Presentation on theme: "HIGHER MODERN STUDIES. Politics of Development in Africa - Unit outline This unit can be split into three 1.Conditions in Africa – Health and healthcare."— Presentation transcript:
HIGHER MODERN STUDIES
Politics of Development in Africa - Unit outline This unit can be split into three 1.Conditions in Africa – Health and healthcare issues Access to education/food/safe water Links between health and education 2.Economic/Political/Social factors affecting development 3.In what ways have organisations helped in promoting the development of Africa The African Governments The African Union The European Union Non Governmental Organisations The UK The United Nations Note – South Africa will not be studied in this unit. Do not use it in examples!
‘Developing World’ is a term used to describe countries where people have low standards of living because poverty and hunger are widespread and where civil unrest and war frequently occur. Many developing world countries suffer from hunger and malnutrition - although not all people in developing countries are poor. Where is the Developing World?
Factors used to measure the development of a country Infant Mortality – Number of babies who die before their first Birthday Life expectancy Primary school enrolment Adult Literacy levels – Adults who can read and write GDP – Gross Domestic Product – Money a country makes per year Access to safe water
Facts about Africa Africa is the second biggest continent in the world. It comprises 53 countries covering 20% of the land area of the world and has 12% of the world population. The countries vary in terms of size, population, wealth, resources. Group Task Name as many African countries as you can in 3 minutes
Virtually all of Africa was colonised by European countries in the 19 th century. Most of these countries remained colonised until the 1960s when many became independent Since independence many of these countries have been marked with severe poverty/corrupt and authoritarian governments and political and economic instability.
Although not every African country will have all of the features outlined below, many will have some of them……………….. Low average income per head Many work on the land Unemployment is high Medical care is poor Large debt burden Poor roads and communications Education poor by Western standards Civil war or war with neighbouring countries common
UK Mozambique Ethiopia Sudan Ghana Country Population Infant Mortality Per 1000 births Life expectancy 60 m 19m 69m 34m 20m 5 104 110 63 67 79 42 48 57 59
Conditions in African Countries Africa is the poorest continent in the world 70% of its population live on less than $2 a day 10 million children die every day from preventable diseases Acute respiratory infections Diarrhoea Measles Malaria Malnutrition In some countries 1/5 die before their first birthday.
Politics of Development in Africa Lesson Aims I will learn 1.Some of the conditions within African countries 2.Reasons for food shortages.
Food Shortages According to the Food and Agricultural Organisation there are more than 850 million people every day who cannot get enough food to meet their minimum energy needs. Sub Sahara Africa has the highest proportion of under nourished people. Malnutrition is one of the prime causes of low birth babies and poor growth. Malnutrition linked to the main child killers Measles/Diarrhoea/malaria/pneumonia
How does Malnutrition effect the development of a country? Economy Loss of productivity Adults who have nutritional disorders unable to work efficiently or at all People get sick =less workers=less products to sell Education Children get sick cannot attend school Children are undernourished and are unable to function/learn properly Healthcare Cost of caring for those who are suffering malnutrition
Group Task Mind map outlining the causes of Food Shortages in Africa Causes of food shortages Conflict/war Disease HIV/Aids Natural disasters Role of women environment Corrupt Government Water scarcity Free Trade
Reasons for food shortages Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have predicted that the world should be able to produce more than enough food for everyone in the planet so why are there food shortages? Conflict Crops/footstock/livestock and farm equipment are destroyed Displacement of people - People are forced to flee their homes and move to neighbouring towns/countries
Water Scarcity Availability to water and wells is already a problem for many communities in Africa. 884 million people worldwide have no access to safe water. Many of these people live in African countries. It is thought that this problem will increase as development and population increases. Water is need to grow crops
Natural Disasters Drought – Some countries go years without rain and cannot grow crops. Somalia and other countries in the horn of Africa have suffered severe drought in recent years Floods – 2007 Ethiopia and Sudan badly hit Cyclones – In Feb. 2008 145000 people left homeless after a cyclone hit Madagascar. Many crops and farms were destroyed
Free Trade Many farmers are encouraged to grow cash crops (cotton/coffee/tea) to sell to the rest of the world. Therefore basic food to sell to local people is not grown. Basic food is imported from rich countries at costly prices.
