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Understanding Business 2012-13. Contents  Needs/Wants & Goods/Services  Risks  Factors of Production  Entrepreneurs  Sectors of Industry  Sectors.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Business 2012-13. Contents  Needs/Wants & Goods/Services  Risks  Factors of Production  Entrepreneurs  Sectors of Industry  Sectors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Business 2012-13

2 Contents  Needs/Wants & Goods/Services  Risks  Factors of Production  Entrepreneurs  Sectors of Industry  Sectors of Economy  Business Plan  Sources of Finance  Business Aims  Private Sector Orgs  Public Sector Orgs  Third Sector Orgs

3 3 Write down something that you really really want.

4  A need is anything essential we must have to stay alive. We need food, drink, clothing and shelter.  A want is anything not so essential but something we would still like to have. We want a television, a foreign holiday or designer clothes. 4 Needs and Wants ClipClip2

5 Show the difference between needs and wants. You can do this using a PowerPoint, poster or a comic strip. Software:  Microsoft PowerPoint  Comic Life  Microsoft Word  Microsoft Publisher 5 Task

6 Why do businesses exist? 6

7 Businesses exist to satisfy our needs and wants. They provide: 7

8  A good (product) is something made by a business that you can touch or see.  Examples - a car, a football, a pair of boots.  A service is something you cannot hold or touch. Often a service allows one person to use skills they have to help others.  Examples - haircut, life insurance, cinema attendant. 8 Goods and Services

9 We will now see slides of various businesses. Do they provide a product or a service or both? 9 Task PowerPoint

10 Opportunity Cost When something is Scarce and we can’t have everything we want, we have to make CHOICES. For example:  which TV programmes will I watch tonight?  which pair of jeans will I buy?  which courses will I choose to study ? When we make a CHOICE, this means that we decide to give up something in order to get something else. We choose the option that will give us the most pleasure and satisfaction. The cost of choosing something is the things that we gave up to get it. This is known as OPPORTUNITY COST.

11 Why Start A Business?  You might start off with very big ideas  Only 50% of new businesses starting up survive after 3 years.  Given the risk, why would people want to start up a business in the first place?

12 Independence – Own Boss Independence – Own Boss Made Redundant – Redundancy Money To Invest You Keep All Profits You Have A Good Idea – Can’t Persuade Others Your Firm = Your Deadlines Difficulty Finding Employment

13  The story of the Innocent drinks company - the highs and lows for the founders. It shows the motives behind founding the company, the excitement of start-up, and the integrated nature of the process. The financial aspects are also briefly covered.  start-up/8490.html start-up/8490.html Innocent Drinks

14 Being Your Own Boss  The big advantage of starting your own business is that you get to order everyone else around – and decide what to so with all the profits.  But there are problems:

15 Problem One  The business may take time to produce a profit – the owner’s income may be small and vary from week to week.

16 Problem Two  There is no-one else to take the blame if anything goes wrong – the owner must be prepared to take responsibility.

17 Problem Three  Owners of new firms generally work very long hours – for example, completing the firm’s accounts in the evening.

18 Problem Four  As the business grows the owner needs to learn to delegate responsibility to subordinates – not easy if the owner has built the firm up single-handed.

19  Land – natural resources eg water, trees, fruit, fish  Labour – human workers – mental and physical effort  Capital – money, buildings and machinery  Enterprise – the development of ideas and drive for implementation Factors of Production

20 Job Description  Details about the job including: job title, main duties and responsibilities, working conditions Person Specification  Qualities and skills expected of potential candidates – usually split into essential and desirable

21 Entrepreneurs

22  An entrepreneur is an individual who develops a business idea and takes on the associated risks and responsibilities. What is an Entrepreneur

23 Qualities of an Entrepreneur  Calculated risk taker  Competitive  Confident  Creative/inventive  Determined  Good communication  Hard working  Patient  People skills (respect)  Planning/organisation  Positive attitude  Spot problems  Willing to learn

24  Watch the clip on SuperJamSuperJam  Write down relevant information about becoming an entrepreneur. Task – From the website below pick one other company of your choice and write down information relevant to becoming an entrepreneur. Entrepreneur Case Study

25 Types of Business

26 Sectors of Industry PrimarySecondaryTertiary Organisations involved in the extraction of the earth’s natural resources Organisations involved in the manufacturing of raw materials to be turned in to finished goods Organisations involved in the selling of goods and providing services.

