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Masterclass 2 Stratford Grammar School for Girls July 12 th, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Masterclass 2 Stratford Grammar School for Girls July 12 th, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Masterclass 2 Stratford Grammar School for Girls July 12 th, 2010

2 Programme for today 1. Review of Masterclass 1 2. Class: analysing and describing a word 3. Neologisms 4. WebCorpLSE search tools(MG) 5. Language change 6. WebCorpLSE time graphs (AK) 7. Demonstrating research method 8. Class: Individual mini projects (ALL) 9. Lexical and Phrasal creativity (if time)

3 Review of Masterclass 1 1. definitions corpus corpus linguistics concordance/concordance lines collocation 2.quiz discoveries

4 toll Garden gates creak, church bellstoll, birds twitter and Astley's piano sparkles you can still hear church bellstollout at sea," I tell M This workload is taking a bigtollon the team members, all volunteers The crisis took its biggesttollon corporate and investment banking, the single worst casualtytollin a battle since the crisis much impact on the appalling deathtollon America's streets and increasingly, That is the highest monthly deathtollsince the tanks rolled back into There will not betollbarriers around the zone, Motorists driving through the automatictollbooths without paying contemporary Britain: the scandal of thetollbridge over the sea to Skye may be forced to introduce motorwaytollcharges to raise money for transport bruised, this has taken a hugetollon me, physically, emotionally and mentally."

5 toll Garden gates creak, church bellstoll, birds twitter and Astley's piano sparkles you can still hear church bellstollout at sea," I tell M This workload is taking a bigtollon the team members, all volunteers The crisis took its biggesttollon corporate and investment banking, the single worst casualtytollin a battle since the crisis much impact on the appalling deathtollon America's streets and increasingly, That is the highest monthly deathtollsince the tanks rolled back into There will not betollbarriers around the zone, Motorists driving through the automatictollbooths without paying contemporary Britain: the scandal of the tollbridge over the sea to Skye may be forced to introduce motorwaytollcharges to raise money for transport bruised, this has taken a hugetollon me, physically, emotionally and mentally."

6 toll – definitions of its senses

7 toll – definitions of its senses 1.to ring slowly and recurrently (v) 2.a sum of money charged for maintenance (n) 3. loss or damage caused by accident, disaster, behaviour (n)

8 toll – definitions of its senses 1.to ring slowly and recurrently (v) church bells toll 2.a sum of money charged for maintenance (n) motorway toll charges 3. loss or damage caused by accident, disaster, behaviour (n) this has taken a huge toll on me

9 mole MI5 was a Sovietmole. He also claims there have you got amoleon your left shoulder in love with themoleon your cheek which showed that amolehad passed them details summiteers ended atop amolehill rather than a mountain apparently blind like amole. The modern tank with the identity of themoleis protected. Following many raven and the Mafiamole, the anonymous letters and the talpa, the suspectedmolewho betrayed details of a mountain out of amole hill. The House of Commons' committee could have been amolewithin the KGB itself, the bombs by a 'moleworking inside the French had been a SovietmoleIn the crisis years

10 mole MI5 was a Sovietmole. He also claims there have you got amoleon your left shoulder in love with themoleon your cheek which showed that amolehad passed them details summiteers ended atop amolehill rather than a mountain apparently blind like amole. The modern tank with the identity of themoleis protected. Following many raven and the Mafiamole, the anonymous letters and the talpa, the suspectedmolewho betrayed details of a mountain out of amole hill. The House of Commons' committee could have been amolewithin the KGB itself, the bombs by a 'moleworking inside the French had been a SovietmoleIn the crisis years

11 mole – definitions of its senses

12 mole – definitions of its senses 1.spy (n) 2.small, burrowing mammal (n) 3. a mark or growth on the skin (n)

13 mole – definitions of its senses 1.spy (n) a mole within the KGB 2.small, burrowing mammal (n) apparently blind like a mole 3. a mark or growth on the skin (n) the mole on your cheek

14 Class exercise: analysing and describing a word thin 1. for each line of concordance on your sheet: - write a synonym or paraphrase for thin - colour-code lines into similar senses

15 Class exercise: analysing and describing a word thin 2. put each category, with an example context, in the boxes on your sheet, to make a mini dictionary entry

16 Class exercise: analysing and describing a word thin 3. compare your description with the entry for thin from the Collins Cobuild Dictionary

17 Introducing Neologisms neologism, neology – definition some recent neologisms affixes – definition classes of word formation for these words

18 Neologism/Neology origin neologism Greek νέος (neos 'new') + λόγος (logos 'word') modern definitions neologism = new word, use or phrase neology =study (or phenomenon) of new words/word components/ phrases/new senses of existing words hapax, hapaxes (hapax legomenon/legomena) = word occurring once only; singleton