Position of women Women play a crucial role in agriculture Certain customs and laws in some African countries exclude women from the right to own or inherit land. In some countries if a woman divorces her husband or if he dies she is not entitled to the land. Women produce most of the food for local consumption (men tend to produce cash crops). In some African communities 80% of food sold at market is produced by women. However, women are less likely to be educated and therefore may not use the best farming methods. Women are less likely to get loans/grants for improving farming methods Females receive only 5% of all agriculture extension services
Disease and illness HIV/Aids One of the biggest problems facing Africa Approximately 45 million people living with HIV/Aids Over 70% of adults living with Aids live in African countries Over 80% of all children with Aids live in African countries People die young Workers are lost Loss of skills and knowledge about farming and agriculture Less food is produced Situation of more dependents but less producers of food
Environmental factors More and more land is being used for growing crops which is leading to deforestation Natural water supplies from the soil are taken away and due to lack of education land is not maintained properly. This can lead to desertification (drying up of land and soil).
Corrupt government Does not distribute food evenly
Poor Farming Methods Over cropping – planting too much = lots of poor quality crops Overgrazing Poor water management (poor irrigation)
Homework Essay – 02/03/09 “Food shortages in African countries are mainly due to poor weather conditions.” Discuss Critically examine the reasons for food shortages in African countries.
Problems with Healthcare Lesson aims I will learn 1.What health problems exist in Africa 2.The various reasons for these problems
Healthcare Problems Health and healthcare are essential features of a developed country. Without a healthy workforce, it is not possible for the economy to function properly. Not enough healthy people to work Too many ill people draining the resources Too many people spending time caring for the sick
Health and Development. In order for a country to develop it must have a healthy workforce. UK average life expectancy is 79 years but in Zimbabwe it is as low as 34 years in some regions (the lowest in the world). The infant mortality rate in the UK is 5 but in Ethiopia it is 110. 10 million children die every day from preventable diseases Acute respiratory infections Diarrhoea Measles Malaria Malnutrition In some countries 1/5 of all children die before their first birthday.
Malaria Spread through mosquito bites It is estimated that 1 million children die every year from Malaria. Every 30secs an African child dies of Malaria Approximately 90% of all malaria deaths in are in Africa WHOWHO malaria Diarrhoea Causes dehydration and malnutrition According to the WHO Diarrhoea accounts for 5% of deaths worldwide and as much 8.5% in Africa.
Why is ill health such a problem in Africa? Lack of comprehensive healthcare - little or no free healthcare 800 children die every day because parents cannot pay for medical treatment Very few doctors and nurses – In 2004 there were more doctors from Ghana working in New Jersey and New York than in the whole of Ghana itself. Debt – money is spent repaying debt instead of investing in the healthcare system Lack of education – Hygiene and cleanliness Malnutrition Hygiene and cleanliness
Lack of clean water and sanitation Dirty water causes diseases like diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid. Cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe Aug-Dec 2008. 12, 545 cases of cholera. In rural areas the only sources of water are lakes and rivers. In urban areas the water may be piped but very little in the way of sanitation. Sewage is often left untreated and therefore the water gets polluted. Only 50% of Africa has access to clean water and sanitation
Ethiopia - 69% have no toilet facilities at all. Only 25% have access to protected clean tap water.
Water projects One of the UN ‘s millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce by half the number of people who do have access to clean water. UN development report 2006 suggested that it would be 2040 before sub Sahara Africa reaches the MDG
Lesson Aims We will learn 1.How aids affects the development of a country. 2.The educational problems within many African countries.
