Presentation on theme: "Historical Studies in Physical Education and Sport"— Presentation transcript:
1Historical Studies in Physical Education and Sport Our times and our attitudes, our games and our sports are shaped by the past.The Development of Popular Recreation in the U.KPopular recreation focuses on the pre-industrial sports and pastimesparticularly of the lower class. Pre industrial (before 1800) popular recreation reflected the society life and time in which it existed.Recreational activities were colourful and lively and supported by a strict class system.Real tennis – AristocracyMob football – PeasantsCock fighting – Mix of the above
2Popular Recreation continued…………. The 1800’s ‘drinking house’ was central to village life; the focus for leisure activities (barbaric or not) for the community. Examples of activities include:Badger baiting - Billiards - SkittlesDog fighting - QuoitsPrize fighting - BowlsThe landlord was the promoter of ‘sports’, responsibilities included:Arranging the matchesProviding prize moneyBook keepingFor example: Hambledon Cricket ClubBat and Ball InnHampshire
3Popular Recreation More examples………… Country Pursuits (field sports) HuntingCoursing (chasing hares by trained dogs for wager)ShootingHunting grew from the search for food and developed into a status symbol for landowners. Game Laws ensured the sole right to kill game only to the upper class (causing lasting hostility in rural areas).Militaristic Combat activities- Archery- Sparring (early from of boxing)FencingGrew from the need to defend and attack. The functional role of the activities (listed above) was removed with the availability of guns did these skills develop into recreational and competitive sports in their own right.
4Characteristics and Cultural Factors of Popular Recreation The unsophisticated (even uncivilised) sports and pastimes of common people were occasional rather than regular:WHY?Peasants had little free time for sports and pastimesSome sports developed from the occupation of participants e.g. competitive rowing, which grew from work of ferrymen taking passengers across the River Thames.Key Feature of most Popular Recreation was wagering or betting o the outcome
5Characteristics of Popular Recreation (and cultural factors that influenced their development) Natural/simple: Lack of technology, purpose built facilities and money for the masses.Local: Limited transport and communicationsSimple unwritten rules: Illiteracy, no national governing bodies, only played locallyCruel/violent: Reflecting the harshness of eighteenth-century rural lifeOccasional: Free time for recreationCourtly/popular: Pre-industrial Britain was predominantly a two-class societyRural: Before the Industrial Revolution, Britain was agricultural and ruralOccupational: Work often became the basis of playWagering: A chance to go from rags to riches
6The Development of Sports Festivals Introduction Sports Festivals are examples of community activities developed over the yearsWide range of popular sports & games prior to modern sports were the foundation for today’s rationalised athleticsExamples – Hiring Fairs and Village WakesWakes originated from the time of paganism and were a great social occasionFairs were opportunities for men to test their strength and virility and included all kinds of excess e.g. drinking, blood sports and promiscuity
7The Development of Sports Festivals Pedestrianism Obvious forerunner to AthleticsSeen as enhancement for gentlemen’s social statusSome races attracting purses of up to 1000 guineas for athletes of all backgroundsPioneered by Scottish landowner, Robert Barclay Allardice1809 – Crowd of c.10,000 for 1000 miles walk in 1000 consecutive hoursGambling became central to PedestrianismPeople in poverty could wager their way to survivalTrickery included – Professional athletes using false names and race fixing
8The Development of Sports Festivals Task:What traditional festivals exist in your area today and what do they involve?
9Popular Recreation - Bathing As well as natural playground, rivers provided:A ready supply of foodA means of transportPlace to washWith work, play and the river so inter-related, learning to swim for safety also become a necessity.Link: bathing, recreation, survival and healthThe English aristocracy of the Middle Ages considered the ability to swim as part of their chivalric code.Chivalric code = gentlemanly behaviour associated with the nobility or aristocracy.
10Popular Recreation - Bathing continued……. Aristocrats would sometimes sponsor outstanding lower class swimmers to represent them in wager races (link; popular recreation characteristic – wagering).Key EventCharles II established a series of fashionable swimming contests on the Thames and the 1st open air swimming bath was built in London 1784.
11Popular Recreation - Rowing Rowing: Functional activity for warfare, fishing and travelIn the days when there were few bridges across the River Thames ferrymen were in demand. The wealthy employed watermen.Watermen: men who earned their living on or about boats.Key Qu: To what extent does early rowing fit with the characteristics of popular recreation?It was neither cruel nor violent, did not lack rules and was not unorganised. However, it was of local importance and it is perhaps the best example of an occupation that became a recreation.
