3THE CATEGORIES OF TAWHEED CHAPTER 1 –THE CATEGORIES OF TAWHEED
4Tawheed literally means “unification” (making something one) or “asserting oneness”. In comes from the Arabic verb (wahhada) which itself means to unite, unify or consolidate.When the term Tawheed is used in reference to Allah, it means the realising and maintaining of Allah’s unity in all of man’s action which directly or indirectly relate to Him.
53 Categories of TawheedTawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah – Maintaining the Unity of Lordship2. Tawheed al – Asmaa was – Sifaat – Maintaining the Unity of Allah’s Names & Attributes3. Tawheed al – Ebaadah/ulohiyyah – Maintaining the Unity of Allah’s Worship
6Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah This category is based on the fundamental concept that:Allah alone caused all things to exist when there was nothing.Allah sustains & maintains creation without any need from it.Allah is the sole Lord of the universe and its inhabitants.` Lord` refers to a relationship of dominance and control
7Absolute ExecutorAllah is the absolute executor of actions in the universe;Provision of life and deathIncrease and decreaseOrganisation and administrationEnforcement of changes
8ٱللَّهُ خَـٰلِقُ ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ۖ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَكِيلٌ The basis for Tawheed ar – Ruboobeyah concept can be found in many Quranic verses.Allah says:ٱللَّهُ خَـٰلِقُ ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ۖ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَكِيلٌ“Allah created all things and He is the agent on which all things depend”[Surah Az Zumar 39:62]
9مَآ أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِۗ “And no calamity strikes except by Allah’s permission”[Surah At-Taghaabun 64:11]
10The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Be aware that if the whole of mankind gathered together in order to do something to help you, they would only be able to do something for you which Allah had already written for you. Likewise, if the whole of mankind gathered together to harm you, they would only be able to do something to harm you, which Allah had already written to happen to you”[At-Tirmidhee]
11Thus, what man PERCEIVES as good fortune or misfortune are events predestined by Allah as part of our trial in this life.وَلَنَبۡلُوَنَّكُم بِشَىۡءٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡخَوۡفِ وَٱلۡجُوعِ وَنَقۡصٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَمۡوَٲلِ وَٱلۡأَنفُسِ وَٱلثَّمَرَٲتِۗ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ“Surely We will test you with fear, hunger, loss of wealth and life and the fruits of your work, so give glad tidings to those who are patient”[Surah Al –Baqarah 2:155]
12It`s difficult for man to understand the reason for such incidents due to his limited scope of knowledge.وَعَسَىٰٓ أَن تَكۡرَهُواْ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَهُوَ خَيۡرٌ۬ لَّڪُمۡۖ وَعَسَىٰٓ أَن تُحِبُّواْ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ۬ لَّكُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ“Perhaps you may dislike something which is really good for you or like something bad for you, but Allah knows (what is best for you), and you do not”[Surah Al - Baqarah 2:216]
13Belief in good luck or bad luck charms (i. e Belief in good luck or bad luck charms (i.e. rabbit’s feet, lucky numbers, wishbones, zodiacal signs, etc) and bad luck omens (i.e. Friday the thirteenth, breaking mirrors, black cats, etc) is a grave form of Shirk (association of partners with Allah) in this form of Tawheed.As for using the Quran like a charm or amulet by wearing/carrying Quranic verses on chains/in pouches to ward off evil or to bring good fortune, is not permissible and similar to paganistic customs.
14Neither the Prophet (pbuh) nor his companions used the Quran in this manner. The Prophet (pbuh) has also said:“Whoever innovates in Islam something which does not belong to it will have it rejected”[Al Bukhari]Quranic chapters, an –Naas and al –Falaq were revealed specifically for removing bad spells, and being away from evil forces but must be used in accordance to the method that the Prophet (pbuh) has demonstrated.
152. Tawheed al – Asmaa was –Sifaat This category of Tawheed has five main aspects:Maintaining the Unity of Allah’s names & attributesAllah must be referred according to how He and His Prophet (pbuh) have described Him.
16ExampleAllah says in the Quran, He gets angry with disbelievers and hypocrites:وَيُعَذِّبَ ٱلۡمُنَـٰفِقِينَ وَٱلۡمُنَـٰفِقَـٰتِ وَٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ وَٱلۡمُشۡرِكَـٰتِ ٱلظَّآنِّينَ بِٱللَّهِ ظَنَّ ٱلسَّوۡءِۚ عَلَيۡہِمۡ دَآٮِٕرَةُ ٱلسَّوۡءِۖ وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَعَنَهُمۡ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَهَنَّمَۖ وَسَآءَتۡ مَصِيرً۬ا“That He may punish hypocrites, men and women, and the pagans men and women, who have an evil opinion of Allah. A circle of evil is around them; Allah is angry with them, curses them and has prepared for them an evil end”[Surah Al-Fath 48:6]
17Thus, anger is one of Allah’s attributes Thus, anger is one of Allah’s attributes. However His anger is not like human anger, since anger is a sign of weakness in humans and not befitting to Allah who is free from all human deficiencies. Also based on Allah’s statement “There is nothing like him” [Surah Ash- Shooraa 42:11].The similarity between Allah’s attributes and those of mankind is only by name and not by degree.