Problem of HIV/Aids Kills 6000 people every day in Africa 70% of all adults and 80% of all children living with Aids live in Africa. 25 million people are living with the disease Half of all those with HIV become infected before they are 25 In Botswana (worlds 2 nd highest incidence of Aids) 37% of the population are infected and life expectancy is 39 years In Zimbabwe 24.6% of the population have HIV/Aids. ¼ of all those aged 25-40 (working age) are infected
Effects of HIV/Aids Treatment costs the government money – less money to spend on other public services In some countries 50% of all beds are used by AIDS sufferers People get sick and cannot work – Poverty – (Majority of Africans with HIV/Aids are 15-49 years) Doctors/teachers/nurses/skilled workers are lost
Why is HIV/Aids out of control in Africa? Failure of the governments to respond to the problem. Weak healthcare system – virus goes undetected and untreated Lack of education – people do not know they have the disease, how it is spread or how to prevent it. Social status of women and culture – In many cultures and tribes it is normal for men to have several wives and mistresses. Women are viewed as inferior and less important than men. It is also common and accepted for men to use prostitutes. Less values on fidelity sexual promiscuity is common. Some religions do not believe in the use of contraception.
What come be done to reduce and prevent HIV/Aids? Education Distribution of contraception Drugs (to protect unborn children being infected) Anti retroviral drugs (AVRs) – helps prevent HIV turning to Aids MDG 6 – Combat HIV/Aids/Malaria and other diseases Some countries have seen an improvement in recent years
Botswana 85% of Aids sufferers now have AVR drugs. More nurses and doctors
Uganda – number living with Aids has dropped from 15% to under 5%. Senegal Less than 2% of the population have Aids Sex education workers Preach about fidelity and abstinence Allow the promotion of contraception
How can healthcare problems be reduced? Clean water Education Low cost treatments, eg vitamins, vaccinations and mosquito nets. The Commission for Africa states that an extra one million health workers need to be trained in the next 10 years. More doctors. Conditions and pay needs to be improved to attract health workers and doctors. Fight against Aids – governments need to take bold steps on cultural factors and power relationships between men and women
Homework for next Tuesday Read pages 10 - 12
Education Problems Lesson Aims I will learn 1.The importance of Education to the development of a country 2. The problems that exist in Education in African countries
Education Education is seen as a way out of poverty Education is an important factor in the development of a country Improves food production Improves healthcare Improves the economy No education = no doctors/teachers/engineers/ scientists/skilled workers eg electricians. Nearly half of all Africans cannot read or write.
Education UK primary school enrolment 100% Somalia primary school enrolment can be as low as 22% Ethiopia 45 % Tanzania 82% Gender imbalances –Females are less likely to be educated – 2 thirds of the worlds 875 million illiterate adults are women A good education is regarded as the best way out of poverty.
Primary Schooling UN - Millennium development Goal 2 - Achieve Universal Primary Education (by 2015) At present approximately 40 million children in Africa do not attend primary school. Over 50% of all countries in Africa will not meet this MDG. Secondary education Sub Sahara Africa – 20% of children are in secondary education In 10 countries it is below 8%
Higher education Universities lack the resources only those who can afford to pay the fees can go to university. In Ethiopia only 3% of the population go on to higher education. Urban/Rural Inequalities Schools tend to be located in urban areas and therefore children living in the towns have easier access. Ethiopia – Rural – 20% of the population can read and write Urban 74% of the population can read and write
Gender imbalance Two thirds of all illiterate adults in Africa are female. Reasons why women are less likely to go to school Carers Housework Role in food production Collect water Arranged marriages Early marriages In many cultures and tribes women are viewed to be inferior to men
Improving education especially among women would have a positive affect on various social and economic problems. Educated women would be more productive at home and better paid in the workplace. Educated women are more likely to remain unmarried for longer and have fewer children. When they do have children their children are more likely to survive and will be better nourished and better educated. Every extra year a girl spends at school could reduce child mortality by 10%
Conditions of African schools There are not enough schools Overcrowding (as much as 70 pupils per class) Lack of resources (textbooks, pens/pencils) Lack of properly trained teachers eg. In Malawi and Namibia less than 60% of the teachers have completed teacher training courses. The pay and working conditions for teachers is poor and therefore it is not a desired profession.
HIV/AIDS is likely to claim the lives of 10 per cent of teachers within the coming five years, and 20 per cent of school-age children will be AIDS orphans. A minimum of three million more teachers are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve the goal of universal primary education by 2015.
Somalia Education and formal learning opportunities are limited. Quality and access to primary education is very limited. Most schools are concentrated in urban areas and fees usually come from parents and communities. 1,172 schools and 285,574 children enrolled (19%) – one of the lowest enrolment rates in the world. Girls - low enrolment and high drop out rate. Only 37% of all pupils in primary schools are girls. Only 13% of all teachers are female.
