Presentation on theme: "The Art of Interacting with others"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Art of Interacting with others CommunicationThe Art of Interacting with others
2 Why Study Communication? KnowingWhat happens when people communicate with themselves and othersUnderstandingHow that knowledge can be used to explain and interpret the process of Communication in everyday lifeDeveloping SkillsUsing this knowledge and understanding to communicate more effectively
3 What a Relief!!The art of Communication is not all natural. We can learn to communicate effectivelyAll Communication involves the creation and exchange of meanings via signs and symbolsCommunication Studies involves the business of making and understanding these signs and symbols.People seem to have a real need to read meaning into all human action.
4 What is Communication?The transfer of Information, Understanding and Emotion from one person to anotherThe interdependent process of Sending, Receiving and Understanding and responding to messages
5 Communication Is an on-going, dynamic process Actively involves the Sender and the Receiver simultaneouslyMay beVerbal: Oral/written wordNon-verbal: Gestures, drama, materials
6 Effective Communication Takes a significant amount of work and energyStems from our understanding of ourselves and othersInvolvesOur ability to listenOur verbal communication skillsOur non-verbal communication skillsOur understanding of our relationship with othersOur ability to analyse an audience, or to understand contextOur knowledge of the way to research, prepare and deliver a public speech.
7 The Communication Process: Elements SenderPerson with whom the message to be communicated originatesEncodes or gives expression to the messageMessageThought, idea or information the Sender wishes to pass on to anotherThe Message has meaning. It is this that has to be sentMediumThe medium is the method that the Sender chooses for encoding the message. This may be written or oral. These are both verbal. The Sender may also encode his message through signals, drama and other non-verbal means.The Medium is often confused with the Channel. One way to distinguish them is that the Medium must be determined before the Channel is chosen, and often, Medium determines Channel – e.g. Medium: ; Channel: InternetChannelThe Message is sent via a Channel which is the means of transporting the message from the Sender to the Receiver, e.g. post office, internet, airwaves, airmail etc.
8 The Communication Process: Elements ReceiverPerson receiving or Decoding the messageNoiseAnything that distorts a message by interfering with the communication processRadio playing in the backgroundAnother person trying to enter the conversationExamination nervesStatic on the telephone lineA slow computerFeedbackThe Receiver transmits verbal and non-verbal feedback to indicate his/her reception and understanding of the message
9 Describing the Process: A Model of Communication
10 Barriers and Facilitators You have asked your younger brother to send a message to your friends Isaiah, in Form 3, Ellice in Form 4 and Sean from the security team to attend a meeting at your home this evening. Your brother puts a notice on the bulletin board in the Form 4 classroom, in French. Only Ellice turns up for the meeting.
11 Barriers and Facilitators Give two probable reasons for the others not attendingAt which points did the communication break down?Suggest two things to ensure that everyone attended the meeting
12 Barriers and Facilitators There was a language barrier, notice was poorly located; the method of notification was faulty (his ???)When your brother selected the means of transferring the message ( his ???)He could have written in a language that all three would have understood; he could have telephoned all three; he could have spoken to each one directly.What about ?
13 Barriers and Facilitators A Barrier is ……A Facilitator is …..
14 Barriers and Facilitators Some facilitators areSelecting a language which is familiar to the receiver?
15 Barriers and Facilitators Some Barriers to Communication areSender and Receiver speak different languages?
16 Forms of Communication Cathy would like to describe her graduation ceremony to her aunt who lives in Australia. Think of two ways in which she could do thisAfter the graduation, Cathy wants to describe to her brother how some of the girls walked up to collect their certificate. What do you think she would do?
17 Forms of Communication VerbalRequires wordsMay be speech or writingConversationFace-to-faceTelephoneLetterText messageFaxMessenger/chat
18 Forms of Communication Non-VerbalRelies on elements other than speech or writingIs just as important as non-verbal communicationBody language (gestures, posture, facial expression)Use of spaceUse of objectsDressGraphics (charts, tables, diagrams)Integrating forms for specific purposes (role play, simulation)
19 FORM and CONTEXTThe specific FORM of communication is, or should be, intimately related to the CONTEXT in which it is usedOne element of our COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE is our ability to get our message across accurately
20 Contexts of Communication In order to evaluate the appropriateness or effectiveness of a communication act, we must first understand its context.Communication does not occur in a vacuum. It occurs within a CONTEXTThe circumstances of a communicative act are referred to as the CONTEXT of communication
21 Contexts of Communication You have to give a speech in each of the following situations. Consider the adjustments that you would have to make to your presentationTo a panel of interviewers where you are applying for a jobTo a group of standard two students in their assembly hallTo an oral examiner in a small examination roomTo a group of persons opposing your ideasOn national televisionOn radio
22 Contexts of Communication Who is present, or who is being addressed. What do you need to consider here?The general attitude of your audience. Why is this important?Where the communication takes place. What are the factors that should influence your communicative decisions?
23 Contexts of Communication Context may beFORMALCertain societal norms are evident and there are perceived patterns of behaviourNON-FORMAL/INFORMALIndividuals or groups are not constrained by specified ways in which communication would normally take place
24 Contexts of Communication Intrapersonal- Thinking, solving problems, imagining/imagingInterpersonal – interviews, conversations, intimate communicationSmall group – leadership meeting, brain-storming, prayer meeting
25 Contexts of Communication Organizational – business, government, official purposes, educationalAcademic – essay, research paper, doctoral thesisPublic – speeches, debatesIntercultural – communicating across social sub-group, in tourism
26 Contexts of Communication Match the scenarios with the most appropriate form of verbal communicationForm of CommunicationA. A written notice/posterB. A skitC. A written noteD. A television/radio addressE. A telephone callF. A short talk