12Games in Popular Recreation - Cricket Social classes played together reflecting the feudal/class structure of the village.Patrons (similar to modern day sponsor or agent) employed estate workers as gardeners and gamekeepers primarily for their cricketing talents. Early clubs emerged from these rural village sides.There are three main aspects of the story of early cricketThe Bat and Ball InnA pub in Hambledon, nicknamed ‘the cradle’ of cricket as it was where the game was encouraged and developed from Large crowds of up to 2,000 spectators watched and wagered on the outcome of matches.
13Games in Popular Recreation – Cricket continued………… 2. Martlebone Cricket ClubGentlemen who developed the laws of cricket in 1774 formed the While Conduit Club, which became Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in The rise of MCC forced the decline of Hambledon. Players were now employed by MCC as coaches and players. MCC became the main club in England and took on the role of the governing body.3. The William Clarke XI (professional touring side, attracting huge crowds taking on teams of 22 opponents)William Clarke developed cricket from a fragmented localised sport to a national success.
14Games in Popular Recreation – Cricket continued……………. Cricket was a popular recreation because: it attracted widespread wagering played by both ale and female predominantly rural associated with feasts and festival days. Rules could be locally adapted.On the other hand:It was predominantly non-violentIt had an early rule structureNational touring sides from 1840’s* Task: you should assess the extent to when early cricket fits the accepted model of popular recreation.
15Games in Popular Recreation - Real Tennis Real (or royal tennis) originated in France became popular in Britain in the 1400’s.An exclusive game for kings, nobles and merchants who played on purpose built highly sophisticated courts (varied in size and shape). The game had complex rules and required high levels of skill. Those not eligible to play real tennis would copy their social superiors and play their own versions (tennis, fives, racquets) against church or pub walls.RacquetsOriginated in Fleet Prison, London and ended up being played by upper-class public school and university students. Prison inmates were not hardened criminals but debtors and often gentlemen of high social standings so they were allowed to exercise in the prison yard.
16Games in Popular Recreation – Mob Football Mob Football e.g. Ashbourne GameA variety of games involving kicking and throwing a ball were regular features of English pre-industrial society. Mob football recognised as little more than massive brawls involving brute force between hoards of young men.Throughout history kings, government and local authorities have frowned on mob games because they caused:Damage to propertyInjury to young men/making them unfit for army trainingDisrespect for to SabbathSocial unrest (riots)Shove Tuesday became a traditional day for mob games, seen as an opportunity for fun and excitement before the seriousness of Lent.Task: If you were watching an ancient Shrove Tuesday game of mob football, what characteristics of the game would you expect to see?
17Mob Football Continued…………. Mob Games can be recognised by their lack of:Set rules Set Pitch Specific boundariesSet position Ref/Umpire RegularitySkilfulness (lack of skill mainly displays of force + violence)Task: How did mob football reflect pre-industrial Britain?
1819th Century Public School Developments of Athleticism Public Schools – controlled by a group of trustees and not privately ownedCharacteristics of 19th Century Public SchoolsBoarding – Time available increasingly spent on gamesExpanding – As numbers increased, houses were formedNon-local – Regional games adopted and adapted by individual schoolsSpartan – Harsh treatment and living conditions prepared boys for rigorous competitionControlled by Trustees – Influential people investing in and promoting the school towards sporting success
1919th Century Public School Developments of Athleticism Endowed – Well endowed schools in receipt of money or property for improved facilities and coaching professionalsFee-paying – Influential pupils contributing towards facilities developmentGentry – Influential families bringing money and influenceBoys – Great energy and enthusiasm channelled into games
2019th Century Public School Developments of Athleticism Task:Make the comparisons between the characteristics of Boys Boarding Schools in the modern institution?
21Technical and Social Developments Stage 1 – Bullying and Brutality 1790-1828 At this time: English society contrasted the high culture (regency period) with the low culture (blood sports and bare knuckle fighting). Both ends of the spectrum were mirrored in the public schools. A time of ‘boy culture’ phases of chaos if things didn’t go their way.All recreational activities were organised by the boys for pure enjoyment and to relieve the boredom of academic work. However with increasing numbers of upper-class boys enrolling from a variety of different preparatory schools, bringing with them customs and recreations from all over the country.These different customs and traditions mixed and moulded into schoolboy games and future traditions. Games ad sports was seen as a medium for social control, instilling order, stability and good behaviour through sportsmanship. However, this was not always the case, there was no master involvement outside the classroom.