Future of Education The situation is improving, although the MDG of universal primary education will not be met by 2005. The number of children in Primary schools is increasing. Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya have abolished fees and 7m children started Primary school as a result. Since 2000 there has been a 90% increase in the number of children attending primary school (both boys and girls) Next challenge should be secondary education.
Homework To what extent does education impact the development of many countries within Africa Read pages 5,6 and 7 economic factors affecting development.
Economic Factors affecting development Lesson Aims We will learn 1.What economic factors can promote the development of many African countries? 2.What economic factors can hinder the development of African Countries?
Land ownership and tenure Land and natural resources are main source of income 70% of the population earn their livelihood from the land. Proper management of land could have a positive effect on the economy. Often different organisations will claim rights over the same piece of land and in many cases there are no formal records to show who holds the rights in certain areas. When Africa was colonised many European farmers were assigned pieces of land. However after independence many governments tried to redistribute the land more evenly. This has been problematic ……..
In many countries the land has been redistributed unfairly. The best pieces of land has often went to friends of government officials. Thousands of white farmers were evicted in Zimbabwe. There are now less than 300 white farmers in Zimbabwe compared to 4,500 before the invasions began. This has contributed to a catastrophic collapse in the economy as white farmers left the country taking their skills with them.
If land is not distributed properly it can lead to conflict, however if it is sorted out fairly and land rights are clearly assigned the this can promote economic development. Farmers will work as a team instead of competing to produce the same products. Therefore, this produces efficient and productive agricultural practices
Women and Land Ownership. Women are responsible for 60-80% of agricultural production so their access to farm land is very important. However, women are often excluded from land ownership. Women are often excluded from training programmes and government grants. If men and women had equal land rights the this would also boost the economy.
Debt Africa owes massive amounts of money to rich countries. Africa received billions of dollars in aid from governments, banks and charities, mostly in Europe and America. Each year Africa faces $14.5 billion in debt repayments This money should have been spent on development programmes but much of the money has been lost to corrupt governments and poor administration.
How Debt Can Cripple A Country ZAMBIA Zambia was once one of Africa’s richest countries. Now it is poorer than it was in 1975! It has one of the lowest life expectancy rates in the world at approximately 40 years. Expected that 50% of population will eventually die of Aids In 2004, Zambia spent 7.35% of its GDP to repay its debt – this is twice what it spent on education. To meet its debts, Zambia has had to privatise its public services and take in foreign imports. Because of this, Zambia cannot address its health, educational and economic needs……..
Loans can be given from country to country eg UK (Bilateral) or from a group of countries or an organisation like the IMF (Multi Lateral). Countries and organisations also impose conditions onto loans. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have been heavily criticised for the conditions on debt. These conditions can lead to hardships for the countries involved.
For example, the IMF can insist that education and health programmes are cut in order to reduce government spending and keep up debt repayments – In Ghana education and health are no longer free. IMF have forced some countries to privatise water supplies. Which means that water is even less affordable and less accessible. This has happened in Rwanda. The IMF can also force many African countries to remove government subsidies.
In Sudan a condition attached to an IMF loan was the growing of cotton (cash crop) for export and importing cheaper American grain for food. The bottom fell out of the cotton market so there was not enough money to buy grain to eat.
In 1996 the IMF and the World Bank launched the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative to provide debt relief to developing countries. However qualifying conditions are hard to achieve and currently only 24 countries have had their debts cancelled. The UK has cancelled 100% of the debt owed to it by HIPCs.
Drop the Debt Worldwide campaign to cancel the debts of poor countries. Jubilee 2000 Make poverty History There has been some successes Benin – 54% of money previously spent on debt repayments has went on health and education. Tanzania – abolished primary school fees. Uganda 2.2 million gained access to clean water.
Currency and Exchange rates Decisions about exchange rates can have profound consequences on African countries. If the currency of an African country drops then this means that imports will be more expensive and exports worth less.