27 Sectors of Economy PRIVATE SECTOR Owned and run by private individuals/groups Sole Trader, Partnership, Private Limited Company (Ltd), Public Limited Company (Plc), Franchise PUBLIC SECTOR Owned by the taxpayer and run by the Government NHS, Education, Police, local councils services THIRD SECTOR Owned and run by private individuals with the purpose of helping a group or raising awareness for a cause. Charities, Non-profit making organisations

28  In the previous slide we have looked at sectors of the economy:  Private  Public  Voluntary  If you were to start your own business it would be in the private sector and it would be called a Sole Trader Types of Business Organisation

29  A sole trader is the most common type of business. It is owned, controlled and financed by one person.  Examples of sole traders are:  Plumber  Electrician  Mechanic  Hairdresser However, anyone can start up their own business doing whatever they want. Sole Trader

30  Advantages  Make your own decisions  Profits are not shared  No special paperwork required  Disadvantages  Long Hours  Hard to raise finance  Unlimited Liability for debt  Hard to cover illness/holidays In pairs write down as many advantages and disadvantages of being a sole trader that you can think of – 3 minutes

31 Planning Your Business ** The Business Plan **

32  You have decided that you would like to start your own business and become a sole trader. In order to begin any business you must make a Business Plan laying out your business aims.  First you must decide what business you would like to set up.  Decide on 3 businesses you would like to start?  Make a list of the pros and cons for each business?  Choose a business and briefly detail what this business will do. …some ideas are on the next slide…. Ideas for a New Business Task 1

33  Refreshment stand at local sports events  Child care  Shopping service for seniors  Pet sitting  Delivery services  House cleaning service  Selling used clothes  Jewellery making  Travel services  Musical group  Computer support: setting up computers/internet connections for others  You might even… add value to an existing product (packaging, new Marketing local crafts design, new customers, different size) Possible Ideas? Can you think of some better ones? Task 1

34  It’s great having the ideas… but you must be prepared for the hard-work and dedication taking your business forwards. Billy’s Business Plan More than the idea

35  It’s great having the ideas… but you must be prepared for the hard-work and dedication taking your business forwards. Barclays Business Lounge Business Lounge Video

36  The business plan is a tool designed to help you find and explore opportunities. It also provides you with a way to analyse potential opportunities continuously.  A business plan is personal and should never be prepared professionally by others. No one knows you or your ideas better than you do.  It is the process of seeking the answers to important questions about your enterprise that are important as you try to realise the dream of owning your own business. What is a Business Plan?

37  Working within the time available, complete the template document which will get you thinking about your business.  You may not have all the answers at the moment, but be as detailed as you can be…  Next week you will start to write your business plan, before presenting your idea in Lesson 3/4. Time for research Preparation is essential Task 2 and 3

38  Using the Guideline Document, create your business plan.  You will submit this business plan for marking by ‘The Bank Manager’  Use a fresh document and your IT skills to prepare a professional and informative document. Writing the Business Plan Convince others… Task 4

39  What are the key factors about your business?  What do people need to know? The ‘Elevator’ Pitch Be straight to the point! Prepare Your Pitch – Task 5 Watch the Video…

40  Why do businesses have aims?  What aims might they have?  How do they communicate these aims? Business Aims and Objectives

41  What is an aim? An aim is where the business wants to go in the future, its goals. It is a statement of purpose, e.g. we want to grow the business into Europe.  What is an objective? Business objectives are the stated, measurable targets of how to achieve business aims. For instance, we want to achieve sales of £10 million in European markets in 2014. Business Aims and Objectives

42 BRIEF Task: Why do you think businesses have aims… discuss with a partner and write down as many reasons as you can in 2 minutes. Why have aims?

43 Suggested Answers:  Separate your company from others – make it stand out  Indicate the direction the company is heading in  Might use aims as part of a slogan  Customer service  Quality  Customer support  What employees should believe Why have aims?

44 Aims are often directed at: Why have aims? Customers Employees Competition As you work through this unit… think who different companies aims and objectives are directed at…

45 BRIEF Task: What aims might a company have… again 2 minutes to discuss and come up with as many ideas as possible Possible Aims

46 Suggested Answers: Did you have any others? Possible Aims Provide a High Quality Service Eliminate Competition Increase Profitability Be Socially Responsible Survival Increase Market Share Value for Money Growth

47 YES! Over time due to internal and external pressures… more about this later. Do Aims and Objectives Change?

48 BRIEF Task: How do businesses communicate their aims?… discuss with a partner and write down as many reasons as you can in 2 minutes. Communication of Aims?

