Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular System"— Presentation transcript:
1Cardiovascular System UNIT 1 - InformationHEARTBLOODBLOOD VESSELCardiovascular SystemFUNCTIONSSupply and transportation of O2 and other nutrients to the body for muscular contractionRemoval of waste: CO2 and lactic acidStabilisation of body temperature – at rest and during exerciseProtection from disease
2Show blood circulation UNIT 1 - InformationStructure of the HeartDelivers Carbon DioxideCapillaries in the lungsCollects OxygenThe HEART is a CARDIAC MUSCLEThe heart acts as a PUMP in a DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMPulmonary VeinPulmonary ArteryRLAortaBlood low in oxygen (deoxygenated)Vena CavaBlood rich in oxygen (oxygenated)Capillaries in the bodyAortaCollects Carbon Dioxide and wasteDelivers Oxygen and foodShow blood circulation
3SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT PULMONARY CIRCUIT UNIT 1 - InformationRLSYSTEMIC CIRCUITPULMONARY CIRCUITTransports oxygenated blood around the body (including working muscles) and transports deoxygenated blood back to the heart.(Click here)Transports deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs where carbon dioxide (CO2) is exchanged for Oxygen (O2), before it returns to the heart.
4Show path of deoxygenated blood UNIT 1 - InformationThe RIGH HAND SIDE of the heart pumps DEOXYGENATED BLOOD returning from the body:Deoxygenated blood flows through the VENA CAVA RIGHT ATRIUM RIGHT VENTRICLE PULMONARY ARTERY to the LUNGS for oxygenationPulmonary arteryDeoxygenated blood to the lungsDeoxygenated blood from the bodyVena cavaRight atriumTricuspid valveRight ventricleShow path of deoxygenated blood
5Show path of oxygenated blood UNIT 1 - InformationThe LEFT HAND SIDE of the heart pumps OXYGENATED BLOOD returning from the lungs:Oxygenated blood through the PULMONARY VEIN LEFT ATRIUM LEFT VENTRICLE AORTA to body.Oxygenated blood to the bodyAortaOxygenated blood from the lungsPulmonary veinRight atriumBicuspid valveRight ventricleShow path of oxygenated blood
6UNIT 1 - InformationHEART RATE (HR)‘The number of times the heart beats in one minute.’At rest it beats between 50 and 80 times per minute. When more blood is required by the muscles during exercise, the heart rate can increase to over 200 beats per minute, pumping around 45 litres around the body.Heart rate varies according to age, fitness and health.STROKE VOLUME (SV)‘The amount of blood forced out of the heart (left ventricle) per beat.’
7Cardiac Output Q = Heart Rate × Stroke Volume CO = HR × SV UNIT 1 - InformationCARDIAC OUTPUT (CO)‘The amount of blood pumped out of the heart (left ventricle) in one minute.’Cardiac output varies depending on the intensity of the exercise and the fitness levels of the person.Cardiac Output Q = Heart Rate × Stroke VolumeCO = HR × SV
8The human body contains nearly 5 litres of blood UNIT 1 - InformationCOMPOSITION OF BLOODThe human body contains nearly 5 litres of bloodBlood is made up of 4 elements:Information/DiscussionRed Blood CellsMost important function is to transport O2 (oxygen) to muscle cells to allow energy release and movement.White Blood CellsTheir chief function is to protect the body against disease.PlateletsThese bind together to form clots which prevent bleeding.PlasmaMakes up 55% of the total blood volume, 92% of which is water. It contains dissolved food and takes away waste – CO2. Proteins and amino acids are transported to cells in the body and used for growth and repair.Practical Application
9There are 3 types of blood vessels. UNIT 1 - InformationBLOOD VESSELSBlood is transported from the heart around the body and back to the heart in blood vessels.There are 3 types of blood vessels.When blood leaves the heart – passes into ARTERIESThese branch off into ARTERIOLES – smaller, but more numerousOxygen diffuses from blood into tissues through thin capillary walls. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the tissues into the bloodWhen it reaches the muscles, blood passes into CAPILLARIES – even smaller, but more numerous.Deoxygenated bloodOxygenated bloodAt the capillaries, the blood gives up its oxygen and takes in carbon dioxideThe blood starts its journey BACK to the heart in small, narrow veins called VENULESArteryVeinArteriolesVenulesCapillariesThe blood then passes into larger VEINS before returning to the heart
10UNIT 1 - InformationBLOOD PRESSUREThe force of blood against the artery walls.With exercise, the heart has to work to supply more O2 to muscles. As a result, the force of blood leaving the heart increases and blood pressure increases.Blood pressure is easily measured by taking the pressure at an artery in the arm.SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is the pressure of blood flow on the arteries when the LEFT VENTRICLE CONTRACTS.DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is the pressure of blood flow on the arteries when the LEFT VENTRICLE RELAXES.
