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Air Traffic Systems
SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR INTRODUCTION AND BASIC PRINCIPLES Air Traffic Systems
Radar Picture Timing & Control Transmitter Pulses TX RX & PROCESSING Received Signal Basic Primary Radar
DISADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY RADAR §High Power §Clutter Permanent Echo's Weather i.e. Rain etc. §Identification
Radar Picture Timing & Control TX RX & PROCESSING Basic Secondary Radar SSR Tx 1030 MHz Rx 1090 MHz 123 ABC Decoder Secondary returns
Military A/C Ident - Mode 1 3µs Military Mission Ident - Mode 2 5 µs Joint Military & Civil A/C Ident - Mode 3/A 8 µs Civil A/C Ident - Mode B 17 µs Altitude Data - Mode C 21 µs Modes and Pulse Spacing
SSR Questions (Modes) §Who are you ? (Mode 1 and 3/A) §What is your altitude ? (Mode C) §What is your mission number ? (Mode 2) §Are you FRIEND or FOE ? (Mode 4)
Mode Interlacing §The ability of the system to automatically change modes. § This enables more diverse information to be gathered.
Military transponder set to :- Mode 1, code = 1100 Mode 3/A, code = 4170 Mode C, code = h1 Civil transponder set to :- Mode 3/A, code = 2210 Mode C, code = h2 Military Civil No2210h2No2210h2No2210h2 1100 4170 h1 1100 4170h1 1100 4170 h1 Coded Replies 1 3/A C 1 C 1 C Mode interlace pattern 1, 3A, C MODE INTERLACING h1 h2
EMERGENCY REPLIES CIVILIAN EMERGENCY GENERAL EMERGENCY - 7700 RADIO FAILURE - 7600 HI-JACK - 7500
ADVANTAGES OF SSR OVER PRIMARY RADAR POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION CLUTTER ELIMINATION LOWER POWER FOR EQUIVALENT RANGE ACCURATE HEIGHT INFORMATION EMERGENCY INFORMATION
DISADVANTAGES OF SSR INTERROGATIONS VIA SIDE LOBES F ALSE R EPLIES U NCORRELATED I N T IME (FRUIT) GARBLING TRACK WANDER
200 Miles 80 miles Aircraft A C B
200 Miles 80 miles Aircraft A B P1P2 P3 2 s INTERROGATION SIDE LOBE SUPPRESSION Aircraft C
Site A PRF 250Hz Site B PRF 260Hz unwanted replies F.R.U.I.T. Interrogation
FRUIT Correct reply De-fruited video O/P DEFRUITER PRINCIPLE 1 PRF DELAY Coincidence Gate (Frame pulses + 2 information..) First PRP Replies Second PRP Replies
GARBLE A4B2D2D4F2 A2 C2C4 F1 End of pulse train from aircraft A Beginning of pulse train from aircraft B Overlapping replies OVERLAPPING
TRACK WANDER 1st sweep 2nd sweep 3rd sweep 4th sweep
TRACK WANDER 1st sweep 2nd sweep track
THE MONOPULSE SYSTEM ELIMINATES TRACK WANDER BECAUSE ONLY ONE PULSE FROM A REPLY TRAIN IS NEEDED TO OBTAIN AN ACCURATE BEARING.
BORE SIGHT COMBINED SUM & DIFFERENCE PATTERNS
Mono-pulse Secondary Surveillance Radar MSSR
Cardion Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna mounted on Tactical Watchman Mounted on T101 Air Defence Radar
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CIVIL AIRCRAFT MILITARY AIRCRAFT MARITIME AIRCRAFT NAVAL SYSTEMS MISSILE SSR SYSTEM APPLICATIONS
This is my discrete address MODE S Bit 1Bit 2Bit 3Bit 4 1011 1 10000 Bit N Preamble 8.0 s I am able to reply to your “ALL CALL” because I have Mode S Data block 56 s or 112 s 0.5 s
The future of SSR §Mode S – becoming compulsory under EASA rules §CSSR and MSSR don’t support Mode S
Any Questions ?
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МУЛТИРАТЕРАЦИЈА КАКО ТЕХНИКА НА КОНТРОЛА НА ВОЗДУШНИОТ СООБРАЌАЈ MULTILATERATION AS SURVEILLANCE CHOICE Prof. dr. sc. Ivan Markežić
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Garmin 330 Mode S Transponder
Air Traffic Systems ‘ An air-force in miniature on just one Station' (1970 ’ s)
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