Presentation on theme: "The need for energy Energy is required for:- the basal requirements which keep the body alive. This is known as the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) movement."— Presentation transcript:
The need for energy Energy is required for:- the basal requirements which keep the body alive. This is known as the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) movement – muscle contraction
Synthesis of enzymes and other cellular materials to allow growth and repair of body tissues. Pregnancy and lactation. Energy comes from the foods we eat: CHO, fat, protein, and is released in respiration to produce ATP.
Energy measurement The measurement of energy is the kilojoule (kJ). Traditionally, energy has been measured in calories or kilocalories (1000 calories = 1 kcal) 1 kcal = 4.18 kj Carbohydrate: 16 kJ per gram Fat: 37 kJ per gram Protein: 17 kJ per gram Alcohol: 29 kJ per gram
To find out how much energy a particular food provides, the food is burnt in a bomb calorimeter. This breaks the chemical bonds holding the atoms together resulting in the release of heat energy which can be measured Food burned completely in pure oxygen to release all available energy Used to light food in sealed chamber Used to ensure even distribution of heat to give accurate measurement of temperature changes by thermometer Chamber highly insulated to prevent heat loss
Energy Balance When the energy obtained from food equals the total amount of energy expenditure, the body is in energy balance.
When the diet provides less energy then the body needs, the fat stores are used to make up for this energy deficit and the person loses weight – a negative energy balance. Negative energy balance
Positive energy balance This is when the diet provides more energy then the body is using. Excess is stored as fat and the person gains weight.
Dietary recommendations for health A small positive energy balance over a long period of time will lead to being overweight, obese, and so increases CVD, high BP, stroke and type 2 diabetes There has been a marked increase in obesity levels in the U.K in the last 50yrs, particularly in the last 10-20 yrs.