Terms of Trade African producers do not compete on equal terms in world markets. The World Trade Organisation insists on free trade therefore African governments are not allowed to subsidise farmers or impose import taxes. However, The USA and The EU subsidise their farmers and also have import taxes in order to protect their agricultural industry.
The EU subsidises its farmers through the Common Agricultural Policy. CAP- Policy introduced to protect farmers and keep consumers with a constant supply of food. Farmers are given money by the government by the EU to grow various products. EU farmers often produce food surpluses which are sent to African countries. This food undercuts local producers and puts them out of business. Senegal and Ghana – unwanted chicken thighs and wings from Europe are sold at half the price – putting local farmers out of business.
Example - Sugar In Africa it costs £75 to produce a tonne of sugar but in Europe the cost is around £300. However, two things work against African sugar producers 1.The CAP gives £550 million every year to sugar producers bringing their cost down. 2.The EU applies huge import taxes on imported African Sugar making it impossible for producers in Malawi or Mozambique to compete.
World Trade Organisation Set up to supervise world trade. Supposed to promote free trade by getting countries to abolish subsidies and tariffs. Target set to abolish farm export subsidies by 2013, however little progress has been made. WTO – criticised from being a club for rich countries.
Economic factors that affect development Promoting developmentHindering development Land ownership – 70% of people make their money working on the land – agriculture/natural resources – good management can boost economy Free trade – can sell products all over the world – cash crops - Fair Trade World Trade Organisation – regulate trading – committed to free and fair trade Aid – Loans Debt relief HIPC Distribution of land/corrupt government/lack of education Lack of infrastructure eg roads/bridges Cash crops EU Subsidies/CAP/Import taxes WTO seen as rich countries club – many countries still continue to use subsidies and tariffs. Exchange rates Debt (interest) – affects on health and education Conditions of debt eg cash crop
Homework Critically examine the economic factors that affect development in Africa. (15 Marks)
Read pages 5 and 6 Complete Q - 1.2 A-E Q - 1.3 A-D Economic factors affecting development Read pages 7, 8 and 9 – make notes on Political factors affecting development.
Political factors affecting development in African Countries Lesson Aims I will learn 1.The effects of War on developing countries 2.The effects of Bad governance to developing countries
Political Factors affecting development Conflict/Wars Armed conflict leads to food shortages on a large scale and destroys economic and social development. Workers are killed Infrastructure destroyed eg roads/bridges Crops destroyed Farms/livestock destroyed People displaced Businesses destroyed unemployment Money spent on arms – not on health and education
War Africa is a continent more affected by armed conflict than any other continent. Wars between countries Civil Wars – Political/tribal/religious reasons Unresolved disputes following independence. Recent examples of Wars Sudan Rwanda Somalia Mozambique Congo
The scale of the problem of conflict in Africa was identified in The Commission for Africa Report (2005) Tony Blair set up The Commission for Africa in 2004. 17 members including Bob Geldof investigated the problems that were restricting development in Africa. The report outlined the catastrophic affects of armed conflict and also detailed the cost of conflict to many African nations. Democratic Republic of Congo - $20 Billion Rwanda after 1990s conflict - $1 billion (damage to property alone)
Sudan – Background 1955 – 1972 – First Sudanese Civil War – North and South 1983-2005 – Second Sudanese Civil War 2003 – War broke out in Darfur – region in Sudan (roughly the size of France) Groups fighting in Sudan Sudanese government Janjaweed (supported by the government) Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM) Justice for Equality Movement (JEM)
Armed conflict – Sudan – Darfur 2003 – Rebels (Sudanese Liberation Movement) began attacking the government Disputes over equality – Arabs treated better than Black Africans. For many years there has been tension over land and grazing rights. The Sudanese government began fighting back and are thought to have organised an Arab emergency army called – Janjaweed. Janjaweed has been accused various offences against non Arab Sudanese people. Stealing property/land Murder Torture Rape
4 th March 2009 – The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for President Omar Al Bashir Justice and Equality Movement - the most heavily armed and active of the rebel groups in Darfur - has welcomed the warrant as a victory for the refugees and the displaced, and a victory for humanity. But as a direct result of the indictment, Khartoum expelled 10 foreign aid agencies, including Oxfam, Care, Save the Children UK and Medecins Sans Frontieres from Darfur, who between them supply food and water to some 1.5 million people.
