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© AS Feb-12
Electrons are arranged in electrons shells (energy levels). The shells have sub-shells (sub-levels). Each shell/sub-shell is made up of electron orbitals which can each hold 2 electrons. Shells, sub-shells & orbitals © AS Feb-12
Each sub-level consists of electron orbitals (region of space in which the electron spends most of its time). Each orbital can hold 2 electrons with opposite spins (one electron spins clockwise and one anticlockwise). Orbitals are regions of space that electrons are most likely to be in. Orbitals © AS Feb-12
s orbitalp orbital © AS Feb-12
The Orbitron © AS Feb-12
Orbitals Sub- level Number of orbitals in sub-level Shape (no need to learn) Maximum number of electrons in sub-level s12 p36 d510 f7Even more complicated!14 © AS Feb-12
Electrons enter the lowest energy orbital available. Aufbau Principle © AS Feb-12
Electrons prefer to occupy orbitals on their own, and only pair up when no empty orbitals of the same energy are available. Hund’s Rule © AS Feb-12
e.g. silicon 14 e - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2
e.g. calcium 20 e - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 © AS Feb-12
The highest energy electrons are lost when an ion is formed. Note that 4s electrons are lost before 3d (as once 4s and 3d are occupied, 4s moves above 3d). Ions © AS Feb-12
e.g. Ca e - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 © AS Feb-12
Cu and Cr do not have the expected electron structure. Cr =1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 5 NOT1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 4 Cu =1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 10 NOT1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 9 Cu & Cr © AS Feb-12
Evidence for how the electrons are arranged in atoms comes from ionisation energies. 1st ionisation energy = energy required to remove one electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms producing one mole of 1+ gaseous ions. Note that 2nd ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the second electron (not both electrons). e.g.1st IE of Na: Na(g) → Na + (g) + e – 2nd IE of Na: Na + (g) → Na 2+ (g) + e Ionisation Energy © AS Feb-12
Ionisation Energy © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (down group) © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (down group) Atoms get bigger More shielding Therefore weaker attraction from nucleus to electron in outer shell © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (across period)
General trend Increased nuclear charge (i.e. more protons) Atoms get smaller Therefore stronger attraction from nucleus to electron in outer shell © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (across period) Group 2 → 3 Electron lost from Group 3 element is from p orbital, while that lost from Group 2 element is from s orbital. p orbital is higher energy than s orbital, so easier to lose electron. © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy (across period) Group 5 → 6 Group 6 element loses electron from orbital with 2 electrons (p 4 ). Group 5 element loses electron from orbital with 1 electron (p 3 ). Extra electron-electron repulsions make it easier to lose electron from p 4 than p 3. © AS Feb-12
1st ionisation energy © AS Feb-12
Successive ionisation energies (K) © AS Feb-12
© AS Jun Electrons are arranged in electrons shells (energy levels). The shells have sub-shells (sub-levels). Each shell/sub-shell.
Atomic Structure Ionisation Energies. Ionisation Energy The first ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove completely one mole.
Ionisation energy. Definitions The first ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the first (or outermost) electron from each atom in a mole.
1 of 39© Boardworks Ltd of 39© Boardworks Ltd 2009.
Title: Lesson 7 Successive and First Ionisation Energies Learning Objectives: Understand why different elements have different ionisation energies Know.
Chapter 3: Electrons in atoms. Learning outcomes: Energy levels and shapes of orbitals Electronic configurations Ionisation energy, trends across.
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Atomic Structure HL only 12.1 Electron configuration The first ionisation energy is defined as the amount of energy required to remove one mole of electrons.
Learning Objectives: Define first ionisation energy and successive ionisation energy. Explain the factors that influence ionisation energies. Predict the.
Periodic Trends. Atomic Radius Atomic Radius is defined as half the distance between the center of 2 atoms of the same element just touching each other.
_______ ___ ___ _____ __ ___ ____ ___ _______ ____ ___ _____ ___ ___ __ _________ __ __ __ _________ ____ __________ _________ __ ______ ________ _______.
Title: Lesson 5 Drawing Electron Configurations Learning Objectives: Know how to write full electron configurations using ideas of subshells Understand.
Atomic structure Greeks Rutherford GCSE ATOM: Electrons in shells Ionisation Energy: Experimental evidence A level Atom and the existence of orbitals.
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Trends in the periodic table. Atomic radius Atomic radii trends and explanations Atomic radius decreases across a period because each successive element.
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ATOMIC NUMBER 1st IONISATION ENERGY / kJmol -1 Variation in 1st Ionisation Energy EXPLANATION Despite having a nuclear charge of only 1+, Hydrogen has.
Periodic Properties of Elements Chapter 7 part I.
IONISATION ENERGY. WHAT IS IONISATION ENERGY? Ionisation Energy is a measure of the amount of energy needed to remove electrons from atoms. As electrons.
Electronic Configuration Ochran THE BOHR MODEL OF THE ATOM A small nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons in shells each shell.
Atomic Structure Composition of an atom Atoms are made up of 3 fundamental subatomic particles: Relative mass Relative electric charge Position in atom.
Trends in the Periodic Table (Chpt. 7). 1. Atomic radius (size) 2. Ionization energy 3. Electronegativity The three properties of elements whose changes.
Section 11.3 Atomic Orbitals 1.To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals 2.To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical model.
Periodic Trends State and explain the following trends: the answers.
Atomic Structure. Simple model of an atom An atom is made of a tiny nucleus with electrons orbiting around it. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons.
Learning Outcomes Atomic radii (covalent radii only). Explanations for general trends in values: (i) down a group (ii) across a period (covalent radii.
1 Atomic Orbitals & Electron Configurations Chemistry.
Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. 2 Many scientists contributed to the development of the quantum mechanical model of the atom. –Bohr –Planck –DeBroglie.
AIM: DETERMINING IONIZATION ENERGY AND ELECTRONEGATIVITY OF ELEMENTS DO NOW: 1. LIST IN ORDER OF INCREASING ATOMIC RADII: MAGNESIUM, SILICON, BARIUM, BROMINE.
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Lesson objectives Define first ionisation energy and successive ionisation energy. Explain the factors that influence ionisation energies. Predict the.
Periodic Trends Periodic Table is arranged by: – Atomic number – Groups Verticle column of the periodic table Elements in the same group have similar physical.
Periodic Table Trends. Atomic Radius As you move down a group, atomic radius increases The number of energy levels increases as you move down a group.
Chemistry Chapter 6/7 Notes #3. Periodic Trends Many elemental properties change in a predictable way (trend) as you move across the periodic table in.
Periodic Trends. Predicting Periodic Trends A number of physical and chemical properties of elements can be predicted from their position in the periodic.
IONISATION ENERGY CONTENTS What is Ionisation Energy? Definition of 1st Ionisation Energy What affects Ionisation Energy? General variation across periods.
Atomic Structure & Periodicity. Electromagnetic Radiation.
IONISATION ENERGY OBJECTIVES: To define the term ‘ionisation energy’ To describe and explain the trends in ionisation energy across period 3 and down group.
Section 5.3 – Electron Configuration and Periodic Properties.
Periodic Trends Section 6.3 Objectives: AOD C.3.1 Define atomic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity, and energy levels. AOD C.3.2 Recognize periodic.
Periodic Trends. Describe factors that affect electron position around a nucleus. Include: nuclear charge, distance, shielding. Explain periodic trends.
Ionisation Energy. Definition of the first ionisation energy The energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to form.
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