182. Referring to Allah as He has referred to Himself without giving Him new names or attributes. ExampleAllah may not be given the name al-Ghaadib (the Angry one), in spite of the fact He has said He gets angry because neither Allah or His Messenger used this name.This must be maintained in order to prevent false descriptions of Allah.
19IstiwaaThe sitting (istiwaa) is known, the manner is unknown, believing in it is an obligation, inquiring about it is heresyAllah is a constant , absolute reality, incorporating all attributes of perfection dissimilar from all other existing thing or being99 names- `Alaah has ninety-names whoever counts them will enter paradise. Allah is witr and loves witr`-there are more than 99 names.
20ShirkTashbeeh –making likeness unto Allah- Jesus and Uzair being sons of GodTahreef- false interpretation or changing the wordings of names-hands, anger, pleasureTa`teel- negating divine attributes/perfection of Allah
213. Allah is referred to without giving Him the attributes of His Creation. ExampleIt is claimed in the Bible and Old Testament that God spent the first six days creating the universe and rested on the seventh (Genesis 2:2). Also in Exodus he rested and was refreshed 31;17. Maybe for this reason Jews and Christians take either Saturday or Sunday as a day of rest in which work is looked at as a sin.Such claim assigns to God the attributes of His creation. Allah says in the Quran: “No tiredness overcomes Him nor sleep” [Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]. It is man who gets tired after heavy work and needs sleep to recover.
22لَيۡسَ كَمِثۡلِهِۦ شَىۡءٌ۬ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡبَصِيرُ Another example is in the Bible and Old Testament, where God is portrayed as repenting for His bad thoughts in the same way as humans “And the Lord repented of the evil which he thought to do to his people” Exodus 32:14.What man knows about the Creator is only what little He has revealed to him through His Prophets. Hence, man is obliged to stay within these narrow limits and follow the key principle when dealing with Allah’s attributes:لَيۡسَ كَمِثۡلِهِۦ شَىۡءٌ۬ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡبَصِيرُ“There is nothing like Him and He is the hearer and seer of all”[Surah Ash – Shooraa 42:11]
234. The attributes of Allah should not be given to man ExampleSome Shi’ite sects have given their “Imaams” divine attributes of absolute infallibility (incapable of making errors), knowledge of the past, the future and the unseen, the ability to change destiny and control over the atoms of creation.In doing so, they have set up rivals who share God’s unique attributes and who then become gods besides Allah.
245. Allah’s names in the definite form cannot be given to His creation This is unless it is preceded by the prefix ‘Abdur’ meaning “slave/servant of”. Such as, ‘Abdur-Ra’oof or ‘Abdur-Raheem, as the definite form represents a level of perfection belonging only to Allah.Similarly names like ‘Abdur-Rasool’ (slave of the Messenger) and ‘Abdul Husayn’ (salve of Husayn) where people name themselves slaves to other than Allah are also forbidden.Furthermore, the Prophet (pbuh) forbade Muslims from referring to those put under their control as Abdee (my slave) and Amatee (my slave girl).
25Creator and Creation Creates Ever existing Immortal Does not sleep, gets tired or needs to be refreshedDoes not eat, drink or procreateNo parents/ childrenDoes not createCame into existence by the creatorMortalSleeps , gets tired and feels refreshedEats , drinks and procreateParents/ children
26Independent Not in need of anything Oxygen, food, nutritions No needs like human beingsIndivisible-Not divided into components/parts- trinityNot inter-dependentIn need of various thingsfood, sleep, rest, oxygen, nutritions, companionDepends on others for survivalDepends on others to provide needsDepends on Allah- cause to laugh, cry, feels satisfy, love
27InvisibleAllah cannot be seen-` no man hath seen God at anytime `(John 1;18)- unlike this staement- `and Jacob called the name of the place Pe-ni`el: for I have seen God face to face.`Genesis 32;30No man has ever seen God and would never see Him in this physical worldClaims of the same means lying against God
28Can God do anything possible? Yes according to the Bible but not according Islam `with men this is impossible but with God all things are possible` Matthew 19;26` And Jesus looking upon them saith, with men it is impossible but not with God: for with God all things are possible.` Mark 10;27There is no ayah in the Qu`ran that categorically states that Allah can do everything/anything possible. So this is not from Islam.