11The average blood pressure reading for a young adult is 120/80. UNIT 1 - InformationBLOOD PRESSUREThe average blood pressure reading for a young adult is 120/80.Factors which can affect blood pressure:AGE, SEX, EXERCISE INTENSITY, STRESS, CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, FITNESSWays in which blood pressure can be reduced:REGULAR EXERCISE, SENSIBLE DIET, AVOID STRESS, MEDICATIONThe blood flow and blood distribution change according to the demand of exercising. The working parts of the body need to be supplied with the necessary amounts of O2The re-distribution of blood is called the VASCULAR SHUNT
12UNIT 1 - InformationBLOOD PRESSUREBlood flow to the muscles and the skin will increase during exercise. Blood flow to the kidneys and digestive system will decrease during exercise.The heat produced by the body increases as the INTENSITY and DURATION of exercise increases.To control high body temperature, blood is diverted to the capillaries just below the skin – this causes the skin to redden and heat from the blood is then RADIATED from the skin. This widening of the capillaries is called VASODILATION.To control low body temperature, the capillaries VASO CONSTRICT – become narrower, therefore reducing heat loss by radiation. Muscles begin to ‘shiver’ – small contractions which provide ‘heat’.
13UNIT 1 - InformationBLOOD PRESSUREAnother way of combating overheating is by SWEATING. Sweat is formed in sweat glands under the skin. Sweating is caused by the EVAPORATION of sweat from the skin’s surface.
14Heart / Blood / Blood Vessels FUNCTIONS UNIT 1 – Practical ApplicationHeart / Blood / Blood VesselsFUNCTIONSGroup DiscussionDouble Loop System – Transportation of Blood(Blood Pathway)Mapping exercise‘As a result of regular Aerobic Training, the heart gets bigger (HYPERTROPHY). How does this effect :Stroke volume,Heart rate, Blood flowCardiac outputDiscussion
15Heart rate UNIT 1 – Practical Application Group Discussion Discussion 1) At rest, 2) after exercise, 3) Recovery rate(2mins/15mins)Group Discussion‘How would heart rate differ between a short period of anaerobic work and a longer period of aerobic work?’Discussion
16UNIT 1 – Practical Application Use the following 2 diagrams to relate heart rate to physical activity:1) The graph below shows the heart rate of two sixteen year old athletes when training at the same intensity. Explain why athlete B is the fittest athlete.6090120180102030Heart Rate(beats per minute)Time (minutes)Athlete AAthlete B
17UNIT 1 – Practical Application 2) The graph below shows the heart rate of an eighteen year old badminton player during a game.Heart Rate(beats per minute)Time (minutes)510152050100150200250Give two pieces of evidence to suggest that this player is a fit competitor.
18UNIT 1 – Practical Application Heart Rate(beats per minute)Time (minutes)510152050100150200250During the game the player’s heart rate reaches 220 beats per minute (BPM). Calculate the player’s maximum heart rate (MHR) during the game.What evidence is there to suggest that this player worked both aerobically and anaerobically during the game?
