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Expectations Show respect for others by listening when they are talking Always try your best and attempt everything Ask questions Respect your learning environment Enjoy !!!
AS Economics Production Possibility Curves
Starter Make a table with two columns – WANTS and NEEDS In each column write down ten things that you, right now in your life, want or need and write a price (estimate) for each Total the price at the bottom of your table Then below this total, write down your monthly income
The Economic Problem Most of us want better food, clothing, housing, schooling, holidays, hospital care, and entertainment – Unlimited wants and needs But there is not enough to go around – Limited resources This gives rise to the basic economic problem of choice under conditions of scarcity. If we cannot have everything we want, we must choose what we will and will not have.
Economys Resources An economys resources fall into four main categories: Land – Land, forests, minerals Labour – Human resources Capital – Tools, machinery, factories Entrepreneurs – People who take risks by introducing new products and new ways of making old products
Production Possibility Curve We are now going to illustrate on a diagram some of the issues surrounding economic choices. Production Possibility Curve – Shows the maximum amount of two products that can be made in this time period with current resources and technology
Drawing a Production Possibility Curve Let us construct a simple Production Possibility Curve to assess the options open to a farmer who can use land to grow either wheat or maize: Q Maize 0 Each axis shows quantity of goods made L M LM is a production possibility curve (PPC) Q Wheat
One Possible Resource Allocation Q Maize M Q Wheat 0 L Resource Allocation – a given use of land, labour and capital For instance, the farmer can opt to use all resources to produce combination A: A R S OR maize and OS wheat R
An Alternative Resource Allocation Q Maize M Q Wheat 0 L Alternatively the farmer can use all current resources and be at point B on PPC and produce: OT maize and B T V OV wheat
Resource Reallocation Q Maize M Q Wheat 0 L B T V A S R Switching factors of production to alternative uses is called reallocation of resources For instance, reallocating land, labour and capital from sugar production into wheat means moving from A to B How much wheat is gained and how much maize is lost?
Opportunity Cost Q Maize M Q Wheat L B A R 0VS T The economic decision to move from A to B and product more wheat involves a sacrifice –LOST MAIZE Opportunity Cost – Measurement of cost by reference to the alternatives forgone The opportunity cost of SV extra wheat is RT maize forgone GAIN LOSS
Continued… Q Maize M Q Wheat L A R 0S The farmer is at point A What is the opportunity cost of producing OR maize? At A - OS wheat is being produced SM extra wheat could be produced if all resources are put into wheat The opportunity cost of OR maize is SM wheat
PPC and Economic Growth The PPC is drawn assuming: A fixed amount of resources Constant state of technology What happens to the PPC if there is an increase in the quantity or quality of resources available?
Shifts in the PPC Q Maize M Q Wheat L 0 LM is the initial position of the PPC More resources are acquired e.g. another field PPC shifts outwards to the right to UV U V
Continued… Q Maize Q Wheat L 0 M LM is the initial position of the PPC The productivity of staff and machinery producing wheat increases but productivity of resources producing maize is unchanged PPC pivots around L and becomes LZ Z
PPC and Efficiency Q Maize M Q Wheat L 0 E I U Point E is efficient: all resources are fully employed Point I is inefficient: some resources are unemployed Point U is unattainable given current resources and technology
Can You Use the PPC to show: Resource Allocation Resource Reallocation Opportunity Cost Economic Growth Changes in Productivity Changes in Efficiency