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Using Information (Higher)

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1 Using Information (Higher)
Information Systems Using Information (Higher)

2 Outcome 1 Content Introduction Data and information
Organisational Information Systems Information Management Software The implications of ICT

3 Lesson 1 Introduction to the course – 3 units, coursework worth 30%.
Learning intentions Data, Information and Knowledge. Metadata. Information Rich & Information Poor Categories of Information.

4 Introduction Information and knowledge are so important that society can be divided up into two groups. Information rich - you have access to:-. many TV and radio channels. books, newspapers and journals. computers and the World Wide Web. Information poor. tend to not have access to the Web and probably find it difficult to access relevant books and journals. If you are following this course you will probably be information rich.

5 Data and Information The Differences Between Data and Information
Metadata Categorisation of Information Characteristics Which Affect the Quality of Information

6 Data and Information Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning. Information is processed data that has meaning and a context. Data 36.41 Binary patterns on a disc Information £36.41 – bill for DVD’s Processed Data – e.g. display on screen, Icons etc.

7 Quiz questions Using an example please explain the difference between data, information and knowledge? (3) Explain the difference between information rich and information poor in terms of education and job opportunities. (4)

8 Knowledge Knowledge is gained from Information.
We gain knowledge from information and we use that information to make decisions. Explicit knowledge is rules or process or decisions that can be recorded either on paper or in an information system. Tacit knowledge exists inside the minds of humans and is harder to record. It tends to be created from someone’s experiences, again a set of rules or experiences.

9 Metadata Metadata can be thought of as data that describes data.
Examples. a data dictionary. the card index system used by libraries pre computerisation, where each card told you the author, title and where to find the book. data about documents or files stored on the computer. The computer keeps a file on its hard disk where it records information about each and every file on the computer. This includes information such as when the file was created or modified; who created it; the size of the file; the file type it is. This master or directory file is an example of metadata.

10 Keywords Data Formal Info Information Informal Info Knowledge
Metadata Primary data Secondary data Internal sources External sources Formal Info Informal Info Quantitative Info Qualitative Info Strategic Level Tactical Operational

11 Categorisation of Information
Information can be categorised under several headings that allow us to determine the overall usefulness of it. Main categories Source – Primary, Secondary, Internal, External Nature – Formal, Informal Level – Strategic, Tactical, Operational Time – Historic, Present & Future. Frequency – Continuous, periodic Use – Decision Making, Planning Form – Written, Aural and Visual Type - Detailed, sampled, aggregated.

12 List them all S-4 N-2 L-3 T-3 F-2 U-2 F-3

13 Source – Primary or Secondary
A primary source provides the data to an information system from an original source document. E.g an invoice sent to a business or a cheque received. sales figures for a range of goods for a tinned food manufacturer for one week or several weeks and several locations.   A secondary source of information is one that provides information from a source other than the original. E.g. an accounts book detailing invoices received, a bank statement that shows details of cheques paid in. Where statistical information is gathered, such as in surveys or polls, the survey data or polling data is the primary source and the conclusions reached from the survey or the results of the poll are secondary sources

14 Source – Internal Internal - All organisations generate a substantial amount of internal information relating to their operation. Examples of Internal sources Marketing and sales information on performance, revenues, markets shares, distribution channels etc. Production and operational information on assets, quality, standards etc. Financial information on profits, costs, margins, cash flows, investments etc. Internal documentation such as order forms, invoices, credit notes, procedural manuals.

15 Source – External External - An external source of information is concerned with what is happening beyond the boundaries of the organisation. census figures judgments on court cases legislation, for example the Data Protection Act trade journals professional publications industry standards Telephone directories computer users’ yearbook gallup & national opinion polls ordinance survey maps Financial services agencies such as Dunn and Bradstreet the Internet

16 Source - Nature Formal Communication Informal Communication
information presented in a structured and consistent manner. main methods the formal letter, properly structured reports, writing of training materials etc. in cogent, coherent, well-structured language.  Informal Communication less well-structured information transmitted within an organization or between individuals usually who know each other. Quantitative Information information that is represented numerically.   Qualitative Information information that is represented using words.

17 Levels of Information Long-term decisions - both internal & external sources Top level of management STRATEGIC TACTICAL OPERATIONAL Medium-term decisions - mostly internal but some external sources Middle management Day-to-day decisions - largely internal sources Lowest level of staff

18 Time Historic Present Future
Information gathered and stored over a period of time. It allows decision makers to draw comparison between previous and present activities. Historic information can be used to identify trends over a period of time. Present Information created from activities during the current work-window (day, week or month). In real-time systems this information would be created instantly from the data gathered (the temperature in a nuclear power plant turbine) giving accurate and up-to-date information. Future Information that is created using present and historic information to try to predict the future activities and events relating to the operation of an organisation.

