySustainability, participatory priority setting;Working on scaling upEvaluation, methodologiesParticipating in project preparation.How: Short missions, Secondment, Sabaticals, Staff exchange etc,Issue for discussion: How to finance cooperation