Affects of Armed conflict in Sudan At least 10 000 people have been killed according to president Bashir – Thought to be more like 300 000 2 million people have fled their homes – These people have been uprooted from their homes and work – destroyed any chance of being self sufficient. 200 000 people have escaped to Chad
Aid has been disrupted because it is too dangerous for aid workers to come into the country. Government blocked food supplies in areas where rebels were living. At present aid of NGOs has been blocked in Darfur as a result of the indictment against the president Millions of dollars was spent on the military which meant that public services were neglected. Children are forced to become soldiers. Infrastructure destroyed.
Task Read page 8 and create a fact file outlining the results of armed conflict using examples
Bad governance/Kleptocracy Kleptocracy/Corrupt Government – When a dictator or a group use their power to benefit themselves. Those who support the dictator or the regime are rewarded while those who do not are punished. The Commission for Africa identified bad governance as a key issue explaining the lack of development in Many African countries. The government and the police cannot be trusted Taxes are not collected efficiently Widespread corruption – Government officials have lavish standards of living while ordinary people are living in absolute poverty. Human rights are abused. Legal system is not independent.
Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe is known throughout the world for his authoritarian and corrupt regime. Vote rigging Racism Violation of human rights Beatings/torture and murder are common Restricted press Freud – using government and aid money wrongly Deception Foreign journalists are banned ZIMBABWE
Task Read page 9 and write notes about corruption in Zimbabwe and the effects of the bad governance.
Economic problems – Zimbabwe Zimbabwe was once the economic leader in Africa but as a consequence of mismanagement the country has experienced economic disasters. Exchange rate has fallen Inflation has risen – 2005 it was 80% 2004 unemployment rate was 80% Income per head is lower now than it was in 1980 Land distribution policies – White farmers evicted – crippling the agricultural industry. Tourism has collapsed
Social problems – Zimbabwe 200 00 homes destroyed – people homeless Since 2000 Zimbabwe unable to feed itself – 50% of population need emergency food aid. However in May 2004 Mugabe refused food aid stating that Zimbabwe had enough food. Life expectancy in low 70% of people live in poverty. Rate of HIV infection – 25% of the population Primary school completion rates are down Poor sanitation and water supplies – 2008 Cholera outbreak
What must happen in order for countries to overcome political problems? Fair and free elections Independent legal system Trials for those who have been involved in corruption
Homework – Read pages 8 and 9 Open leaning pack and answer questions – war in the DRC Questions in sections 1.4 and 1.5
Lesson Aims I will learn 1.The role of the African Union in promoting development in Africa. 2.The role of the United Nations.
Homework- Friday 27/03/09 To what extent is conflict a factor in preventing development. (15 marks) Effects of war and conflict – how it hinders development Examples of recent conflict However, conflict is not the only factor Health, education, economic factors, corrupt government.
The role African governments in promoting/hindering development. African governments criticised for poor governance. Independence after colonial rule left many countries unprepared for government. This resulted in either one group taking control or the army exerting their power. Military regimes One party dictatorships Uganda Zimbabwe Sudan Since 1954 15 presidents have been assassinated and there has been approximately 186 military coups.
Most African governments have experienced problems creating and implementing policies concerned with economic growth. Some governments have spent more money on weapons than on public health. The African Union reported that $148 billion per year is taken away from government accounts into personal accounts of government officials.