19 Frequency of Information
Continuous This is information created from data gathered several times a second. It is the type of information created by a real-time system.   Periodic Information created at regular time intervals (hourly, daily, monthly, annually). Annually - On an annual basis a company must submit its report and accounts to the shareholders. Monthly – Banks and credit card companies produce monthly statements for the majority of its customers. Daily – A supermarket will make daily summaries of its sales and use the product information to update its stock levels and reorder stock automatically. Hourly – A busy call centre will often update totals for each operator on an hourly basis and give the top employee for the hour some reward. 

20 Uses of Information within Organisations
Planning is the process of deciding, in advance, what has to be done and how it is to be done. planning means decisions by management about: What is to be done in the future How to do it When to do it Who is to do it An objective is something that needs to be achieved A plan contains the activities or actions required to achieve the objective

21 Uses of Information within Organisations
Control is the monitoring and evaluation of current progress against the steps of a predefined plan or standard. Operational level the manager ‘s time will be spent on control activities At higher levels planning and control are more closely linked, with management being concerned with the monitoring of progress against the plan, assessing the suitability of the plan itself and predicting future conditions.

22 Uses of Information within Organisations
Decision-making – selecting an action or actions from those possible based on the information available. involves determining and examining the available actions and then selecting the most appropriate actions in order to achieve the required results. an essential part of management and is carried out at all levels of management for all tasks.   made up of four phases: ·        Finding occasions for decision making ·        Find possible courses of action ·        Choosing among these courses of action ·        Evaluating past choices

23 Forms of Information Written. Aural. Visual.
hand-written, word-processed, s. reports from different classes of software. reports, memos and tables, receipts, invoices, statements, summary accounting information. Aural. Speech, formal meetings, informal meetings, talking on the phone and voic messages. Employee presentations to a group where there may be use made of music and sound effects as well as speech. Visual. pictures, charts and graphs. Presentations via data projects, DVD’s etc.

24 Types of Information Detailed Sampled Aggregated
an inventory list showing stock levels actual costs to the penny of goods detailed operating instructions most often used at operational level  Sampled Selected records from a database Product and sales summaries in a supermarket often used at a tactical level (maybe strategic)  Aggregated totals created when detailed information is summed together. details of purchases made by customers totaled each month

25 Characteristics of Information
Availability / Accessibility Information should be easy to obtain or access Accuracy Information needs to be accurate enough for the use it is going to be put. Reliability or Objectivity Reliability deals with the truth of information or the objectivity with which it is presented. Relevance / Appropriateness Information should be relevant to the purpose for which it is required. It must be suitable.

26 Characteristics of Information
Completeness. Information should contain all details required by the user. Level of Detail / Conciseness. Information should be in a form that is short enough to allow for its examination and use. There should be no extraneous information. Presentation. Information can be more easily assimilated if it is aesthetically pleasing. Timing. Information must be on time for the purpose for which it is required. Information received too late will be irrelevant.

27 Characteristics – Value and Cost
The relative importance of information for decision-making can increase or decrease its value to an organisation. Cost. Information should be available within set cost levels that may vary dependent on situation. The Difference Between Value and Cost. Valuable information need not cost much. Information costly to obtain may not have much value.

28 Organisational Information Systems
Categories of Information Systems Organisational Management Systems Concepts, functions & strategies Centralised database Network Strategy Security Strategy Backup Strategy Upgrade Strategy Software Strategy Distributed databases, data warehousing & data mining

29 Categories of Information Systems
Data Processing Systems (DPS) - Operational Management Information Systems (MIS) - Tactical Decision Support Systems (DSS) - Tactical Executive Information System (EIS) - Strategic

30 Data Processing Systems
Transactional Processing System Deals with day to day transactions Accountancy, Invoicing, Stock Control Items scanned by bar code reader DPS are the tools used at the Operational level of an organisation. DPS involves use of a computer

31 Management Information Systems
MIS converts data from internal and external sources into information for managers. The source of data for a MIS usually comes from numerous databases. These databases are usually the data storage for Data Processing Systems. MIS summarise and report on the organisations basic operations.  . MIS produce reports for managers interested in historic trends on a regular basis. MIS operate at the tactical level.

32 Decision Support Systems
A DSS provides information and models in a form to help tactical and strategic decision-making. They support management decision-making by integrating: Company performance data; Business rules in a decision table; Analytical tools and models for forecasting and planning; A simple user interface to query the system. . DSS are useful when making ad-hoc, one off decisions. The source of data for a DSS tends to be a combination of summary information gathered from lower level DPS and MIS.