22Technical and Social Developments Stage 1 – Bullying and Brutality 1790-1828 continued…………. This era was one of ‘institutionalised’ poplar recreation and activities ranging from childlike to barbaric. Hoops and marbles took place alongside bare knuckle fights and mob football. Eton and Charterhouse were birthplaces of unique and ferocious mob football games.Cricket, the rural game already organised and played by both classes in society was immediately adopted by the schools because of it’s inclusion ethic.
23Technical and Social Developments Stage Two (1828 – 1842) Dr Thomas Arnold and social controlA Time of change, both in society (reform and social control) and at large and in the English public schools.- Parliament and criminal laws were changing (e.g banning cruelty to animals)- Transport and communication improvingWith life and society becoming more orderly, the freedom and wild escapades of Stage 1 became more and more out of place.
24Dr Thomas Arnold (Head of Rugby School from 1828 – 1842) Regarded as a man who reformed the English public school system at a time when it was out of control.Dr Thomas Arnold (initiated) and other liberal headmasters (copied) reformed the public schools by:Changing the behaviour of boysChanging the severity of punishments by mastersRole of sixth formAcademic curriculumMain Aim: preach good moral behaviour. This was part of muscularChristianity or the belief in having a strong, robust, hearty soul with astrong, fit body.
25Stage 2 ………….. continuedIt was fine to play sport and to play hard but always for the glory of God – not for its own sake or for any extrinsic values.Arnold used games as a vehicle for establishing social control.Arnold also established a more trusting and sympathetic relationship with sixth form while his masters gradually adopted status of sixth form increased the powers of discipline and in return required them to positive role models.Sixth form = link between masters and boysGrowth of the house systemHouse SystemThe House system became the focus of boys personal, social, recreational and sporting existence. The House System ultimately set an environment of healthy competition and cohesive attitudes.
26Technical and Social Developments Stage 3 – Athleticism + the ‘Cult’ (1842 – 1914) Public school is of mellowed building magnificent games fields, colours, caps, cricketers = All symbols of athleticismAthleticism: The combination of physical effort and moral integrity or playing hard but with sportsmanship.Athleticism reached cult proportions: a craze or obsession of playing team games. Compulsory games for the development of character became compulsory at Clifton and at Uppingham. At grammar schools games were central to school life.Voluntary free time activities (not yet as part of the curriculum) included:*Rowing *Football *Cricket *Various racquet games
27Stage 3 – Continued………On leaving university, these young men would go into adult life taking the ‘games ethic’ with them.Task: Consider what some academics have said about the emergence of athleticism in this stage.The ex-public school boy was expected to have a well rounded character, impeccable manners and enviable personal qualities. Having led a team on the games field, it was assumed that he could lead a regiment on the battlefield.1850 onwards: Games were purposefully deliberately assimilated into the formal curriculum of the public school.
28The development of athleticism in girls’ public schools Technical and Social Developments Stage 3 – Athleticism + the ‘Cult’ (1842 – 1914)The development of athleticism in girls’ public schoolsAthleticism reaching cult proportions in boys’ public schools , there was a delay in the development of opportunities for the upper-middle class girls.Reasons:Traditional role of women (education – seen as a threat to the behavioural norms of society)Anxiety - over wearing of slightly revealing clothing for physical exercise.It was not considered necessary to give girls the same opportunities as boys.Unladylike – it was thought inappropriate for women to be competitive or livelyMedical concerns – strenuous physical activity would complicate/prohibit child bearing
29Technical and Social Developments Stage 3 – Athleticism + the ‘Cult’ (1842 – 1914) Examples of great pioneers of and for physical education in the mid to late 19th century are:Frances Mary BluesDorothea BealeMadame Bergman OsterbergTask: In which of the three stages of development would you place the following (some fit in more than 1 stage)* Muscular Christianity * House System *Mob Activities*Values * Hooligans*Social Control * Character development* Dr Thomas Arnold * Recreation
30Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sportsSwimming: (beginning of the 19th century) - bathing in public schools was spontaneous, unorganised and centred around natural facilities (rivers and ponds). Boys had swum in the open at home and brought this culture to school. However there was no master input or supervision.As the century progressed, athleticism developed. Swimming became more structured and regulated with natural facilities such as Duck Puddle at Harrow being transformed into major bathing facility equipped with changing huts, diving boards, and with swimming instructors and arranged competitive events.Increasingly headmasters regarded swimming as a necessary athletic, also believing that water immersion was therapeutic.
31Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sportsRowing: viewed as a vehicle for the promotion to set desirable values into school boys. The adoption of rowing by Eton, Shrewsbury, Westminster, Oxford and Cambridge dates from Other schools that had river access soon followed.The first inter-school race was between Westminster and Eton and the University Boat Race was first rowed at Henley in 1829Fear of drowning caused the sport to become more formalised from the 1840’s and participants were required to pass swimming tests.
32Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sportsAthletics: Eighteenth-century public school boys took the sports of their local village wakes and fairs back to school. Predominantly played for fun and to relieve the boredom of school life.By the 1870’s athletic sports day had become both a major social occasion and a symbol of a more modern age.School sports day represented an era of technical development, more friendly social relationships between boys and masters, and a developing interest in skilfulness over brute force.Sports Day were highly organised with elaborate programmes, press coverage, large numbers of spectators and military band.
33Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sportsFootball: earliest days of public school history, impromptu, natural forms of football were played. Boys brought games from home which developed into school games.During the second phase of public school development, with rebellion almost over and fighting on the decline, football became the place to settle disputes and to show courage and determination. Ironically football helped the social class that had traditionally tried to kill it off and for the 1st time in British History it became respectable.By the 1860’s, transport and communication had greatly improved; more contests could be organised, however there were disagreements in inter-school matches as each school had different rules.
34Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sportsCricket: popular rural game by the mid 1700’s, cricket was soon adopted b the public schools. Headmasters were happy to accept the game as its standardised rules, lack of violence and involvement by the gentry made it respectable. I also occupied boys and kept them out of mischief.During the 1850’s and 60’s, cricket grew with William Clarke XI touring the country to entertain and inspire.Cricket in public schools was now associated with:Regularity as inter house and school gameCompulsory participationGrand social occasionsThe belief that it instilled a range of character building qualities.
35Technical developments continued… Court and Racquet Games: Fives – was hugely popular in the public schools but failed to become a national game of any standing. This was because:It had a tradition of being played as a recreational game in free timeDifferent versions of the gameLimited scope for developing characterThe more sophisticated game of racquets was already established.Racquets and Squash: at first played informally by school boys. Ironically attaining a high social status in public schools, far beyond its beginnings in a prison. By 1850 two standardised courts were built at Harrow.Many argue that racquets led to the invention of the more compact and less expensive game of squash
36Technical developments continued… Lawn Tennis: invented by and for the middle classes as a social experience. It also became a vehicle for the emancipation (freedom from restrictions) of women. It is not surprising that it was not welcomed by the boys’ public schools at a time when manliness and courage were all important.Why did the boys’ public schools reject lawn tennis?Courts took up comparatively large space for the number of boys it occupiedDid not require the courage or physicality of football or cricketCould not rival the contemporary status of cricket or footballHad a rep of being ‘pat ball’ and suitable only for girlsAs a new invention it was treated with some suspicion
37Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society Characteristics of Rational RecreationRegional national/internationalCodification, administrationRespectable, fair playRegularExclusive/ElitistUrban/Sub-UrbanControl of GamblingPurpose Built Facilities
38Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society Characteristics of Popular RecreationLocalSimple, unwritten rulesCruel/ViolentOccasionalCourtly/PopularRuralWageringNatural/Simple
39Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society Task:Aim to identify 3 additional changes which have occurred over the last few years
40Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the development of Rational Sport Industrial Revolution – Changes in working conditionsUrban Revolution – Changes in living conditionsIncreased free timeThe Railways – Excursions and trips, following your own team and going to the countrysideChanging Role of Women – Tennis used as a vehicle for emancipation for middle classMiddle Class Emergence – Changes in attitudes, tastes manners and expectations
41Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the development of Rational Sport Changing Working Conditions – Improved over timePaid Holidays for Working Class – By end of century; benevolence of employers; provision of factory facilitiesSaturday Half DayAgrarian Revolution – Changes in Agricultural Methods
42Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the development of Rational Sport Individual Activities Included:SwimmingAthleticsGymnasticsGames Activities Included:FootballCricketTennis