19 Classes of word formation The Independent, : total 9m wds manual analysis of 75,283 new wds

20 Some recent neologisms

21 proper noun neologisms (first occs) in April 2010 Zangief 3 a fictional character in a Street Fighter video game series Quickcut 7 a new system that checks files for compliance with a publication's criteria Pagestore 8 a new company utilising Amazon's servers to crawl the web Hotboxes 4 a guardian.co.uk 'hotbox‘, linked to pages of relevant editorial content Friis-Mikkelson 1 ‘actor Friis-Mikkelson was brought on board’ Eyjafjallajökull 61 Icelandic volcano Bigotgate 16 Cleggmania 49

22 proper noun neologisms (first occs) in April 2010 Zangief 3 a fictional character in a Street Fighter video game series (IT innovation) Quickcut 7 a new system that checks files for compliance with a publication's criteria (IT innovation) Pagestore 8 a new company utilising Amazon's servers to crawl the web (IT innovation) Hotboxes 4 a guardian.co.uk 'hotbox‘, linked to pages of relevant editorial content (IT innovation) Friis-Mikkelson 1 ‘actor Friis-Mikkelson was brought on board’ (newcomer on international scene) Eyjafjallajökull 61 Icelandic volcano (real world event) Bigotgate 16 (real world event) Cleggmania 49 (real world event)

23 ordinary word neologisms (first occs) in April 2010 infold 1 Sometimes her arms infold him like a band dotheycutit 1 no spaces poncho-themed 1 mullet-and-moustache 1 mullet-and-moustache combos pig-under-the-arm 1 a blatant pig-under-the-arm staple delivered in a cod Oirish blarney phnarr-phnarring 1 while phnarr-phnarring the performance Repub-a-lic 1 Oirland! Oirland! Repub-a-lic of Oirland! re-ablement 1 the bill will provide "re-ablement" services own-ups 1 candid and raw own-ups somethingorotherccino 1 a tea shop where I had a somethingorotherccino hit-and-dash 1 a hit-and-dash schedule smile-by 1 such guileless traditions deemed way past their smile-by date?

24 ordinary word neologisms (first occs) in April 2010 infold 1 Sometimes her arms infold him like a band (obs) dotheycutit 1 no spaces (new orthography) poncho-themed 1 (derivation/compound) mullet-and-moustache 1 mullet-and-moustache combos (combination) pig-under-the-arm 1 a blatant pig-under-the-arm staple delivered in a cod Oirish blarney (combination) phnarr-phnarring 1 while phnarr-phnarring the impression (onomat) Repub-a-lic 1 Oirland! Oirland! Repub-a-lic of Oirland! (mock spch) re-ablement 1 the bill will provide "re-ablement" services (av.derivatn) own-ups 1 candid and raw own-ups (conversion) somethingorotherccino 1 a tea shop where I had a somethingorotherccino (blend) hit-and-dash 1 a hit-and-dash schedule (creative variation) smile-by 1 such guileless traditions deemed way past their smile-by date? (creative variation)

25 Affix/Affixation definition affix = a language element added to a word to produce a derived (new lexical) or inflected (new grammatical) form prefix = affix at front of word suffix = affix at end of word - un in unreadable is a derivational prefix -able in unreadable is a derivational suffix - s in reads is an inflectional suffix

26 Common prefixes out 1025 under 959 multi 866 mid 782 mega 669 pseudo 668 quasi 639 inter 635 cyber 610 ultra 593 micro 579 counter 522 en 512 mis 511 eco 506 neo 496 un4591 non4237 re3253 ex2773 anti2701 over2470 pre2320 post2192 de1931 super1889 euro1702 mini1480 pro1279 semi1268 co1103 sub1065 hyper 475 mock 451 auto 449 techno 442 bio 438 di 402 dis 401 tele 382 bi 315 arch 299 trans 292 e- 290 pan 282 proto 279 extra 261 per 258 poly 254 tri 250 em 235 psycho 235 down 230 retro 216 ur 215 cod 188 faux 180 mal165 uni163 mono143 neuro141 meta134 intra133 uber124

27 Common prefixes out 1025 under 959 multi 866 mid 782 mega 669 pseudo 668 quasi 639 inter 635 cyber 610 ultra 593 micro 579 counter 522 en 512 mis 511 eco 506 neo 496 un4591 non4237 re3253 ex2773 anti2701 over2470 pre2320 post2192 de1931 super1889 euro1702 mini1480 pro1279 semi1268 co1103 sub1065 hyper 475 mock 451 auto 449 techno 442 bio 438 di 402 dis 401 tele 382 bi 315 arch 299 trans 292 e-290 pan 282 proto 279 extra 261 per 258 poly 254 tri 250 em 235 psycho 235 down 230 retro 216 ur 215 cod 188 faux 180 mal165 uni163 mono143 neuro141 meta134 intra133 uber124