33 Executive Information System
An EIS provides senior managers with a system to assist in taking strategic and tactical decisions. purpose - analyse, compare and identify trends to help the strategic direction of the organisation. EIS incorporate data about external events. draw summarised information from internal MIS and DSS. Systems filter, compress, and track critical data. reduce time and effort required to obtain information useful to strategic management. employ advanced graphics software to provide highly visual and easy-to-use representations of complex information and current trends. they do not provide analytical models. EIS allow the user to look at specific data that has been summarised from lower levels within the organisation and then drill down to increase the level of detail - data warehouse analysis.

34 Expert Systems An expert system is a computer program that tries to emulate human reasoning. It does this by combining the knowledge of human experts and then, following a set of rules, draws inferences. . An expert system is made up of three parts. a knowledge base stores all of the facts, rules and information needed to represent the knowledge of the expert. an inference engine interprets the rules and facts to find solutions to user queries. a user interface allows new knowledge to be entered and the system queried. Reasons for Expert Systems. To store information in an active form as organisational memory. To create a mechanism that is not subject to human feelings, such as fatigue and worry. To generate solutions to specific problems that are too substantial and complex to be analysed by human beings in a short period of time.

35 Interrelationships Between Information Systems

36 Organisational Information System Management Strategies
Network Strategy. Addresses Data Transfer, Distribution, Access & Security, Facilities, Storage. Security Strategy. Deals with access to the network and keeping unauthorised people out. Backup & Recovery Strategy. To ensure data is not accidentally erased and can be recovered once backed up. Upgrade Strategy. To plan new hardware and software and ensure everything new will work properly. Software Strategy. Choose between bespoke and standard packages.

37 Centralised Database A very large and powerful database - at the heart of an organisation. Database program is called the database engine and it saves and indexes files in tables and manages the relationships between the tables. information can be found fairly easily by querying the centralised database. Usually a multi-user or network system is used which means that any user on the system can have access to the database. Advantages to the database being centralised. much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data. Communications are easier. no real disadvantages to a centralised database.

38 Network Strategy Networks. LAN (Local Area Network) – in one building.
Device Sharing. Software Sharing. Data Sharing. Communication. WAN (Wide Area Network) – over a city, country or the wide world. Uses telecommunications. Distributed Networks. LAN with several servers, data accessible from all over the network.

39 Network Hardware Client-Server Network.
Central server stores data files and log-in details. Peer to Peer network. No central server, all stations equal. Cheaper, data less secure. workstation

40 Network Hardware Network Adapter Card. Structured Cabling.
Built-in to the computer. Allows the computer to send and receive data around the network. Structured Cabling. Cables made from copper wire, co-axial cable, fibre optic cable and twisted pairs. Twisted pair Ethernet most Common. Fibre Optic used to link over longer distances and to carry a very high bandwidth.

41 Network Software Network Operating System. – 2 parts
the version that runs on the server. needed to control which users and workstations can access the server,keep each user’s data secure. control the flow of information around the network. It is also responsible for file and data sharing, communications between users and hardware and peripheral sharing. the version that runs on the personal computers to turn them into network stations. Each workstation (computer) connected to the network needs the Network Operating System installed before it can connect successfully to the network facilities.

42 Network Software Network Auditing and Monitoring Software.
This software keeps a track of network activity. It records user activity and workstation activity. In a commercial organisation this sort of auditing and monitoring can be used to detect fraud and suspicious activity.

43 Security Strategy Security, Integrity and Privacy of Data.
Data Security means keeping data safe from physical loss. Data Integrity means the correctness of the stored data. Data Privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it.

44 The Security Risks to Information Systems
A virus piece of programming code that causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event in a computer system. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an as a download, on a disk being used for something else. Some viruses take effect as soon as their code takes residence in a system others lie dormant until something triggers their code to be executed by the computer. Viruses can be extremely harmful and may erase data or require the reformatting of a hard disk once they have been removed

45 The Security Risks to Information Systems
Hacking is gaining unauthorised access to a computer information system. the offence is maliciously altering data or stealing information. Denial of service This involves flooding an organisation’s Internet server with a surprisingly large amount of requests for information (traffic). This increase in traffic overloads the server, which is incapable of dealing with the backlog of requests, results in the server crashing or needing to be taken offline to resolve the problem.

46 Policies and Procedures for Implementing Data Security
Codes of conduct apply to users of an information system. Most organisations insist that users follow a set of rules for using their system. Employees have to sign a code of conduct as part of their conditions of employment. A code of conduct can cover basic professional competences as well as obvious statements like “Never disclose your password to anybody else and change your password every week.”

