2NaturePeople behave the way they do because they are animals who act in accordance with their animal instincts and are determined by their biology.
3NurturePeople behave the way they do because they are determined by the things other people teach them, the things they observe around them, and because of the different situations they are put in.
4Activity Sheet AS5Complete the questionnaire on your own
5Activity Sheet AS5 Complete the questionnaire on your own Now discuss your responses and thoughts with your neighbours.
6Human Development Factors that affect the development of: Behaviour PersonalityLanguageGender Roles
7Behaviour Pro-social behaviour Anti-social Behaviour Cooperation Working togetherHelping and caring behavioursIn children this includes sharing,taking turns, responding to theneeds of othersAnti-social BehaviourDifficulty in getting on with othersAggressive & disruptiveIn children this includes hitting,bullying, teasing, verbal abuse.hostilenon-cooperative
8Language Non verbal stage (babbling) Single word stage 2/3 word sentencesUsing grammar (adding ‘s’ for plural)More complex speechAbility to read and write
9Gender What differences are there between girls and boys behaviour? What stereotypes are there ofFemale/male behaviour &appearance?What makes boys and girlsbehave differently?
10Gender Differences More risk taking More aggressive More physical Rough & tumble playBetter mathematicalSkills & spatial ability (map reading!)Higher verbal abilityHigher spelling conversational ability.Less Physical‘Caring’ less aggressive.
11Gender differences Clear Biological differences Occupational choice differsPlaytime differs in childrenTo what extent do media stereotypes affect the development of gender?To what extent do parenting styles affect the development of gender?
12Personality A unique set of characteristics Relatively stable over timeWhat factors affect how our personality is shaped?
13What factors influence human Development? Theories of Human Development:Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentLearning Theory (Skinner)Social Learning Theory (Bandura)Bowlby’s Theory of AttachmentFreud’s Theory of PersonalityMaslow’s Theory of motivation
14Factors that affect development GeneticsEnvironment
17Genotype The genetic pattern an individual inherits. Every human has 23 pairs ofchromosomes, half inheritedfrom the mother and half from theFather. These combine to forma UNIQUE gene pattern known asyour GENOTYPE.P51 Reece
18Evidence to support Nature Dr Thomas Bouchard of the Minnesota Centre for Twin Adoption Research concluded that genetic factors play a huge part in human behaviour. The study focussed on identical twins who had been raised apart from each other.(2.30 mins)(paper article)(10 mins)
19Genes alone do not predict development…. Mental illness & EnvironmentCognitive Development &DeprivationObesity & Envirnoment
20Genetic patterned behaviour – behaviours we are born with.
21Genetic patterned behaviour….. Attachment in humans, Imprinting in animals – both behaviours promote survival
23MATURATION – a timetable of development built into a person’s genotype WalkingLanguagePubertyThese are all UNIVERSAL and happenat roughly the same time. Variation intimings may be due to environmentalinfluences e.g. nutrition.
24Environmental Factors What environmental factors affect development?
25Environmental Factors IncomeHousingNutritionEducationAccess to health facilitiesParenting StylesPlay OpportunitiesWeather
30PERMISSIVE STYLE Little guidance Emotionally warm Does not apply rules or allowsthe child to dowhat he/shewants InconsistentPERMISSIVESTYLE
31Factors affecting Human Development Summary Access to Health Services GeneticsEducation Sense of ‘self’Income Interaction withothersNutrition(pre & post-natal) Parenting StylesHousing
32SummaryBecause someone is born into a low income environment, does NOT mean they will grow up to be poor & disadvantaged.It is important to understand that a person’s sense of ‘SELF’ influences their development and the CHOICES they make gives them more CONTROL over their environment.A person’s ability is strongly influenced by their GENOTYPE and the ENVIRONMENT.
33M1 Discuss the Nature/Nurture debate in relation to individual development. We need to split into 2 groups to represent each side of the debate.Before next week, prepare for your ‘camps’ debate. We will debate ‘In Context Chris and Ian on Pg 180 of your text book. Re-read PPT on Moodle, visit links given in PPT, read handout. Prepare some notes having read the case study.Next week I will host a debate followed by drafting the assignment.