28 Productivity definition productivity/productive a word or affix is productive if it forms new words e.g. compounds, derivations, blends

29 Productivity of chav in chav chavs chavspotter chavtastic chavvie chav-spotting chavscum.co.uk chav-fave chavved-up chavocracy chavier chaviest chav-rap chavdom chavalanche chav's chav-tastic chav-in-the- street 0503 chavistocrats chavish chavvy chav-central chavettes chavette chav-nots chavsta chavtowns.co.uk chavification chav-goth chav-infested chavocrat chav- associated chav-style chavy 1

30 Productivity of cyber(-), faux(-), techno(-), uber(-) cyber 2000 cybertainment cyber-squatting cyber-geeks cyber-potential cyberdream cyberpicketed faux 2005 faux-ruefully faux-handwritten faux-autism faux-clanger faux-cringes uber 2005 uberpundits uber-waif uber-hyped uber-talkshow ubermogul uber-media-saturated techno 1996 techno-nerdish techno-glam techno-ambient technofreak techno-guru technoboffins

31 Common suffixes type1665 ist1530 ise1470 ism1454 le1432 or1398 less1183 able1174 esque1167 ee1146 ite1000 ation853 ine825 est818 ate796 ity764 's38588 s29312 er9370 ed5576 y4526 ly4252 ing4168 like3980 style3672 en3504 ness2504 al2218 ie2105 ish1987 ic1972 ian1945 ion672 ette664 ville605 ery576 ard561 wise527 age461 'd457 ling427 ade412 ant406 ese392 ty382 gate380 ful373 fest364 ous358 ship345 ive341 dom315 ent314 let308 ment301 ess294 ry 286 ary 278 ile 272 ize 265 ster 255 ify 241 iana 212 athon 96

32 Common suffixes type 1665 ist 1530 ise 1470 ism 1454 le 1432 or 1398 less 1183 able 1174 esque 1167 ee 1146 ite 1000 ation 853 ine 825 est 818 ate 796 ity 764 's38588 s29312 er9370 ed5576 y4526 ly4252 ing4168 like3980 style3672 en3504 ness2504 al2218 ie2105 ish1987 ic1972 ian1945 ion672 ette664 ville605 ery576 ard561 wise527 age461 'd457 ling427 ade412 ant406 ese392 ty382 gate380 ful373 fest364 ous358 ship345 ive341 dom315 ent314 let308 ment301 ess294 ry 286 ary 278 ile 272 ize 265 ster 255 ify 241 iana 212 athon 96

33 Productivity for (-)fest and (-)athon fest 2005 miaowfest backslapfest smarmfest Potterfest kinderchucklefest swankfest athon 2005 frothathon Svenathon Bardathon bitchathon cringe-athon improvathon

34 Watergate-gate

35 That must be the biggest scandal since Watergate-gate… Since what? Well you have to go all the way back to Watergate-gate… Watergate-gate? Isn't it just Watergate? No, that would mean it's about water. It's a scandal, or gate, add the suffix gate (that's what you do with a scandal) involving the Watergate Hotel, so it's called the Watergate Scandal, or Watergate-gate. But doesn't the term gate meaning a scandal come from Watergate? What, take the last 4 letters of a previous scandal or hotel and add them onto all future scandals? That can't be the system! I think it is. Well, what if there's a scandal about water? What do you call that? Well you'd call it ‘water-gate’ … umm … ‘aqua-gate’?

36 Introduction to WebCorpLSE search tools

37 Language change definitions chronology/ical = arranged in order of occurrence of events diachrony/ic = across time

38 WebCorpLSE time graphs to show change types

39 How to carry out a mini case-study 1.find a word or affix of interest 2.reflect on its nature in text 3.develop a small hypothesis about how you expect it to behave in the data 4.observe the word or affix in context 5.use a time-graph, if required, to throw light on areas of interesting change 6.describe findings 7.discuss findings

40 Mini study: chav 1.word of interest - chav 2. reflect on its nature in text - vogueish word, that came in to describe social type wearing Burberry accessories 3. develop a small hypothesis – appeared in 2007; will have become productive 4. observe the affix or word in context 5. request a time-graph 6. describe findings – e.g. – appeared and popular from - referred to social type wearing Burberry accessories - disparaging - began to produce derivations and compounds (classify) - began to show signs of creativity play on words - lost popularity by 7.discuss findings - hypothesis on productivity correct, but faded out again - reasons for this