47 Policies and Procedures for Implementing Data Security
BCS Code of Ethics Covers:- Professional conduct Professional integrity Public interest Fidelity Technical competence Password guidelines Minimum length of 5 characters Must consist of letters and numbers Must not contain any words Cannot be the same as the previous password Cannot use easily guessed strings of letters or numbers (e.g and abcdef)

48 Implementing Data Security
Virus Protection. Prevention. Prevent users from using floppy disks. Scan incoming s for viruses. Do not open mail or attachments from someone you don’t recognise. Detection. Install Anti-virus software. Update it regularly to detect new viruses. Repair. Anti-virus s/w can quarantine a virus. Can delete the virus code from an infected file.

49 Implementing Data Security
Firewalls. Device or software used to prevent unauthorised access to a network. Placed between the server and the Internet connection (router). Can block sections of the network. Only allows authorised users to join the network (dial-in). Encryption. Used by on-line retailers to keep card details secure. Need it to gain trust of purchasers. 32 bit encryption almost impossible to crack.

50 Implementing Data Security
Access Rights. Read – allows users to read files. Allows files to be made read only. Write – allows users to write (save) files. Create – allows users to create new files. Erase – allows users to erase files. Modify – allows users to modify files. Groups of users may have. Read/write/create/erase on home drive. Read only on shared areas.

51 Backup Strategy Every computer user should have a strategy in place to backup their data. Backing up is the process of making a copy of data stored on fixed hard disks to some other media. This can be tape, external portable hard disks, writeable CD-ROM or DVD. The purpose of backing up data is to ensure that the most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data loss. Reasons for loss. electronic disasters such as a disk head. files being accidentally erased, the disk being attacked by a virus.

52 Archive, Recovery and Storage Methods
The process of copying data from hard disk drives to tape or other media for long-term storage. Data verification. it is important to check that the data stored on the backup media can be recovered. Storage Methods. DAT tape on built in drives on servers. USB removable hard drives. Frequency and Version Control. Full backup (weekly) and incremental daily. Grandfather, father, son method.

53 Upgrade Strategy Future Proofing.
making sure that a system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon. Hardware & software compatibility will older s/w work with new operating systems etc. will older h/w work with newer equipment (e.g. printers with computers).

54 Upgrade Strategy Integration Testing.
Are the peripheral devices compatible with the hardware and operating system? Does the network software support the hardware and operating system? Is the application software compatible with the operating system and computer? Is the hardware compatible with the operating system? Legacy Systems. Old information systems running on out of date hardware and operating systems are often referred to as legacy systems. problems with legacy systems lead to many computer companies developing software that conformed to Open Standards. Emulation. allows access to greater range of applications that might not be available on the given hardware platform. The use of an emulator allows data to be transferred between platforms.

55 Software Strategy Needs to take account of the issues :-
evaluating the software for use, using several key criteria the user support for the software the training supplied for end users of the software the upgrade path of the software

56 Software Evaluation Software Evaluation should cover.
Functionality - This refers not only to the number of features an application program has but the number of useable features it has. Also the tasks to be completed need to be evaluated against the features in the software. Performance – The performance of software can be measured by several different criteria depending on the type of software.

57 Criteria for Evaluation of Software
Reliability. Does the job it is supposed to. Resource Requirements. Has the computer enough RAM, big enough disks etc. Portability. Will it work on different systems. Support. Assistance from vendors or writers. Speed. Measured against benchmarks. Usability. Look and feel, choices in menus etc. Compatibility. With operating system. Data Migration. Translating from one format to another.

58 Training in Using Software
On-the-job. A new user needs to be introduced to the software. working through a tutorial to become familiar with the functions of the software. online tutorial program or tutorial manual that teaches the user about the software. In House. This is when small groups of staff, within the company receive a training course delivered by IT staff.  External. Offered by specialist training providers for popular application software, such as software created by Microsoft, Macromedia and Adobe.

59 OIS DPS DSS MIS EIS

60 User Support Manuals. Installation Guide – gives advice on how to install the software and how to configure it to work with various hardware. Tutorial Guide – gives step-by-step instructions on how to use the software. Reference Manual – Is an indexed guide detailing all the functions of the software. On-line Help. Explains to the user what each feature of the software does. It is a part of the program situated on the computer and is not on the Internet. On-line Tutorials. Step by step instructions on the computer not on the Internet.

61 Explain the Following Issues Affecting Decisions to Upgrade Software
User Support Criteria for Evaluation of Software Training in Using Software Explain the 4 Organisational Information Systems

62 User Support Help Desk. Newsgroups. FAQs.
Internal (end user) and external (software vendors). Newsgroups. A Newsgroup allows users of a piece of software to post messages to the wider user community. FAQs. This stands for Frequently Asked Questions. It is usually a file that contains a list of commonly asked user queries about a piece of software.

