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 This module covers 5 main areas: Just WarJust War PacifismPacifism Purpose of PunishmentPurpose of Punishment Capital PunishmentCapital Punishment Social.

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Presentation on theme: " This module covers 5 main areas: Just WarJust War PacifismPacifism Purpose of PunishmentPurpose of Punishment Capital PunishmentCapital Punishment Social."— Presentation transcript:

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2  This module covers 5 main areas: Just WarJust War PacifismPacifism Purpose of PunishmentPurpose of Punishment Capital PunishmentCapital Punishment Social InjusticeSocial Injustice For each topic you will need to know a range of Christian views as well as your own viewpoint Fist we need to know what Christian denominations we are discussing

3 The Roman Catholic Church  This denomination is a traditional group of Christians who believe in Natural Law: doing what God intended in a natural way. Up until the C16th Catholics were the dominant group of Christians in Europe. Catholics are controlled by the Pope in Rome The Roman Catholic Church  This denomination is a traditional group of Christians who believe in Natural Law: doing what God intended in a natural way. Up until the C16th Catholics were the dominant group of Christians in Europe. Catholics are controlled by the Pope in Rome Protestant Churches  These are the Christian groups that developed after Martin Luther’s debate in  These are modern Christians who have re- interpreted the Bible and have a different view to the Roman Catholics.  These Christians are NOT controlled by the Pope. Protestant Churches  These are the Christian groups that developed after Martin Luther’s debate in  These are modern Christians who have re- interpreted the Bible and have a different view to the Roman Catholics.  These Christians are NOT controlled by the Pope. Christian do NOT all believe the same thing and are divided into different groups depending on faith and establishment

4 Just War Criteria  No one likes war but that does not mean that it cannot be justified sometimes.  Some people feel that, at times, war is the only option left Just War: a war that is justified using certain criteria established by Tomas Aquinas in the 13 th century The criteria fits into two categories: a)Jus ad bellum – when it is right to go to war b)Jus in bello – how a war should be fought

5 Jus ad bellum (when it is right to go to war) Jus in bello (how a war should be fought Last Resort – all other methods must tried first Last Resort – all other methods must tried first Right intention - the intention of war is to right a wrong Right intention - the intention of war is to right a wrong Just Cause - there must a good reason for going to war Just Cause - there must a good reason for going to war Right authority – only public authorities are legitimate, terrorist organisations are not enough Right authority – only public authorities are legitimate, terrorist organisations are not enough Comparative justice – the suffering caused must be less than the suffering that exists Comparative justice – the suffering caused must be less than the suffering that exists Probability of success – there is no point in fighting and wasting lives if you’re not going to win Probability of success – there is no point in fighting and wasting lives if you’re not going to win Discrimination – acts of war should be directed at the combatants not civilians Discrimination – acts of war should be directed at the combatants not civilians Minimum force – death and destruction should be limited Minimum force – death and destruction should be limited Proportionality – the force used must be proportional to the wrong endured and to the possible good that may come Proportionality – the force used must be proportional to the wrong endured and to the possible good that may come Just War Criteria

6 PacifismPacifism  Although a lot of people would agree that war should be a last resort, some Christians do not believe that war and violence is acceptable at all.  These people believe that violence can be solved through peaceful approaches and a calm attitude. Pacifism: a rejection of war and violence in preference of using peaceful methods. Violence fuels violence  Throughout history we have seen a number of pacifists but the two most notable are from recent history (20 th Century) Mahatma Gandhi: a pacifist living in India during British Occupation Martin Luther King Jr: a pacifist living in USA during black segregation Mahatma Gandhi: a pacifist living in India during British Occupation Martin Luther King Jr: a pacifist living in USA during black segregation

7 Conscientious Objectors  History saw a rise in conscientious objectors during the 20 th century when going to war was made to be a legal requirement Conscientious Objector: a person who refuses to go to war, even if that means breaking the law, due to their conscience and personal beliefs  There are a number of reasons why someone might be a conscientious objector: Fear of death 1 Not want to kill others 2 Finance 3 Destruction caused 4

8  People who refused to go to war during the 20 th century were seen as suspicious  One man, Albert Rowland, was watched by the police, arrested, had his home ransacked and was put in prison for his role as a conscientious objector during the second world war. Conscientious Objectors Although some were put in prison, others performed jobs for the war effort that did not involve violence 1 Stretcher bearerStretcher bearer 2 Ambulance driverAmbulance driver 3 Telephone operatorTelephone operator 4 Voluntary policeVoluntary police

9 PunishmentPunishment  When people commit a crime there are consequences of their actions, this can range from a fine, to community service to a period of time spent in prison. In this country we aim to achieve 5 things by using punishment Retribution The debt you owe society for your crimeThe debt you owe society for your crime Deterrence To stop you or others committing the same crimeTo stop you or others committing the same crime Protection To protect society from you and your crimesTo protect society from you and your crimes Reformation Educating people to help them find a job on leavingEducating people to help them find a job on leaving Vindication Upholding the law to show that crime will not be toleratedUpholding the law to show that crime will not be tolerated  Christians believe that God will judge all humans when they die but we must also punish people in this life if they have sinned

10  Capital Punishment is a contentious issue. Some people feel that it is the only solution for certain crimes, whereas others think that we do not have the right to take someone’s life PunishmentPunishment “If any of you is without sin, let him throw the first stone at her” The Christian view on capital punishment fits into two sections: An eye for an eye: some people deserve to lose their lives due the crime they committedAn eye for an eye: some people deserve to lose their lives due the crime they committed For Only God can give and take life. If someone is dead they cannot repent and we cannot forgive themOnly God can give and take life. If someone is dead they cannot repent and we cannot forgive them Against

11 Social Injustice  There are people all over the world today whose lives are directly affected by social injustice Social injustice: a situation where people are treated badly due to corrupt governments and restricted human rights  There are people in prisons who do not know why they are there or how long they will be kept. There are people who have been arrested and imprisoned due to them exercising their freedom of speech. There are people who are being tortured and executed.

12  During the 20 th century a policy was developed in order to help people who were being treated unfairly. This was called Liberation Theology. It is predominant in South America. Social Injustice Liberation Theology: God is seen as a liberator. People use the example of Jesus to stand up for what is right even if it means breaking the law Oscar Romero was Archbishop of El Salvador.  He encouraged his congregation to stand up to the military rule and do what they thought was right.  He was assassinated in his Church during mass: this only encouraged his followers to continue their fight for justice

13  Amnesty International is an organisation that was developed in 1961 by Peter Benenson (a British lawyer) in response to two students being arrested and imprisoned for toasting their freedom. Social Injustice Amnesty International: a world wide organisation that helps and supports people who have their human rights restricted  Anyone can join the organisation and help to raise awareness  They tackle areas such as false imprisonment, torture inquiries, talking to people on death row  They are a peaceful organisation and do not advocate violence

14 Exam Practice Question Religion, Peace and Justice – this exam question is worth 24 marks a)What is pacifism? (1) b)Give two examples of what Christians might consider to be social injustice (2) c)Why would a Christian support the use of prisons? (3) d)What are Christian attitudes towards war? (6) e)“The death penalty is the only way to tackle criminals”. Discuss this statement. Give different, supported viewpoints including a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity (12) Remember: Part E is an ESSAY question and must be written in an essay style with PEE paragraphs in order to attain all 12 marks


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