International companies have also been involved in corruption. Shell has admitted paying money to the military in Nigeria and resultantly 29 members of staff were dismissed for corruption
Uganda – Successful initiative Set out a Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) Policies include Increased private investment Modernisation and investment of agriculture Expansion of exports Checks on civil servants to minimise corruption Improving transport networks Improving banking services Uganda’s reforms have resulted in economic growth in recent years. However critics say that there is still corruption and that the economy still needs to improve in order to meet the MDGs
The African Union Founded in 2002 – 53 members Aims Secure democracy Promote human rights Promote economic growth Create a common market Bring an end to intra African conflict Work with international organisations to tackle social and economic problems Challenges? Health – particularly Aids and malaria Political issues – undemocratic governments/civil wars Economic issues – debt/poverty/lack of skills/education Ecological issues – famine/desertification of land
The African Union – Dealing with conflict The AU’s first military intervention – May 2003 Peacekeeping forces from South Africa/Mozambique and Ethiopia were sent to Burundi to oversee the various agreements after the war. 7000 AU troop also sent to Darfur for peacekeeping. However, this is not enough for an area the size of Darfur. Virtually impossible to keep the peace. Successes? Still there has been some successes eg less children being abducted/help given to refugees/reduced conflict. Some people have been able to return to their villages safely
African Union – Dealing with democracy The AU has only existed for a few years so it is hard to assess effectiveness. It aims to promote participation and good governance. Can investigate governments that fail to meet certain standards Can intervene where genocide and war crimes are reported.
Case Study Zimbabwe The AU is heavily criticised for not dealing with the regime in Zimbabwe. Despite international outrage about vote rigging in the 2002 election – AU observers approved the result. There is a common view held within the AU that the USA and EU should not be allowed to dictate to Zimbabwe. July 2002 – AU decided not to make public a report on Human Rights by the AU commission that was highly critical of Zimbabwe
AU – Dealing the economic and social development New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Framework for development needs – Main objectives include: Eradicate poverty Ensure Africa plays a full part in the global economy Accelerate the empowerment of women. However, it is difficult to assess effectiveness in such a short period of time. Problems with funding and implementing policies
The African Union Successes Criticisms Dealing with conflict Burundi Sudan Democracy Setting example by encouraging democracy Has powers to investigate countries that fail to meet standards eg Zimbabwe – observers were sent in Social/Economic Development - NEPAD Finance – cannot afford troops/equipment – Darfur not as successful as it should have been AU seen as a dictators club – many members are involved in authoritarian regimes Poor leadership AU – reluctance to get involved in Zimbabwe – endorsed 2002 election results Hard to assess – will take a long time – Lack of funding and expertise makes it difficult.
The United Nations Lesson Aims 1.How has the United Nations assisted African countries? 2.Some of the criticisms/limitations of the UN
Aid Multi lateral Bilateral Non Governmental Aid
Food Aid Military aid Emergency aid ExpertiseMilitary aid Financial Equipment
Tied Aid Aid given with strings attached eg conditions that the recipients purchase goods and services from the donor country. Problems with tied aid Developing countries are forced to buy products that they do not need. Local businesses lose out because products are being imported from other countries Approximately 75% of Canada’s aid is tied 2001 – UK untied all of its aid
In 2000 the UN adopted eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by the year 2015. 1.Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2.Achieve universal primary education 3.Promote gender equality and empower women 4.Reduce child mortality 5.Improve maternal health 6.Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases. 7.Ensure environmental sustainability 8.Develop a global partnership for development
The United Nations One of the Main aims of The UN is to promote social and economic development. Specialised agencies
In groups of three you are going to put together a presentation about one of the UN specialised agencies. FAO – page 25 UNICEF – page 23 and 24 WFP – pages 27 and 28 You must include The Aims of the organisation MDG the agency is cornered with Case studies Successes Failures Time 20mins
How does the WHO help people in developing countries Helping governments to set up health services Training doctors, nurses, midwives and health visitors Develops local health clinics immunisation campaigns to wipe out killer diseases like TB, Whooping cough etc Aims to raise life expectancy Aims to reduce infant mortality Improve clean water supplies Works to combat aids
How does UNICEF help to meet the needs of people in developing countries? Organising emergency relief for children after a disaster Education programmes to increase the number of children receiving a basic education Helps to build schools Provides textbooks, pencils, paper to schools Organises projects to help mothers and children eg. Breastfeeding campaigns Works with the WHO to set up medical facilities
UNICEF in Ethiopia Food has been distributed to drought affected areas. Fifty feeding stations have been set up to give nutrition to children who do not get enough to eat. A training programme has been set up to teach health workers how to deal with children who are malnourished. Vaccination programme against meningitis, measles and polio. Water sanitation projects have reduced the number of children becoming sick
UNICEF in Sudan Working to increase safe drinking water. Water pumps have been repaired and wells are being dug. Helping children to receive an education by building schools and providing resources textbooks, pencils, boards, notebooks etc. Mosquito nets have been provided to protect children from Mosquitoes which carry malaria
UNICEF in Mozambique Mozambique is one of the poorest countries in the world UNICEF works with Aids orphans and try to save them from abuse and exploitation They are currently trying to ensure that all children between the ages of 6 and 12 receive a basic education. Health programme focuses on reducing infant deaths and introducing major vaccination programmes to protect children from measles, tetanus and polio.
