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Modified over 2 years ago
© AS Feb-12
Electrons are arranged in electrons shells (energy levels). The shells have sub-shells (sub-levels). Each shell/sub-shell is made up of electron orbitals which can each hold 2 electrons. Shells, sub-shells & orbitals © AS Feb-12
Each sub-level consists of electron orbitals (region of space in which the electron spends most of its time). Each orbital can hold 2 electrons with opposite spins (one electron spins clockwise and one anticlockwise). Orbitals are regions of space that electrons are most likely to be in. Orbitals © AS Feb-12
s orbitalp orbital © AS Feb-12
The Orbitron © AS Feb-12
Orbitals Sub- level Number of orbitals in sub-level Shape (no need to learn) Maximum number of electrons in sub-level s12 p36 d510 f7Even more complicated!14 © AS Feb-12
Electrons enter the lowest energy orbital available. Aufbau Principle © AS Feb-12
Electrons prefer to occupy orbitals on their own, and only pair up when no empty orbitals of the same energy are available. Hund’s Rule © AS Feb-12
e.g. silicon 14 e - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2
e.g. calcium 20 e - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 © AS Feb-12
The highest energy electrons are lost when an ion is formed. Note that 4s electrons are lost before 3d (as once 4s and 3d are occupied, 4s moves above 3d). Ions © AS Feb-12
e.g. Ca e - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 © AS Feb-12
Cu and Cr do not have the expected electron structure. Cr =1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 5 NOT1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 4 Cu =1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 10 NOT1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 9 Cu & Cr © AS Feb-12
Evidence for how the electrons are arranged in atoms comes from ionisation energies. 1st ionisation energy = energy required to remove one electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms producing one mole of 1+ gaseous ions. Note that 2nd ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the second electron (not both electrons). e.g.1st IE of Na: Na(g) → Na + (g) + e – 2nd IE of Na: Na + (g) → Na 2+ (g) + e Ionisation Energy © AS Feb-12
Ionisation Energy © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (down group) © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (down group) Atoms get bigger More shielding Therefore weaker attraction from nucleus to electron in outer shell © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (across period)
General trend Increased nuclear charge (i.e. more protons) Atoms get smaller Therefore stronger attraction from nucleus to electron in outer shell © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (across period) Group 2 → 3 Electron lost from Group 3 element is from p orbital, while that lost from Group 2 element is from s orbital. p orbital is higher energy than s orbital, so easier to lose electron. © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (across period) Group 5 → 6 Group 6 element loses electron from orbital with 2 electrons (p 4 ). Group 5 element loses electron from orbital with 1 electron (p 3 ). Extra electron-electron repulsions make it easier to lose electron from p 4 than p 3. © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy © AS Feb-12
Successive ionisation energies (K) © AS Feb-12
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