Trade-Offs BenefitsChallenges Increase the scale and reach of INGOs Approach may not produce sustainable structural change. Compliance requirements may divert time, money and professional culture away from meeting priorities of beneficiaries. Dangers of loss of independence and fear of losing funding. Increase the size and role of local NGOs and local civil society As for INGOs plus: Shifts accountability from local to external. May undermine financial sustainability. Chance to engage to improve donors’ aid effectiveness May divert advocacy into ‘more and better aid’ agenda rather than pursuing structural change.