63 Issues Affecting Decisions to Upgrade Software
Lack of functionality. Business changes, new technology outdates software. Hardware Incompatibility. Upgraded computers do not support old software. Software Incompatibility. New operating system will not run old software. Perfecting the Software. Removing bugs and improving it – will existing data work with it.

64 Centralised and Distributed Databases
Centralised database. All the data is held on a central computer- mainframe or server. Advantages. far easier to manage and control if it is only in one location. far easier to back up when it is centralised. Distributed Database. Consists of two or more files located at different sites on a computer network. different users can access it without interfering with one another. The DBMS must synchronise the scattered databases to make sure they all have consistent data.

65 Data Warehousing Data warehousing.
Historical data transactions are separated out from the business. The data is re-organised in such a way as to allow it to be analysed, the newly structured data is then queried and the results of the query are reported. Data warehousing could be used as a predictive tool, to indicate what should be done in the future. The main use of data warehousing is as a review tool, to monitor the effects of previous operational decisions made in the course of a business.

66 Data Mining Data mining.
"The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data". It uses machine learning, statistical and visualisation techniques to discover and present knowledge in a form, which is easily comprehensible to humans. Data mining is the analysis of data and the use of software techniques for finding patterns and regularities in sets of data. The computer is responsible for finding the patterns by identifying the underlying rules and features in the data. The mining analogy is that large volumes of data are sifted in an attempt to find something worthwhile (in a mining operation large amounts of low grade materials are sifted through in order to find something of value.)

67 Information Management Software
Classes of Software Print Media, On-line Media, Spreadsheet, Project Management, PIM Word processing / DTP software Presentation / Web Authoring s/w Spreadsheet software Project Management Software Personal Information Management Software Evaluation of Software

68 Classes of Software There are five classes of software:-
Presenting Information for Print media Presenting Information for On-Line Media Spreadsheet (data handling) Project Management Personal Information Management

69 Presenting Information for Print Media
Most applications are designed to produce printed output except for graphics and web authoring which tend to be more visual. Only Word Processing (WP) and Desk Top Publishing are classed in this group. Differences between WP and DTP. WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text. DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily. WP can deal with multi-page documents but DTP handles multi-page documents far better. DTP files tend to be very large especially if real pictures are used.

70 Presenting Information for On-line Media
Presentations. large growth in the use of s/w to create presentations. cost of data projectors has dropped. Presentation s/w allows the user to create a slide show. Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects, Slides can be sequenced - jump to using hyperlinks. PowerPoint most popular package. Web Authoring. software allows users to easily make up web pages. drag and drop objects onto the screen. Click on icons to link graphics and media files. deal easily with hyper-linking. File written as HTML or XTML code.

71 Data Handling – Spreadsheet
Education. record and analyse marks and results keeping track of budgets and financial information, Home situation. keep track of household expenditure, track share values and even keep track of contacts. very good at formatting output, used for printing address labels. Financial Application. cash flow forecast, statement of accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders etc. Modelling and Simulation. predicting a new situation from existing one - “what-if? analysis.” Statistical Analysis. E.g. analysis of numerical information. Two examples are Descriptive Statistics and Goal Seeking. Macro Use. A Macro is a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive tasks.

72 Project Management The software. used to help manage a project.
planning, monitoring and control of the various activities or resources that contribute to its success. Project management. identifying the activities that need to be carried out to complete the project. For each activity - duration; cost; resources; employees; inter-relationships - all need to be assigned. Activities scheduled to ensure efficiency. Plan output as PERT or Gantt chart. Software Packages. Microsoft Project; CA SuperProject and Hoskyns Project Managers Workbench.

73 Personal Information Management
Personal information management software (PIM) type of software application designed to help users organise random bits of information. PIMs enable you to enter various kinds of textual notes reminders, lists, and dates - and to link these bits of information together in useful ways. Many PIMs also include calendar, scheduling, and calculator programs.

74 Word Processing Software
Data Objects. characters, words paragraphs , graphic objects. Operations. File Menu – performed on whole files. Edit Menu – cut, copy and paste. View Menu – including headers and footers. Insert Menu – Page break, date/time, picture etc. Format Menu – format text (an extensive menu). Tools Menu – Mail merge, spelling and grammar, options and customisation. Table Menu – Insert table then table operations. Window and Help much as in other Windows applications. Formatting functions are found mostly in the format menu and also on the icons on the menu line with B I U on it.

75 Desk Top Publishing Standard File, Edit, View, Window, Help.
Also Layout, Type, Element Utility. most of the formatting functions here. Also a Toolbox. Arrow and Text , basic drawing tools, and a colour palette.

