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The University of Nottingham The Rise of Parliament? Philip Cowley.

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1 The University of Nottingham The Rise of Parliament? Philip Cowley

2 The University of Nottingham How to get it wrong The Executive in Britain is now more powerful in relation to Parliament than it has been probably since the time of Walpole… The whips have enforced party discipline more forcefully and fully than they did in the past.

3 The University of Nottingham The House of Commons… had [1995] yet to adopt that posture of slavishness and ineffectuality that now characterises it. - Simon Heffer (2005) Labour backbenchers — the most supine Members of Parliament in British history — must decide where their loyalty lies. – Roy Hattersley (2005) How to get it wrong II

4 The University of Nottingham The rise of the Lords Effectively dead in 1950s More than 400 defeats since 1999 Russell and Scaria: 40% stick Forget Tony’s cronies Hung (28%) – and will stay so (until election)

5 The University of Nottingham Lords, then and now

6 The University of Nottingham MPs now more likely… to come from their constituency to live in their constituencies to have staffed offices in their constituency to spend time in the constituency to receive mail (and s) to be writing to their constituents

7 The University of Nottingham …and more likely to defy the whip A majority of 60+, but four defeats Free votes and other retreats Rebellions runs at 27% in first session Other victories by single figures Other victories thanks to Conservative support

8 The University of Nottingham Commons, then and now

9 The University of Nottingham % rate of rebellion, first sessions

10 The University of Nottingham BillStage/Issue Number of Labour MPs to vote against whip Education and Inspections Bill Report (ballot of parents) 69 Education and Inspections Bill Report (selection by aptitude) 61 Education and Inspections Bill Second Reading 52 Terrorism Bill Report (28 days) 51 Terrorism Bill Report (90 days) 49 Education and Inspections Bill Third Reading 46 Terrorism Bill CWH (intent) 34 Education and Inspections Bill Report (admissions administrator) 34 Education and Inspections Bill Programme 30 Terrorism Bill CWH (glorification of terrorism) 27 Racial and Religious Hatred Bill LA (threatening words or behaviour) 26 Identity Cards Bill Third Reading 25 Education and Inspections Bill Report (governing bodies) 25 Identity Cards Bill Report (passport applications) 23 Identity Cards Bill Programme 22 Racial and Religious Hatred Bill LA (intention only) 21 Identity Cards Bill Second Reading 20 Identity Cards Bill LA (passport applications) 20

11 The University of Nottingham % rate of rebellion, whole parliament

12 The University of Nottingham Still there, for example, are 56 of those who voted against the Government’s last Prevention of Terrorism Bill, introduced just before the 2005 election, and easily enough to defeat the Government should they mishandle similar legislation now, even after the recent terrorist attacks. Getting it right…

13 The University of Nottingham Name of MP No. of times voted against the whip McDonnell, John54 Corbyn, Jeremy51 Jones, Lynne38 Wareing, Bob37 Simpson, Alan36 Short, Clare34 Fisher, Mark33 Hopkins, Kelvin33 Marshall-Andrews, Bob31 Jackson, Glenda30 Hoey, Kate29 Gibson, Ian23 Flynn, Paul21 Riordan, Linda*21 Abbott, Diane19 Taylor, David19 Clark, Katy*18 Wood, Mike18 Prentice, Gordon17 Dunwoody, Gwyneth15 Clapham, Michael15 Skinner, Dennis15 Grogan, John14

14 The University of Nottingham Then and now

15 The University of Nottingham Ban on public licensed premises Ban to include private clubs AyeNoAyeNo N%N%N%N% Labour Conservative LD PC DUP SDLP UUP Others Total

16 The University of Nottingham AyeNo Lab27552 Con1760 LD063 DUP80 SDLP10 Others Education and Inspections Bill

17 The University of Nottingham AyeNo Lab27552 Con0176 LD063 DUP80 SDLP10 Others Education and Inspections Bill

18 The University of Nottingham AyeNo Lab27552 Con0176 LD063 DUP08 SDLP10 Others Education and Inspections Bill

19 The University of Nottingham A change of leader? A honeymoon period (Callaghan, Major) But… (Callaghan, Major) Policy direction Policy narrative Policy formulation and inclusion

20 The University of Nottingham

21 Who represented not their country but themselves, and always kept together in a close and undivided phalanx, impenetrable either by shame or honour, voting always the same way, and saying always the same things, as if they were no longer voluntary agents but so many engines merely turned about by a mechanic motion, like an organ where the great humming basses as well as the little squeaking trebles are filled but with one blast of wind from the same sound board?

22 The University of Nottingham Who represented not their country but themselves, and always kept together in a close and undivided phalanx, impenetrable either by shame or honour, voting always the same way, and saying always the same things, as if they were no longer voluntary agents but so many engines merely turned about by a mechanic motion, like an organ where the great humming basses as well as the little squeaking trebles are filled but with one blast of wind from the same sound board?


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