49 Suggested Answers:  Business Plans  Company Handbook  Company Website  Company Letterheads/Brochures  Annual Report  Adverts (newspapers, TV etc) Communication of Aims? and in its Mission Statement…

50  A mission statement is a statement that defines the purpose of a company – what it stands for i.e. what broad products or services it intends to offer customers.  The mission statement also gives readers a window on the raison d’être (the main purpose) of the company.  An effective mission statement should be concise enough for you to describe your company’s purpose and ideals in less than 30 seconds.  Where would I see a Mission Statement? Mission Statements typically appear in business plans or alternatively will appear in the ‘Corporate Relations’ or ‘About us’ sections of websites. Mission Statement

51  A mission statement should say who your company is, what you do, what you stand for and why you do it.  The best mission statements tend to be 3-4 sentences long.  Avoid saying how great you are, what great quality and what great service you provide.  Make sure you actually believe in your mission statement, if you don’t, it’s a lie, and your customers will soon realise it. Mission Statement Guidelines

52  Find out more about mission statements by carrying out the ‘Mission Statement’ task on the server.  Using the template provided research the aims/mission statements of organisations in the private, public and third sector eg Coca-Cola, the BBC, and Haddington Camera Club  Homework: write a mission statement for your business (remember your business idea before Christmas) Aims/Objectives Task

53  Coca-Cola Our mission is:  To refresh the world - in mind, body and spirit  To inspire moments of optimism - through our brands and actions  To create value and make a difference everywhere we engage  BBC To enrich people's lives with programmes and services that inform, educate and entertain.  Haddington Camera Club aims to provide a friendly and supportive forum for everybody interested in photography, whether they are beginners, experienced photographers, or somewhere in between.Club Solutions to Extension Task

54  What sources of finance are available to businesses?  What advantages and disadvantages does each have? Sources of Finance

55  Bank Overdraft  Taking out more money from a bank account than is deposited in it  Trade Credit  Paying for goods from a supplier at a later date (eg 30 days)  Factoring  Selling invoices to another company to collect the money  Grant  One-off payment often from government or the Prince's Trust – does not need to be repaid.  Retained Profits  Profits kept back from previous years Short-Term Finance

56  Bank Loan  Money lent for a specific time period – paid back with interest  Leasing  Renting – often vehicles or equipment  Hire Purchase  The purchase price is paid in instalments Medium-Term Finance

57  Owner’s Savings  “the owner’s savings”  Share Issue  A part-ownership in a Ltd or plc (a share)  Mortgage  Loan secured on property  Debentures  Source of finance used by plcs  Venture Capital  Think Dragon’s Den – often used for risky ventures Long-Term Finance

58  HCARS is a grant programme supported by East Lothian Council and Historic Scotland that makes available funds for regenerating and improving Haddington Town Centre through repairing and enhancing the historic fabric. The Haddington CARS is an action point in East Lothian Council’s Haddington Town Centre Strategy 2009-2014. Historic Scotland Haddington Town Centre Strategy 2009-2014  The grant is available for good quality, long lasting repair and enhancement work on projects that are located within the CARS Area. CARS Area  The scheme funds enhancements and repairs to shop fronts (repainting, signage), small repairs to buildings (sash and case window refurbishment, gutters and downpipes) as well as comprehensive tenement repairs (masonry repairs, roofing etc.). Haddington Conservation Area Regeneration

59  If you are asked in a question to give sources of finance for a specific type of business make sure that your answers are relevant  eg if asked for a source of finance for a sole trader to expand, debentures would be inappropriate to include in your answer. Choosing a Method of Finance

60  Let’s find out about the advantages and disadvantages of each source of finance.  You will be provided with an envelope containing a number of cards. Match each source of finance with its advantage and disadvantage. Finance Task No. 1

61  In groups of 3…  Using the completed answer sheet (from Task 1) prepare 3 A4 sheets illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of short, medium and long-term sources of finance. Finance Task No. 2

62  Real life?  Using the template provided carry out some research into the difference sources of finance available today. Finance Task No. 3

63 There are 3 Sectors of Economy that exist, they are called…  Private  Public  Third (Voluntary) We have looked at one type of Business in the Private Sector already, it is called…  Sole Trader Re-cap…

64 We are now going to look at other organisations that exist in the :PRIVATE SECTOR  Partnerships  Private Limited Companies (Ltd)  Franchises (small) Types of Business Organisation (PRIVATE SECTOR)

65  A partnership owned, controlled and financed by 2 – 20 people (partners).  Partnerships are usually found in professional practices, for example:  Doctors  Lawyers  Vets Partnerships