76 Desk Top Publishing Advanced operations and functions Page Layout
Headers and Footers Columns Multi-Page Layout Pagination Contents and Indexing Style Sheets Font Selection – Serif v San-Serif Colour use

77 Desk Top Publishing Inserting Graphics. Formatting Graphics. Clip Art.
Scanned pictures. Digital Camera. Formatting Graphics. How graphic behaves on the page. Square, Tight, in front of, behind. A graphic formatted with Tight Layout means text flows around it.

78 Web Authoring Software
Page Structure. Individual pages linked to form a site. Incorporation of Graphics. Used to enhance appearance of the page. Graphics should be JPEG or GIF – size matters. Graphics linked to the page (not pasted in). Presentation Style. Font selection limited, careful use of colour. Navigation. Pages linked together by Hyperlinks. Set Home Page, use arrows, bookmarks, history. Templates. Use style sheets to provide common fonts, colours etc.

79 Presentation Software
Page Structure. Individual slides follow a linear pattern, can be hyperlinked. Incorporation of Graphics. Used to enhance appearance of the page. Graphics inserted into slide, embedded in the page. Presentation Style. Font selection vast, careful use of colour Navigation. Move to next slide by click of mouse. Slides can be linked together by Hyperlinks. Templates. Various pre-prepared templates available. Can make up own template as a slide master.

80 Spreadsheet Software Data Objects. Operations.
Cells and groups of cells containing text, numbers, formulas. Operations. File Menu – performed on whole files. Edit Menu – cut, copy and paste. View Menu – including headers and footers. Insert Menu – rows, columns, worksheet, functions. Format Menu – format cells including numeric like currency as well as standard text formatting. Tools Menu – spelling protection and macros. Data Menu – Sort, filter and pivot tables. Window and Help much as in other Windows applications. Formatting functions are found mostly in the format menu and also on the icons on the menu line with B I U on it.

81 Spreadsheet Software Advanced Functions. Goal Seeking.
Automatically change values until desired result achieved. Forecasting. Calculates or predicts a future value by using existing values. Look-up Tables. Can be used to insert text in a cell depending on a value. E.g. Grades or Pass/Fail from an exam mark. Nested If. Using an IF function within an If function. Count. Gets the number of entries in a range of cells (COUNTA for text values). Macros. A sequence of instructions that can be used to automate a task.

82 Project Management Timelining. Resource Allocation.
Shows how and when a task needs to be completed before the next one starts. Resource Allocation. Software tools to help match up the materials, machine, people and money. Maximising profits or achieve best quality. Gant and PERTT charts. Gant shows timings of each activity in a chart. PERTT shows relationship between activities. Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis. A mathematical process concerned with the optimisation of time. Used for very complicated processes (managing a production line).

83 Personal Information Management (PIM)
Such as Microsoft Outlook. Contacts - can be thought of as a very comprehensive address book. Calendar - lets the user keep a diary of events, meetings, appointments and activities. Task List - This is also called a “To-do list”. It keeps a list of all the tasks that require to be carried out and reminds the user when each task is due to be completed. Communication - ; Most PIM applications support sending, receiving and management of s.

84 Implications of ICT Social Implications Legal Implications
Economic Implications Ethical Implications

85 Social Implications Globalisation and Impact of IS on Social Structures Online retail Globalisation The Impact on Business of an IS Driven Business Model Identities and Personas Privacy

86 Social Implications Ease of access and availability of information
Explosion of the internet had lead to any piece of information being available anywhere

87 Information Rich / Poor
Developed or developing countries Access to the internet and the skills to use it. A well educated, information rich population will help grow the economy.

88 Family and social life Easily keep in touch with friends/family who could live anywhere. Less face to face contact Children vulnerable online Privacy – difficult to keep info private. Playing games – could be addictive.

89 Qualifications Thousands of courses Many IT related jobs
Business Computing Software Engineering Game Design

90 Knowledge Workers Someone who uses information in their daily tasks in their job, adding and creating new information. Lawyer, Doctor, Managers, Journalist, Teacher

91 Adv of Online retail Company does not need to pay for rent etc of their stores. Shop from home Greater choice online Comparisons Easy Save on staff costs Wider range of customers, sell 24/7

92 Disadv of online retail
No face to face contact Pay for domain name Pay for delivery Take what you get for food Don’t see/touch/try on the product

93 Globalisation Increased trade means a wider choice of products
Big brands dominate offering the same products worldwide

94 Identities, Personas, Avatars
People can hide their true identity Avatar – cartoon picture of a person

95 Personal Privacy Far less private
It’s easy to find out information about anyone Social Network sites.

96 The Changing Relationships between Retailer and Customer
Shoppers are:-. Becoming intolerant of goods being unavailable or out of stock. Very wary of over-pricing and long delivery times. Consumers are:-. More willing to go on-line and order from different retailers. Need a credit card to buy on-line. Stress of waiting for goods bought as presents not turning up. We still maintain relationships: With local specialist shops. Customers who buy their groceries on-line and have the same delivery driver every week often build up a good relationship with the driver. In General. The two types of shopping can complement each other, opening up new markets to specialist retailers and giving more choice to customers.