29Wisdom behind the right understanding This is indeed wisdom from Allah.Is it possible for man to procreate? YesIs it possible for God to do the same? NoIs it possible for you and I to have children? YesIs it possible for God to have children? NoIs it possible for you and I to lie to be be unjust? yesIs it possible for God to lie or to be unjust? No
30Wisdom Is it possible for God to sleep? No But its possible for man to sleep.Is it possible for man to do nonsense? YesIs it possible for God to do the same? NoIs it possible for to forget? NoBut it is possible for man to be forgetful.
313. Tawheed al – EbaadahThis category is the most important aspect of Tawheed. All forms of worship must be directed only to Allah, because He alone deserves worship and He alone who can grant benefit to man as a result of his worship.
32وَمَا يُؤۡمِنُ أَڪۡثَرُهُم بِٱللَّهِ إِلَّا وَهُم مُّشۡرِكُونَ The mushrikoon (idolaters) of the Prophet’s time confirmed many aspects of the first two forms of Tawheed but not the third:وَمَا يُؤۡمِنُ أَڪۡثَرُهُم بِٱللَّهِ إِلَّا وَهُم مُّشۡرِكُونَ“Most of them do not believe in Allah except while joining partners with him”[Surah Yusuf 12:106]In spite of the Makkans confession of Tawheed and their knowledge of Allah, Allah classified them as disbelievers (kuffar) and pagans (mushrikoon) simply because they worshipped other gods along with their worship of Allah.
33وَمَا خَلَقۡتُ ٱلۡجِنَّ وَٱلۡإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعۡبُدُونِ Allah should be worshipped alone as this is the main purpose of man’s creation and the essence of the message brought by all the Prophets. Allah says:وَمَا خَلَقۡتُ ٱلۡجِنَّ وَٱلۡإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعۡبُدُونِ“I did not create the Jinn and Mankind except for My worship”[Surah Adh-Dhaariyaat 51:56]وَلَقَدۡ بَعَثۡنَا فِى ڪُلِّ أُمَّةٍ۬ رَّسُولاً أَنِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱجۡتَنِبُواْ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَۖ“Verily, We have sent to every nation a messenger (saying) ‘Worship Allah and avoid false gods’ ”[Surah An-Nahl 16:36]
34Understanding the purpose of creation in a complete sense is beyond man’s innate abilities. Hence, Allah made it a part of man’s nature to worship Him and He sent Prophets and books of divine revelation to clarify the aspect of the purpose of creation by which is within man’s mental ability to grasp.In Surah al-Faathihah, which every Muslim is required to recite in his/her prayers at least seventeen times a day, verse four reads “You alone to we worship and from You alone do we seek help”. A clear statement that all forms of worship should be directed to Allah the only One who can respond.
35There is no need for any form of intercessor or intermediary between man and Allah. Allah has emphasised in many verses in the Quran His closeness to man:وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ وَنَعۡلَمُ مَا تُوَسۡوِسُ بِهِۦ نَفۡسُهُ ۥۖ وَنَحۡنُ أَقۡرَبُ إِلَيۡهِ مِنۡ حَبۡلِ ٱلۡوَرِيدِ“It is We who created man and We know what his soul whispers to him, for We are nearer to him than his jugular vein”[Surah Qaaf 50:16]Furthermore, Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) said:“If you ask in prayer ask only from Allah, and if you seek help, seek it only from Allah”[At – Tirmidhee]
36Worship? Means obedience Subservience Submission Complete love with complete submissionInward and outward expression which entails-love, fear, hope, supplication, reliance, directed sincerely and purely to Allah
37“Do not worship besides Allah that which cannot help or harm you” If someone prays to the dead seeking influence on the lives of the living or souls of those who have passed away, then they have associated partners with Allah. This is because worship is being shared between Allah and His creation. This is a grave sin known as Shirk. Allah says:أَفَتَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنفَعُڪُمۡ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَضُرُّكُمۡ“Do not worship besides Allah that which cannot help or harm you”[Surah Al Anbiyaa 21:66]
38Shirk also includes praying to the Prophet (pbuh), to so called saints, jinns or angels. Some Catholics mistakenly believe their priests are closer to Allah due to their piety and use them as intermediaries and thus listened to more by Allah.Some Shi’ite sects have devoted certain days of the week and hours of the day for prayer to Ali, Faatimah, Hasan and Husayn due to their distorted belief in intercession.
39Worship (Ebaadah) in the Islamic view, includes more then just Fasting, paying Zakah and Hajj. We should also love, trust and fear Allah.وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَندَادً۬ا يُحِبُّونَہُمۡ كَحُبِّ ٱللَّهِۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَشَدُّ حُبًّ۬ا لِّلَّهِۗ“There are among men those who take (for worship) others besides Allah as equals to Him. They love them as they should only love Allah. But those who believe have a much greater love of Allah”[Surah Al-Baqarah 2:165]According to Islam, for Tawheed to be considered as complete, there needs to be firm belief in all 3 categories.