Presentation on theme: "Phd Study The transfer of training from the ‘classroom to the mental health practice setting Ian McGonagle."— Presentation transcript:
1Phd Study The transfer of training from the ‘classroom to the mental health practice setting Ian McGonagle
2Context and shaping an interest NHS spends £4.3. billion on all forms of education and training.The vast majority of training programmes receive only superficial evaluationThe estimated ROI on training is between 10 and 20%.
3Multiple Case Study Design Pose the research questionIdentify the underpinning theoriesDetermine the case – It’s context and the phenomena of interestDetermine the specific case study approachIdentify the data collection methods most suitable to answer the research questionSelect analysis strategies appropriate to each of these data collection strategiesDetermine conclusions and develop a ‘case description’What is the role of personal factors (motivation etc) in the ability to transfer training in the learning system?What role do the training team play in the design and delivery of a training programme to deliver planned outcomes?What is the role or organisational /practice factors in the transfer system?MotivationSelf EfficacyIndividual and Team IdentityMultiple Case Study DesignQuestionnairesParticipant interviewFocus groupStatistical analysisContent analysisThematic analysisPrimary care providers who are beginning to integrate mental healthservices into their workforce.Secondary mental health care providers with a long history ofproviding secondary mental health services, but not in primary careIndependent providers working in primary care
4Defining the TermsLearning – not located solely in the individual it may take place in the system and be seen as a form of ‘transformation’. Not from position a – b but one that expands a learners potential range of optionsTransfer – the ability to extend what has been learned in one context into a new oneClassroom – a space designed for creativity, social interaction and testing of ideas and skills.Practice Setting – not a steady state, subject to fluctuations, full of disparate components and may reflect complex arenas but with an inherent order.Spend time reflecting on the nature of practice settingsWe think in terms of hierarchy, pecking order etc this may a do a disservice to the complexity in organisations and teams
5Kirkpatrick model for educational evaluation LevelOutcomeMethod of measurement to review impact of training1ReactionA measure of how the learners reacted to the training by asking learners to numerically rate sections of the course, and asking for written feedback and suggestions on how the course could be improved2aModification of values and attitudesMeasured through a ‘before’ and ‘after’ measure of attitudes2bAcquisition of knowledge and skillsMeasured through changes in self-reported levels of knowledge of the subjects covered in the course and confidence before and after attending the training3Change in behaviourMeasured through changes in learners’ specific behaviours before and after the training4aChange in Organisational PracticeMeasured using agreed organisational outputs4bBenefits to people who use servicesCould be measured through eliciting service user views a suitable length of time after the training
6Holton et al (2000) Model of factors which influence the transfer of learning Motivation to LearnReactionLearningAbilityMotivation to TransferTransfer ClimateIndividual PerformanceTransfer DesignExpected Utility/Return on InvestmentExternal EventsOrganisationalResultsLink to OrganisationalGoalsPersonalityCharacteristicsInterventionReadinessJobAttitudesfulfilment
7IAPT HI Training Course Employment Sept 09Sept 10Jul 11IAPT HI Training CourseEmploymentPrim care2nd CarePriv/indepT1.T3T2HI TrainingCourseDesignfeaturesandapplicationMotivationJob satisfactionKnowledge of CBTSelf EfficacyBurnoutTARSBarriers to ChangeCase Study x 3-5Transfer of learning fromthe ‘classroom’ to thepractice setting
8Holton et al (2000) Model of factors which influence the transfer of learning Motivation to LearnReactionLearningAbilityMotivation to TransferTransfer ClimateIndividual PerformanceTransfer DesignExpected Utility/Return on InvestmentExternal EventsOrganisationalResultsLink to OrganisationalGoalsPersonalityCharacteristicsInterventionReadinessJobAttitudesfulfilmentQuestionnairesCase Studies
9Training programme Leads Instructional Design CompetenciesStructured InterviewTraining Acceptability Rating Scale (TARS)Academic Motivation ScaleKnowledge quizBurnout inventoryJob satisfaction scaleSelf Efficacy ScaleParticipantsClinical/practice TeamsTeam Climate Inventory interviewBarriers to Change QuestionnaireSelf rating of the generalisability of training
10Questionnaire Analysis t-test or non parametric equivalent by Wilcoxon signed ranks test.Repeated measures ANOVA might be useful and more efficient.Factor analysis for another perspective ?
11Case StudiesTransfer is not merely learning new knowledge and social interaction. The focus is on specific structures and processes (and patterns)ProcessesStructuresPatternssee Pslek P.E. (2001) Redesigning health care with insights from the science of complexadaptive systems. In: Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System forthe 21st Century. Washington: National Academy Press.Note: Argyris: Double loop learning
12Identity Patient outcomes System capacity SystemicSocialisationprofessional valuesaccountabilityeducationOrganisationalstructurephilosophy/cultureresourcescommunicationsustainabilitysupervisionprotocolsModerating factorsAttributesto bemeasuredPurpose. InterdependencyOf service Accountability responsibility Relationships Work relationshipsTrust reciprocityCommunication supervisory relationshipsRespect hierarchyValues base to practiceOutcomesIdentity Patient outcomes System capacity