97 Globalisation Globalisation.
The growing integration of economies and societies around the world. Has been hotly debated topic in economics. Positive Aspects of Globalisation. Rapid growth and poverty reduction in China, India, and other countries that were poor 20 years ago. Negative Aspects of Globalisation. It has increased inequality. Contributed to environmental degradation. Confined to huge companies as divers as Oil, Cola. And burgers.

98 Impact of IS on Business and Societies
Multinational companies. As diverse as Cola and Oil technology. achieved globalisation through the use of information systems. Originally a few large companies with mainframe computers. Confined to major USA and European cities. Present day examples of Globalisation. Smaller companies have global presence. Communicate via dedicated worldwide intranet. Publish reports, memos etc & e:mail round the world. Don’t need mainframe systems. Use web and mail servers to communicate.

99 The Impact on Business of an IS Driven Business Model
Traditional Businesses. Have embraced IT with open arms. Have had IT forced upon them and adapted. Modern IS driven businesses. Companies without High Street branches. Call centre based companies. Advertise heavily on TV. Much cheaper than running a network of branches. Call centres can bring employment to towns rather than cities.

100 Identities & Personas Using the Internet as a medium of communication.
Change is having a dramatic impact on people’s lives. Ability to communicate with anyone regardless of age, sex, location, background etc. The Internet allows people to develop different identities and personas when communicating. Can join chat rooms and newsgroups and offer an expert opinion even when not an expert. Disadvantages. Criminal offence of “grooming” via the Internet. Parents wary of letting teenagers have use of the Internet. Fear of the Internet among certain groups in society. Read about. Jonathan Lebed and Marcus Arnold either online or in the notes.

101 Privacy Private Communications across the Internet.
Should be secure and safe. Feel we have a right to this privacy. Web sites we visit should be our business. National Security or Criminal Actions. Terrorists use e:mail, mobile phones and the Internet to communicate amongst themselves. Criminals use the Internet to host web sites. What about our privacy? Security organisations can scan all e:mail and mobile phone messages looking for tell tale phrases. FBI caught thousands of paedophiles across USA and Europe via their IP address and phone number.

102 Legal Implications of Information Systems
The Data Protection Act 1998 Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002 Health and safety Regulations

103 The 1998 Data Protection Act
The 8 Data Protection Principles. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully. Personal data shall be obtained only for lawful purposes, Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive. Personal data shall be accurate and, kept up to date. Personal data shall not be kept for longer than is necessary. Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects. Appropriate measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of data. Personal data shall not be transferred to a country outside Europe. Data must be registered with the Data Commissioner.

104 The 1998 Data protection Act
Unconditional exemptions. Data related to National Security. Data which by law has to be made public (e.g. voters’ roll). Data held by the Police and National Health Service.  conditional exemptions. mailing lists (names and addresses). data used for calculating and paying wages. information used for club memberships. data used by a data subject at home.

105 The 1998 Data Protection Act
Rights of Data Subjects. To see any personal data stored either electronically or manually about them. The Data controller may ask that a small fee be paid to cover their costs in providing the data. To have their data corrected if it is inaccurate. To prevent their data being used by companies to send them junk mail. Responsibilities of Data Users. Have to register with the Data Protection Registrar if they wished to hold personal information about data subjects. They must be willing to let data subjects see data held about them, but must amend any false data without charge. Data Users must also be willing to remove subjects’ names and addresses from mailing lists if asked to.

106 The 1998 Data Protection Act
Changes From 1984 Act. The 1984 DPA had certain shortcomings. only covered data in electronic form. companies could circumvent certain provisions. It had no European or worldwide dimension. there was no obligation on any data user to tell the data subject that they held any data about them. The 1998 Act. covers the transmission of data in electronic form, which was not really an issue in 1984. harmonised the European Union Data Protection legislation. It also made it a requirement of the Act to ask for the prior consent of data subjects to have data held about them, and included paper based records.

107 Copyright, Designs & Patents Act
Software Licensing. Software can be legally installed on as many computers as the licence allows. Shareware can be used legally for 30 days then either paid for or deleted. Freeware can be downloaded and used free of charge. Computer Applications. Databases can store vast amounts of copyright data. Act covers extracts from computer databases. Plagiarism to copy work directly from the Web. Music downloads must be paid for and copyright checked. Software piracy a crime - FAST.