19Aerobic / Anaerobic Systems Muscular System Energy Continuum UNIT 1 - LinksSkeletal SystemRespiratory SystemAerobic / Anaerobic SystemsMuscular SystemEnergy ContinuumTraining ZonesIntensity / Duration of ExerciseShort-term effects of exercise on the systems of the bodyLong-term effects of exercise on the systems of the body
20UNIT 1 - ActivityMatch the parts of the heart and connecting blood vessels to their function. [Click here to see diagram]FunctionName of PartTransports deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungsBrings back oxygenated blood from lungs to left atriumReceives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veinA two-flapped valve separating the left atrium from the left ventricleThe biggest chamber of the heart, which pumps oxygenated blood around the bodyMain artery which takes oxygenated blood from heart to the rest of the bodyThe main vein which brings deoxygenated blood back to heart from lower bodyThe main vein which brings deoxygenated blood back to heart from upper bodyThe chamber where deoxygenated blood enters the heartThe three-flapped valve separating the right atrium from the right ventricleThe chamber which pumps deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungsLeft ventricleTricuspid valvePulmonary veinAortaSuperior vena cavaLeft atriumRight atriumInferior vena cavaBicuspid valveRight ventriclePulmonary artery
21UNIT 1 - Activity Back Deoxygenated blood to the lungs Oxygenated blood to the bodyAortaOxygenated blood from the lungsPulmonary veinLeft atriumBicuspid valveLeft ventricleDeoxygenated blood to the lungsPulmonary arteryDeoxygenated blood from the bodyVena cavaRight atriumTricuspid valveRight ventricleSHOW/HIDE LABELSBackSHOW/HIDE ARROWS
22UNIT 1 - ActivityExplain the relationship between cardiac output (Q) and exercise intensity.Explain how the heart’s structure is adapted to its function.What is blood pressure?What is systolic pressure?What is diastolic pressure?What is the normal blood pressure reading for a young person?Give five factors that can affect blood pressure.
23UNIT 1 - ActivityWhy can narrowing or blocking of blood vessels be dangerous?Give five ways blood pressure can be reduced.Define the following terms:Heart rate (HR)Stroke volume (SV)Cardiac output (Q)What simple equation relates these three values?Give two differences between cardiac and skeletal muscle.
24UNIT 1 - ActivityComplete the following description of the blood’s journey from the heart around the body and back to the heart by dragging the correct word from the list below:Blood is transported from the heart around the __________ and back to the heart in ______________________. There are ___________ types of blood vessel. These branch off into ________________. These are smaller but are more numerous. When it gets to the muscles, blood passes into the ___________. These are even smaller, but there are millions of them. At the capillaries, the blood gives up its _______________ and takes in _______________. The blood starts its journey back to the heart in small veins called ________________. The blood then passes into larger _______________ before returning to the heart.venulescapillariesarteriesblood vesselsbodyoxygenarteriolesveinscarbon dioxidethree
25HELPS US WHEN DOING SPORT BY… UNIT 1 - ActivityExplain four ways in which blood helps the body during exercise.Complete the table to show how the constituents (parts) of blood help us when doing sport.CONSTITUENTHELPS US WHEN DOING SPORT BY…Red blood cellsPlasmaCarrying fuel, in the from of food, to the working muscles and takes away waste such as CO2White blood cellsPlateletsThe path that the blood takes can be described as a double loop. What is each loop called?
26Description and function UNIT 1 - ActivityHow would a 1500m runner benefit from higher levels of red blood cells?Complete the following table:Types of blood vesselDescription and function1.Carry oxygenated blood at high pressure from heart to the body. These are the thickest blood vessels.They swell as the blood is forced through then recoil back to normal.You can feel your pulse in them.2. Capillaries3.
27UNIT 1 - ActivityX on the graph shows how a sports person’s heart rate responds to a 10 minute run at 12kmph and how it recovers.Y shows the heart rate response to the same run after a period of regular endurance training.Explain the reasons for the changed heart rate pattern.BPM180170160150140130120110100908070XYTIME0 mins10 mins20 mins
28UNIT 1 - Activity Answer the following: How does regular aerobic training affect stroke volume?How does this affect a person’s heart rate and cardiac output when running at a medium pace for 5 minutes?
29Arteries / Veins / Capillaries UNIT 1 – Key Facts/ GlossaryBloodHEARTFUNCTIONSHealthy LifestylesBlood VesselsSystemicDouble circuitPulmonaryBlood flowCooling of bodyCardiac Output (CO)Composition of bloodVasodilatation(Sweating)Vasoconstriction(Low bodytemperature control)Arteries / Veins / CapillariesGaseous ExchangeBlood Pressure (BP)