43The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities The emergence of sport for the masses, particularly spectator sport, excursion trips and paid holidays were hard wonIn early 19th century, rural peasants migrated to towns and cities in search of regular work, with sport or recreation being last thing on minds of industrial working classThings looking up…Factory Acts improved working conditions; kind factory owners began to look after their staff to increase loyalty and morale in the workplace.By 1890, workers had won their Saturday Half Day
44The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities Swimming as a rationalised activity had several threads which consisted of:The Water Cure and Regency Spa MovementVictorian Sea Bathing19th Century Public Baths for the middle and working classes
45The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities The Water Cure was otherwise known as the therapeutic effect of immersion in water, which existed in inland spa’s such as Bath and CheltenhamDuring the Victorian era, beaches were designated as socially exclusive and bathing machines were towed to the water giving bathers some privacyBy the 1870’s, the new rail network brought the working class to the seaside who copied activities of their social superiorsSwimming became fashionable for the middle and amateur class with competitive events being organised
46The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities 18th and 19th century industrialisation and urbanisation led to overcrowding and diseaseIn 1846, central government attempted to improve this with it’s wash house actsThis was whereby loans were offered to major towns if they built public baths
47The Emergence of Track and Field Activities as a new form of Urban Festival Due to the steady urbanisation of England, rural fairs came to an end followed by professional athletics being established in big industrial citiesThe Amateur Athletics Association (AAA) was established in 1880 which helped increase working class involvement in sportsThe organisation was responsible for opening up the sport to all levels of society without compromising it’s image
48The Emergence of Track and Field Activities as a new form of Urban Festival The Modern Olympic MovementA French aristocrat named Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was inspired by sport started the Olympic Games in 1896, with his aim to foster athleticism and friendship between nationsHowever, by the time the games came to London in 1908, all his ideas had largely been crushedThis conflict was captured in the film ‘Chariots of Fire’ (1981). This follows the preparations and Olympic fortunes of two British athletes in the Paris Games of 1924
49The Rationalisation of Games Association FootballFollowing the formation of the Football Association (FA), Soccer became both an amateur game for gentlemen and a professional game for the ‘people’ (Working Class)It soon became clear, that football was a regular spectator attraction rather than an annual festival occasionTherefore, due to players becoming unable to agree time off work, the FA reluctantly accepted professionalism
50The Rationalisation of Games CricketIn the 1870’s, county cricket took over from the touring XI’s as a spectator attraction – while county communities needed and respected professionals, they kept them firmly in their social placeE.G – They had different names, Pro v’s Amateur. They even had different eating arrangements and did not even travel to matches together or share a changing room
51The Rationalisation of Games Lawn TennisThe Middle Classes were excluded from real tennis so they looked for their own alternativeThe game was perfect for upper middle class suburban gardensThe working class were excluded and had to wait for public provision, which delayed their participationIt’s role in the emancipation of women…Lawn tennis helped remove stereotypes of Victorian times, as women could participate on their own or with men and wearing whatever they wanted
52The Rationalisation of Games Task:Explain some changes which have occurred in one of these games since the turn of the 19th century
53Elementary school drill The development of drill, physical training and physical education in elementary schoolsEnd of the 19th centuryBackground information- In 1886, the army rejected 380 out of each 1000 recruits on physical grounds.Board schools (state schools) established by the Foster Education Act 1870, previously the education of the poor had been a parish responsibility.Restricted space for play and physical exerciseMany schools in industrial towns had no playing facilities.Elementary school drillObjectives:Fitness for army recruitsDisciplineTo do for working-class children what games was doing for public school boys
54The development of drill, physical training and physical education in elementary schools continued………..Content1870 = military drill1890’s = Swedish drill1900 = the Bored of Education stated that games were a suitable alternative to Swedish drillMethodology- Authoritarian / Command response, taught by army non-commissioned officers (NCO’s) in 1870’s. By the 1890’s taught by qualified teachers.
55All of the above contributed to the lowered the status of the subject. The development of drill, physical training and physical education in elementary schools continued………….The Model Course 1902Background InformationMilitary needs became more powerful than educational theory.Girls and boys instructed together: failed to cater for age or genderChildren treated as soldiersTaught by NCO’s or teachers who had been trained by themDull + repetitive contentSet against the backdrop of poor diets, bad housing and other forms of social deprivation.All of the above contributed to the lowered the status of the subject.