108 The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000
Gives powers to:-. Police, Special Branch, GCHQ and MI5. It allows organisations to monitor employees, and Web usage. It also provides powers to help combat the threat posed by rising criminal use of strong encryption to try to break into electronic transactions. The Act contains 5 parts. allows the authorities to monitor our personal and Internet usage. businesses, local authorities and government departments can and do monitor internal s, monitor Internet usage of staff, students and pupils. sounds very “Big Brother.” May enrage and disturb many people to realise this. When terrorists can be anywhere in our society it may be a relief to know that the authorities are taking such steps to catch them.

109 The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002
From 1st January 2005. General right of public access to all types of 'recorded' information held by public authorities. sets out exemptions from that general right. places a number of obligations on public authorities. The Act applies only to 'public authorities' and not to private entities. Public authorities include Government Departments, local authorities and many other public bodies, and also schools, colleges and universities. The Act will be enforced by the Scottish Information Commissioner. Responsibilities of public authorities. Required to adopt and maintain a Publication Scheme. Sets out the classes of information available (eg. prospectuses, almanacs and websites). the manner in which they intend to publish the information, whether a charge will be made for the information.

110 Health and Safety Regulations
Requirement on employers. Carry out a risk assessment. Employers with five or more employees need to record the significant findings of the risk assessment. Risk assessment should be straightforward in a simple workplace such as a typical office. Provide a safe and secure working environment.

111 Economic Implications of ICT
The Effect of New ICT on Business. Business and ICT. Business Costs.

112 The Effect of New ICT on Business
Costs. Investing in a new computerised system is very expensive. Staff training a major cost. Benefits. Increased productivity (fewer staff). Increased functionality. Reports from the computerised system can save the expense of professionals.

113 Business and ICT Competitive advantage.
Business wants advantage compared to their competitors in the same area of business who have not made a similar investment. How to gain Competitive Advantage. Employ a systems analyst. Complete a feasibility study covering. technical aspects and legal and economic feasibility. Huge Leap of Faith? First paper based mail order company. to move over to a call centre and telephone ordering. tie in with an “intelligent warehouse”. exhaustive economic feasibility study to see if they would gain a competitive advantage over their rivals. they did, but was it an even bigger leap of faith to be the first of these companies to introduce Internet Ordering?

114 Business Costs Initial Costs. Running Costs.
Huge costs to set up a production line, just-in-time ordering or a call centre. Computers, Software, Robots etc. Running Costs. Staff required. Paper, Ink cartridges, back-up media. Software licences. Maintenance contracts.

115 Ethical Implications of ICT
Censorship Regulating The Content of The Internet Privacy and Encryption Global Citizenship

116 Censorship On The Internet.
Current censorship laws may not be adequate. Operators of questionable sites can host sites in countries without such laws. Controls can hinder freedom of speech. Now if you visit an illegal site (even if it is legal where it is published) you can be prosecuted. Should “Spam” be illegal – freedom of speech. Visiting an illegal site by accident can be a valid defence (description bears no resemblance to the actual contents).

117 Regulating the content of the Internet
Dubious Material On the Internet. Conscious access needs to be made before ‘offensive’ or ‘unacceptable’ material is displayed. Software can be installed that will monitor what accesses are made from which terminals, when and by whom. Internal organisational procedures should deal with this type of situation. Contravening Legislation on the Internet. Internet is no different from other media- can contravene legislation on sensitive matters. Successful libel cases taken out against bulletin board operators for the materials that were published on their boards. Is current legislation enough? Presumably only time will tell. Future governments and public opinion will influence new legislation.

118 Privacy and Encryption
Text messages, mobile calls, and Internet usage can all be monitored by security organisations, Criminals are using technology to try and intercept and read personal information. If we are to trust on-line shopping, then the on-line vendors must apply security to their site. Encryption. Ensure that the card number is encrypted when it leaves the shopper’s computer until it arrives safely at the vendor’s web site. PGP, Pretty Good Privacy, which uses a 32-bit encryption procedure. This is unbreakable and is used by good on-line retailers who will usually advertise the fact. They may also subscribe to a code of practice (like the Which? Code for Internet shopping) that is based on PGP and 32-bit encryption.

119 ICT and Global Citizenship
Study of Citizenship. Gives pupils and students the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective role in society at local, national and international levels. Global citizenship is generally though of as being aware of global issues such as environment, commerce, politics and society in general. Use of ICT in Citizenship. If a pupil or student is studying citizenship then the use of the Internet means that information and discussion papers can be found and studied very easily. newsgroups exist on a wide range of citizenship topics – informed and serious discussions. links with schools in foreign countries.


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