Presentation on theme: "The Psychodynamic Approach to Explaining Abnormality"— Presentation transcript:
1The Psychodynamic Approach to Explaining Abnormality Unconscious unresolved conflicts from childhood
2By the end of this topic, you should be able to: Describe the main assumptions of the psychodynamic approach to psychologyDescribe the three parts of the mind as proposed by Freud: the id, the ego, and the superegoExplain how mental abnormality might arise from imbalances between the id, ego and superegoExplain the difference between conscious, preconscious and unconscious thoughts, feelings and memories
3Assumptions of the psychodynamic approach Much of our behaviour is driven by unconscious motivesChildhood is a critical period in developmentMental disorders arise from unresolved, unconscious conflicts originating in childhoodResolution occurs through accessing and coming to terms with repressed ideas and conflicts
4Freud’s tripartite model of personality Id: Pleasure principleSuperego: Morality principleEgo: Reality principleConscious: The part of the mind we are aware of – everyday thoughts and feelingsPreconscious: Thoughts and memories not accessible at all times, but easily recalledUnconscious: The deep dark shameful part! Repressed thoughts, memories and feelingsFreud’s tripartite model of personality
5Are we born with an ego?Id is present at birth – a newborn baby is completely selfishEgo develops by the age of three – child becomes aware that other people have feelings and that it can’t always have it’s own waySuperego appears around age five – sense of morality (conscience) passed on by parents – child internalises this
6Proof of the unconscious? ‘Freudian slips’“A Freudian slip is saying one thing and meaning your mother”
7Summary Ego too weak – allows id and superego to dominate Id too strong – selfish, out of control, could become psychopathicSuperego too strong – strict, anxious, obsessive – depression, anxiety, OCDHow might bipolar disorder be explained using this approach?
8By the end of this topic, you should be able to: Explain what defence mechanisms areDescribe at least 3 common defence mechanismsApply defence mechanisms to ‘real life’ examplesExplain how over-use of defence mechanisms might lead to mental abnormality
9Defence mechanismsThe constant disagreements between the id, the ego and the superego can lead to a lot of anxietyE.g. You want that bar of chocolate but you know you’re meant to be on a diet – you feel guilty if you have it but unsatisfied if you don’t – anxiety either way!So the mind develops various methods of defending itself – for example you tell yourself that it’s ok to eat the chocolate because it’s good for you (rationalisation)
10We all use defence mechanisms on a daily basis They are unconscious – we aren’t aware of what we’re doingBut… if we over use them they can lead to mental abnormalities – psychosis?
11My Ashley would never cheat on me… Denial: You completely reject the thought or feelingMy Ashley would never cheat on me…
12Projection: You attribute your own socially unacceptable thought or feeling to someone else I can’t believe what Vernon Kay has been up to… what a cheating liar! How could he do that to his beautiful wife?
13Suppression: You are vaguely aware of the thought or feeling, but try to hide it. Hmmm, perhaps Ashley isn’t as perfect as I thought. Can’t think about that now… got to go and buy some new shoes instead.
14Displacement: you redirect your feelings to another target It’s not my fault my marriage is over. It’s the newspapers’. And those women for selling their stories… And Cheryl’s for not being there enough… And my mum’s for not breastfeeding me. I hate them all!
15‘m Regression: You revert to an old, usually immature, behaviour I’m going home to me Mam, so she can cook me beans on toast, and stroke me hair and tell me that everything is going to be alright.
16Sublimation: You redirect the feeling into a socially productive activity e.g. art, poetry, sport I’m going to make another album, and learn how to tap dance, and take up scuba diving!
17Rationalisation: You try to justify uncomfortable thoughts or feelings with socially acceptable motivesI don’t hate women… I love them… that’s why I can’t keep it in my pants!
18Reaction formation: You turn the feeling into its opposite I’m not at all upset or humiliated. In fact, I’m the happiest I’ve ever been.
19By the end of this topic you should be able to: Describe the 5 psychosexual stages of development, including the Oedipus/Electra ComplexExplain how fixation at each stage may lead to abnormalityEvaluate the psychodynamic approach to psychopathologyDiscuss the free will vs determinism debate
20Psychosexual stagesFreud believed that children are born with a libido – a sexual (pleasure) urgeThere are a number of stages of childhood, during which the child seeks pleasure from a different ‘object’To be psychologically healthy, we must successfully complete each stageMental abnormality can occur if a stage is not completed successfully – the person becomes ‘fixated’
21The oral stage Birth to 18 months approximately The mouth is the main focus of pleasure during this stageThe child enjoys tasting and suckingSuccessful completion of this stage is demonstrated by weaning – eating independentlyOral receptive (not allowed to suck freely) – passive, needy, sensitive to rejection – overeats and drinks, bite nails, may smokeOral aggressive (allowed to suck too often/too long) – hostile and verbally abusive, sarcastic
22The anal stage 18 months to 3 years Defecation is main source of pleasureSuccessful completion marked by potty trainingAnally retentive - very tidy, stubborn, likes order and being in controlAnally expulsive - generous but disorganised , doesn’t like to follow rules
23The Oedipus complex Occurs during the phallic stage Around age 3-5 Boy wants his mother as his ‘primary love object’Wants his father out of the wayFears that his father knows this and will castrate him as punishmentIdentifies with father to stop castration anxiety
24The Electra (female Oedipus) complex A girl also desires her motherBut she realises she doesn’t have a penis like her father!Becomes hostile towards her mother because she believes her mother has castrated herDevelops attraction to father instead because she believes he can give her a baby, which will act as a penis substituteEventually resolves feelings towards mother and identifies with her – doesn’t want to lose her mother’s love
25The latency stage Age 6 to puberty approximately Sexual urges sublimated into sports and other hobbiesFocus on developing same sex friendshipsNo particular requirements for successful completionLull before the storm of puberty!
26The genital stage Puberty into adulthood Focus on genitals but not to same extent as phallic stageTask is to develop healthy adult relationshipsThis should happen if earlier stages have been negotiated successfully
27Old Age Pensioners Love Guinness! Oral stage Anal stage Phallic stage Latent stageGenital stageNow use your textbook to help you complete page 23 ofyour workbook (yellow cover)
28Little HansFreud believed that the case study of Little Hans supported his theory of psychosexual stages and the Oedipus complex in particularWork in pairs to read the information on p. 24 of your workbook, then complete p. 25 with his interpretation of Hans’ behaviour
29Evaluation of the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology InfluentialUnscientific – how can it be tested?Retrospective data – case studiesDoesn’t consider adult experiencesBlames parents!DeterministicIs it a strength or a limitation?Is there any evidence to support this point?Is there a counter- argument? How might Freud have defended himself?
30Free will vs determinism Determinism is the belief that everything – including human thought and behaviour – is predetermined by the law of nature (fate, God, evolution, etc.)Free will is the belief that we have total control over our own livesPsychodynamic theory is deterministic because it states that behaviour is controlled by the unconscious mind – something we don’t have control of
31Using this in the exam…In pairs, you have 10 minutes to write a 6 point evaluation of the psychodynamic approach to abnormalityThis means either two points well explained, perhaps with examplesOR three points brieflyexplainedWhen you have finished,swap with another pairto mark each other’sanswers