56The development of drill, physical training and physical education in elementary schools continued………….The Model Course 1902Military based content was imposed as a result of Britain’s poor performance in the Boer WarObjectives: Content:Fitness (for military service) Military drillTraining in handing weapons ExercisesDiscipline Weapon trainingMethodology:Command – response (‘Attention’, ‘Stand at ease’, Marching etc)Group response/ no individualityIn ranks
57Early Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) 1904 and 1909 The development of drill, physical training and physical education in elementary schools continued………….Early Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) 1904 and 1909Background Information:Revisions of the 1902 model courseSchool medical service was established which identified the necessity of raising the general standard of physical health among the children of the poor.Emphasis on exercise in the open air and the use of suitable clothing1909 – local authorities required to train teachers to deliver the syllabusesStill large numbers and poor facilities
58Early Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) 1904 and 1909 continued…………. Objectives:Obedience and DisciplineEnjoymentAlertness, decision-making, control of mind over body1909 – therapeutic effects of exercise (with emphasis on respiration, circulation and posture)Content:Recreative aspects to relive dullness, tedium and monotony of former lessonIntroduction of dancing steps and simple gamesInclusion of Danish and rhythmic swinging exercises
59Early Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) 1904 and 1909 continued…………. Methodology:Still formalStill in ranks with marchingStill unison response to commandsA kinder approach by teachersSome freedom of choice for teachers
60The development of drill, physical training and physical education in elementary schools continued………….The Syllabus 1919Background Information:- Set against huge loss of life in WW1 and in post-war flu epidemic- The syllabus was progressive in terms its broader content and child-centred approach.Important Note: The Fisher Education Act 1918 promoted holiday and school camps, school playing fields and school swimming baths.Objectives:Enjoyment and play for the under 7’sTherapeutic work for the over 7’s
61The 1919 Syllabus continued………. Content:Exercises and ‘positions’ same s 1909Special section for games for the under 7’sNot less than half the lesson on ‘general activity exercises’ – active free movement, including small games and dancing1919 syllabus – the first ‘child centred’ syllabus, but some teachers stayed with their old ways.Methodology:More freedom for teachers ad pupilsLess formality
62Syllabus of Physical training 1933 (the last syllabus to be published under George Newman’s direction)Background Information:The industrial depression of the 1930’s left many of the working class unemployedThis syllabus- had one section for the under 11’s and one for the ove 11’sInfluences:- The Hadow Report 1926 identified the need to differentiate between ages for physical training.A detailed, high quality and highly respected syllabusNewman stated that good nourishment, effective medical inspection and treatment and hygienic surroundings were all necessary for a good health as well as a comprehensive system of physical training…..for the normal development of the body.
63Syllabus of Physical training 1933 Objectives:Physical fitness - Therapeutic results - Good PhysiqueGood posture Development of mind and body (holistic aims)Content:Athletics - Gymnastic and games skills - Group workMethodology:Still direct style for the majority of the lessonGroup work/tasks throughoutEncouragement for special clothing/kit5 x 20 minute lesson a week recommendedOutdoor lessons recommended for health benefitsSome decentralised parts to the lessonDecentralised = the teacher acts as the guide, with children working at their own pace answering tasks in an individual way
64Revision QuestionsWhat is meant by the words objectives, content and methodology?Compare the content of the 1902 model course with that of the moving and planning the programme.Wit which syllabuses would you associate the following words or phrases? (Some maybe linked to more than one syllabus)Child-centred Army NCO’sBoer War Army assault apparatusDr George Newman Play for the under 7’sTherapeutic Butler Education ActNote: Dr George Newman role was overseeing the publication of the three Board Education syllabuses between 1909 and 1933
65Physical Education and Modern Trends Moving and Growing and Planning the ProgrammeThe (Butler) Education Act 1944 aimed to ensure equality of educational opportunity and to provide playing fields for all schoolsThe Second World War required ‘thinking soldiers’ which influenced the need for ‘thinking children’. Assault course obstacle equipment, influenced apparatus design as well as encouraging individual interpretation of open tasksBackground:The Butler Education Act 1944 aimed to ensure equality of education of educational opportunity.Local authorities were required to provide playing fields for al schools.School leaving age was raised to 15 years
66Physical Education and Modern Trends This influenced the problem solving approach…Moving & Growing (1952)Planning the Programme (1954)Influences:The 2nd World War, required thinking soldiers and the subsequent perceived need for increasingly thinking children.Assault course obstacle equipment, influenced apparatus designModern educational dance methods influenced the creative/movement approachIntroduction of problem solving approach to learning (open tasks)Also… The extensive post war rebuilding programme lead to an expansion of facilities
67Physical Education and Modern Trends ObjectivesPhysical, Social and Cognitive SkillsVariety of experiencesEnjoyment and Personal SatisfactionMethodologyChild centred and enjoyment orientatedProgressiveTeacher guidance rather than directionContentAgility exercisesSwimmingMovement to Music