41 Productivity of chav in chav chavs chavspotter chavtastic chavvie chav-spotting chavscum.co.uk chav-fave chavved-up chavocracy chavier chaviest chav-rap chavdom chavalanche chav's chav-tastic chav-in-the- street 0503 chavistocrats chavish chavvy chav-central chavettes chavette chav-nots chavsta chavtowns.co.uk chavification chav-goth chav-infested chavocrat chav- associated chav-style chavy 1

42 Contexts for chav, Guardian Chavs and chav-nots: the eternal divide A bickering chavocracy that marries in register offices the tulip skirt becomes de rigueur at Pangaea or wherever chavistocrats hang out these days our society is on the brink of collapse from a chavalanche of scary teenagers it seems pretty unlikely that the average chav-in-the-street is going to pick up a copy of Vogue at the local newsagent with their packet of fags the polo-playing chavocrat who wears Nazi gear to a party and gets into a drunken brawl outside a nightclub It's not simply a comedy for the chavs and chav-nots

43 Mini study: weapons of mass destruction 1.phrase of interest - weapons of mass destruction 2. reflect on its nature in text - term coined by Bush to justify Iraq war in develop a small hypothesis – appeared in 2002; will have become v productive 4. observe the affix or word in context 5. request a time-graph 6. describe findings – e.g. – appeared and popular from - referred to arsenal supposedly held by Iraqis - at once produced derivations/compounds (classify) - immediately made creativity play (classify) - lost popularity by 7.discuss findings - hypothesis about productivity correct; also creative - reasons for this

44 Preparing for mini case-study over the lunch break think of an aspect of language which you are curious to investigate: a word, affix, phrase, metaphor, grammatical point

45 Suggestions for mini case-study new words – collocational patterns /change patterns – why? hoodie; NEET/neet, nerd, carbon footprint, blog, cowboy blends staycation euphemism/political correctness down-sizing, X-challenged, cashflow problem words in sets, e.g. numbers, seasons – are they used equi-frequently in text; if not, why not? spring, summer, autumn, winter synonyms – how similar are they in text? tsar, guru, supremo and pundit global warming vs. greenhouse effect suffixes: -fest, -gate, -esque, -ee, -ery, -ati, -ard, -ese, -ify, -athon, -dom, -some, 'd prefixes: mega-, cyber-, eco-, techno-, bio-, e-, retro-, cod-, faux-, uber-

46 Creativity definition lexical creativity puns and other word play metaphor deliberate error duplication of an existing formation used in journalism, literary prose or poetry, for stylistic effects, e.g. humour or irony. a sense of learnedness, sophistication, etc.

47 weapons of (mass) (destruction) Pattern of creativity 1: weapons of mass * (no destruction) weapons of mass distraction weapons of mass obstruction weapons of mass disruption weapons of mass deception weapons of mass discomfort weapons of mass terror weapons of mass casualties weapons of mass entertainment weapons of * destruction ( no mass) weapons of modest destruction weapons of scant destruction weapons of ass destruction weapons of indiscriminate destruction weapons of ministerial destruction weapons of market destruction weapons of most destruction weapons of * (no mass, no destruction) weapons of bluff, brinkmanship & bloody-mindedness weapons of bumps and bruises weapons of nasty scratches

48 Pattern of creativity 2: next day weapons of mass * ( no destruction) weapons of mass banalization weapons of mass construction weapons of mass consumption weapons of mass deconstruction weapons of mass distortion weapons of mass distractions weapons of mass effect (WME) weapons of mass hysteria weapons of mass instruction weapons of mass irritation weapons of mass media (WMM) weapons of mass partying weapons of mass protection weapons of mass repression weapons of * destruction (no mass) weapons of catastrophic destruction weapons of class destruction weapons of complete destruction weapons of further destruction weapons of global destruction weapons of godlike destruction weapons of great destruction weapons of less destruction weapons of local destruction weapons of mad destruction weapons of massive destruction weapons of media destruction weapons of mischievious destruction weapons of murderous destruction weapons of nuclear destruction weapons of pattern destruction weapons of terrible destruction weapons of wealth destruction weapons of moose destruction

49 Pattern of creativity 3: weapons of mass * ( no destruction) weapons of mass photography weapons of mass media (WMM) weapons of * destruction (no mass) weapons of ‘grass destruction’ weapons of singing destruction weapons of * (no mass,no destruction) weapons of math instruction

50 Creativity: demonstration of advanced wildcard search with WebCorpLSE II phrases and proverbs: e.g. too many * * the *

51 Closing Masterclass II review urls for more data urls for RDUES urls for Masterclass materials glossary and feedback sheet programme for next year thank you au revoir!


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