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Variety of approaches which make assumptions about the cause of abnormality  Biological – biological factors  Cognitive – thought processes underlying.

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Presentation on theme: "Variety of approaches which make assumptions about the cause of abnormality  Biological – biological factors  Cognitive – thought processes underlying."— Presentation transcript:

1 Variety of approaches which make assumptions about the cause of abnormality  Biological – biological factors  Cognitive – thought processes underlying the process  Behavioural – learning experiences are critical in understanding abnormality  Psychodynamic – early experience and unconscious processes are the key influences on behaviour (normal and abnormal)

2 abnormality the biological approach

3 To understand how the biological approach views mental disorders  NB Biological Approach is also known as the Medical Model and/or Somatic* Model  * somatic = ‘of the body’

4 When the same symptoms frequently occur together, they represent a syndrome or disorder. The cause, or ‘ aetiology ’ may be one or more of the following:  B rain injury  I nfection  N eurotransmitters  G enetics Think BING !

5 Remember Phineas Gage? Accidental Brain damage can lead to psychological disorders. After the accident, Phineas Gage was described as impulsive, disordered and having a different personality

6  A degeneration or malformation of brain cells can cause memory loss often present in Alzheimer’s disease.  Korsakoff’s syndrome occurs when drink and drugs damage part of the brain involved in memory.

7 Sometimes an infection that causes one illness can lead to a secondary illness that has psychological symptoms.

8  Syphilis bacterium causes a sexually transmitted disease known as syphilis.  It causes short-lived sores followed by general paresis - forgetfulness, mental deterioration and delusions of grandeur and persecution.  The influenza virus has been linked to schizophrenia.  Brown et al (2004)  found that 14% of schizophrenic cases may be linked to the foetus being exposed to the ‘flu virus in the womb during the first trimester.

9 Neurotransmitter Imbalance Certain neurotransmitters have been thought to contribute to many psychological disorders Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that carry information around the nervous system e.g. Dopamine, Serotonin, GABA

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11 Neurotransmitter Imbalance  One of the factors involved in schizophrenia is an excessive amount of dopamine  High levels of serotonin have been thought be involved in the manic state of bi-polar depression. Too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter can lead to psychopathology

12 Genetics  Individuals may inherit a predisposition* to certain illnesses. These are carried on genes, through DNA, which pass from one generation to the next  *PREDISPOSITION = Increased vulnerability to a particular disease based on genetic factors

13 Genetics  Every human has 46 chromosomes (DNA) divided into 23 pairs.  During reproduction, 23 chromosomes from mum and 23 chromosomes from dad are combined to make an embryo (cells before a baby)

14 Genetics  This is how we get our characteristics from both of our parents.  If a disorder is caused genetically then we would expect individuals who are closely related to be more likely to have it

15 Genetics  How do we measure this?  Concordance rate: measures how often two individuals who are closely related have the same disorder.

16 Genetics Research  Twin Studies:  Twins can be  identical (monozygotic,MZ) or  fraternal (dizygotic, DZ).  Monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical DNA

17  Studied twins where one of the pair already suffered from depression.  Assessed the co-twin and found…  46% concordance rate for depression (MZ)  20% concordance rate for depression (DZ)

18  Meta-analysis of about 40 twin studies  Found concordance rate for schizophrenia of 48% in monozygotic twins and 17% in dizygotic twins

19 Kendler, Masterson and Davis (1985)  Relatives of schizophrenics were 18 times more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than we would normally expect.

20  Techniques have shown that there are biological components. Brain scanning has improved our ability to see this.  Research shows that there can be a genetic link  Drugs can work as treatment options  When it explains things, it is scientific  No blame

21  Reductionist  Genetics don’t provide a complete explanation, e.g. diathesis-stress  Drugs won’t work for everyone  Focus of curing symptoms, not cause  Might encourage patients to be passive


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