66 Partnership  Advantages  Can raise more capital (from partners)  Risks and responsibilities are shared  Can keep activities private  Disadvantages  Unlimited liability  Formal paperwork required  Disagreements amongst partners In pairs write down as many advantages and disadvantages of being a partnership that you can think of – 2 minutes

67 Liability Unlimited Liability  The owner(s) must pay off all debts of the business. This may result in them losing personal possessions.  Sole Trader  Partnership Limited Liability  The owner(s) are only liable for the debts of the company up to what they have invested. They can only lose their investment.  Ltd  PLC

68  A Private Limited Company is owned by shareholders, controlled by a board of directors and financed through selling shares.  Shares are bought and sold privately, they cannot be sold on the stock market.  Examples of Private Limited Companies are:  Eddie Stobart Ltd  Phones 4U Ltd  Walkers Snack Foods Ltd Private Limited Companies (Ltd)

69 Private Limited Companies  Advantages  Raise more capital through selling shares  Shareholders have limited liability  Likely to employ specialists  Bigger firm?  Disadvantages  Accounts are not kept private  More complex and expensive to set up  Have to share profits – DIVIDENDS  Shares can’t be sold on the Stock Market In pairs write down as many advantages and disadvantages of being a Ltd that you can think of – 2 minutes

70  This is where a new business trades on an already established successful businesses name.  The new business pays for permission to use the existing name.  The business is owned and financed by the franchisee. It is controlled by both the franchisee and franchisor.  Examples of small franchises are:  Baguette Express  Video – Festival Franchise Video – Festival Franchise Franchise (small)

71  Advantages  Already established recognisable name  Guaranteed customers  Cost less to set up  Given help setting up  Less chance of failure  Disadvantages  Have to give a % of profit to the franchisor  Has to be run according to the rules set out by the franchisor  Hard to introduce own ideas and methods In pairs write down as many advantages and disadvantages of being a franchise that you can think of – 2 minutes

72  The private sector consists of different types of businesses owned by private individuals:  Sole Trader  Partnership  Private Limited Company (LTD)  Public Limited Company (PLC)  Franchise Private Sector – Summary!

73  The public sector is owned by the taxpayer (the state), it is financed through collection of taxes, and it is controlled by the government.  Examples of Public Sector organisations are:  NHS  Schools  Police  Local Councils  BBC PUBLIC SECTOR

74  Watch the clip on how the public sector is financed and answer the following questions?clip  Name 4 types of tax the government collects?  Name 4 services the government spends its money on?  How much does the government collect a year?  How much does the government spend a year?  What does the government have to do with the spending gap? Public Sector

75  The public sector has very different aims compared to the private sector, it does not aim to make a profit.  It aims to:  Provide a quality service to everyone within a certain area.  Make good use of the taxpayers money, by providing relevant services.  Stay within a budget. Public Sector Aims

76  You have been given the job of BBC One Programme Co- ordinator, and must decide on one days programming.  You have been given a list of programmes to choose from to fill the day between 0900hrs and 0000hrs.  You must:  Choose a wide variety of programmes to meet the needs of all viewers  Ensure that you stay within your budget of £100,000 Task

77  The third sector looks to benefit communities and help people less fortunate. Organisations in this sector are owned and controlled by private individuals.  They are financed through selling goods, providing services and collecting donations.  Three types of Third Sector organisations are:  Charities (Oxfam)  Non-Profit Making Organisations (Sports Clubs)  Social Enterprises (The Big Issue) *see later* THIRD SECTOR (Voluntary)

78  Third Sector organisations aim to:  Provide support for worthy causes (British Cross)  Raise awareness of an issue (WWF)  Provide the best service and facilities (Sports Clubs)  Re-invest profits to further a cause (Eden Project) Third Sector Aims

79  A social enterprise is a business that trades for a social and/or environmental purpose.  It will bring in most or all of its income through selling goods or services.  It will have clear rules about what it does with its profits, reinvesting these to further the ‘social mission’  Examples of Social Enterprises are:  The Big Issue  The Eden Project  Jamie Oliver’s ‘Fifteen’ Social Enterprise

80  Advantages  Use local skills and life experience  Improve on a ‘social mission’  Target specific sectors of the community  Disadvantages  Need specific skills, knowledge and expertise  Must meet their social aims In pairs write down as many advantages and disadvantages of being a social enterprise that you can think of – 2 minutes

81  Choosing one of the Third Sector organisations prepare a brief report to be fed back to the class that includes:  The organisations mission statement. (5mins)  How do they achieve their goals (5mins)  Facts and figures about the organisation. (5mins)  10 mins to collate information  Feedback to class Investigation

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