Presentation on theme: " Starter 28 June 1919 Germany signed up to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles formally ending WWI. Who do you think the people are in this picture?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Starter28 June 1919 Germany signed up to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles formally ending WWI. Who do you think the people are in this picture? What can this picture tell us about reactions of Germans to the way the war was ended ? Why might some Germans have felt optimistic before the Treaty?
2 ? Reasons for optimism Abdication of Kaiser New democratic govt Expectations the Allies would help the new Weimar GovtPresident Wilson’s desire for fairness – 14 PointsOther countries were not blamelessWhat do you think Chancellor Ebert was thinking on the eve of the Paris Peace Conference?
3 Why did the Germans hate the Treaty of Versailles? LOsTo identify the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles and to assess how different Germans reacted to them
4 ‘Big Three’, Lloyd-George, Clemenceau & Roosevelt Watch the film ‘Make Germany Pay’ and answer the questions your teacher provides‘Big Three’, Lloyd-George, Clemenceau & RooseveltClemenceauWilsonLloyd-George
5 Your task Reparations War Guilt Territorial losses p in your booksReparationsWar GuiltWhy did Germans hate the Treaty of Versailles?Territorial lossesGermany’s coloniesMilitary restrictions
6 Why did many Germans resent this clause? War guiltArticle 231 of the Treaty stated that Germany was to blame for causing the war.Why did many Germans resent this clause?
7 ReparationsWhy did many Germans complain about reparations?As Germany was held responsible for the war, the allies could claim reparations for the damage causedIn 1921 a special commission fixed a sum of £6,600 m. to be paid in annual instalmentsThe Treaty also took away 10% of Germany’s industry and 15% of its agricultural land
8 Germany’s coloniesGermany’s colonies were handed over to the League of Nations, who gave them to Britain and France to runWhy did many Germans resent the League of Nations running their colonies?
9 Military restrictions Air force was disbandedArmy limited to 100,000 soldiersNavy limited to 15,000 sailors, six battleships and no submarinesWhich country was keen to restrict Germany’s navy? Why?
10 Military restrictions Rhineland occupied by the Allies for 15 yearsNo German troops allowed in this areaWhy were the Germans especially unhappy about these terms?
11 Which of the territorial losses would have angered the Germans most? Alsace-Lorraine returned to FranceWest Prussia and Posen (Polish Corridor) lost to PolandSaarland taken over by the League of Nations for 15 yearsWhich of the territorial losses would have angered the Germans most?
12 Your taskRead p.18 and list 3 reasons why ordinary Germans felt betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles, in other words ‘stabbed in the back’
13 Stabbed in the backNew government of Germany was weakened by the TreatyArmy leaders felt Germany could have won the warThe country had been betrayed by politicians and CommunistsTraditionalists felt this would not have happened under the Kaiser
14 Your taskRead about the Kapp Putsch from the History Learning website.Who was Kapp?Why did he stage an uprising?Why did it fail?What does it reveal about the Weimar Government? How similar / different was it to the Spartacist Uprising?
16 Reasons for failure of Kapp Putsch Kapp: right-wing journalist, hated EbertAims: establish strong leadership & opposed VersaillesReasons for failure:lack of leadership - General Ludendorff supported Kapp, but other army leaders did notputsch centred on Berlin – didn’t spread to rest of GermanyWeimar Government continued - able to relocate to Dresdenpeople tired of revolution - Spartacist Uprising occurred 1919general strike
17 ExtensionCan you list any similarities between the Spartacist Uprising and the Kapp Putch?Rosa LuxemburgWolfgang Kapp
18 SIMILARITIESLed by charismatic, political extremistsDisliked govt & aimed to overthrow itCentred on BerlinDIFFERENCESSpartacists were anti-War, Kapp Putsch supported the armyKapp was a monarchist, Spartacists wanted a Communist revolutionKapp enjoyed support of Freikorps
19 Your taskTry to match one of the captions on p.19 (SHP) with one of the sources on pStudy the German sources and add the reasons why they felt angered by the Treaty to your listExplain why Germans found it so hard to accept the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
20 Hold a press conference with members of Ebert’s new Social Democrat government. Try to find out whether the Treaty of Versailles really was the right solution for Germany’s woes.
21 Your taskWork in small groups. Write a short speech to deliver to the new German Parliament explaining why you hate the terms of the Treaty of Versailles so much. You may wish to include points in your spider diagram as well as those referred to in the sources. Try to explain why you feel ‘stabbed in the back’ by the Treaty.
22 PlenaryWhy do you think the Germans felt stabbed in the back? Give 5 reasons. Extension. Who were these people? Can you explain the cartoon? What are some of the problems with this source?
23 HomeworkWrite a speech explaining why you hate the treaty of Versailles. Refer to the key terms of the treaty, explain what is making you angry about them and refer to the reactions of ordinary Germans like Kapp. It should be one side of A4Extension. Produce a counter-speech by a supporter of the Treaty