David Beckham UnicefUnicef and health Unicef Unicef and aids WHOWHO malaria WHO and UNICEF malaria campaign
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) Aims to half the number of people living with hunger by 2015 – currently over 800 million Helps governments to train people to improve the quality of crops – Thousands of farmers have been trained through the Farmer Field school Some schemes involve using appropriate fertilisers and pesticides Advises people about best fishing and farming methods – for example what crops to grow and how to make the best of their land. Tries to teach people how to improve water supply as water is essential for farming Progress has been slow and the goal will not be met by 2015
UNESCO – United Nations Education, Scientific and cultural Organisations Developing education systems UNESCO has been involved in projects to introduce compulsory schooling. Sends teachers and lecturers to help improve teaching and learning Also promotes science and arts projects as well as literacy
The World Food Programme Aims to combat hunger in Africa Helps people who may have been involved in a crisis such as flood, drought or natural disaster. Worlds largest provider of free school meals free school meals result in higher school enrolment and attendance If children are fed then they are likely to learn more In many African countries the WFP has been working to increase the number of girls receiving an education – The scheme involves giving free food to the parents of girls enrolled in schools. In Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, the WFP has put in place feeding programmes for war and Aids orphans
Criticisms of the United Nations Excellent track record, however it is argued that more could be done. Finance UN and all its agencies spend $10 billion each year, this works out at $1.70 for each of the worlds inhabitants and a tiny fraction of what governments spend on military budgets. WFP estimated they need £78m to do their job properly – to date it has only received £28 UN has been forced to cut back spending over the last 10 years due to a financial crisis. Member states are not paying their contributions eg The USA currently owes $1.5 billion to the UN.
Bureaucratic The UN can be overly bureaucratic in its decision making – too many rules and regulations. Too much paperwork – too slow. UN criticised for being too slow to act in Ethiopia and Sudan where millions were facing famine. 2004 – FAO wanted £9m to spray locust larvae in the Sahel in the Sahara The money did not come larvae became locusts – crops destroyed – FAO needed £100m to repair damage
Areas for improvement The UN will not meet the MDGs by 2015? Poverty and Hunger? – over 800 million go hungry everyday Education – 40 million children still do not attend school therefore universal primary education will not be met until 2040. Equality – still gender imbalances eg Somalia only 37% of pupils in schools are girls. Women still do not have land rights in many countries. HIV/Aids – 70% (80% children) of all Aids sufferers live in Africa, thousands still being infected every day. Zimbabwe approx ¼ of population living with the disease
Only Africans can bring change to Africa Corruption Dictatorship War These problems must be addressed MDG are achievable but it is a two way street
Homework – 05-05-09 Assess the effectiveness of one UN agency in responding to problems in African Countries. (15 marks) Areas to include Aim of your chosen agency – mention MDGs associated with your agency Examples of successes in specific African countries Areas for development/criticisms eg Funding/too slow Have the MDGs been met?
Multi Lateral Aid – The European Union Aid is given through the European Development Fund and European Commission for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO) March 2009 – allocated 247million Euro to 12 African Countries including, Sudan (110 million) Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo and Chad
Cotonou Agreement was signed in 2000 Agreement between EU countries and 70 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. 20 year programme working to improve conditions in ACP countries. The EU aims to help countries Balance their economies Improve social services Integrate into the global economy – Free Trade Promote equality between men and women Improve democracy The EU can impose sanctions on countries that abuse human rights
Criticisms of The Cotonou Agreement and EU Aid Free trade can damage the economies of many African countries Free trade means that import and export taxes are taken away. African countries will be flooded with EU goods and local businesses will lose out.
The EU in Eritrea Rehabilitation programmes to improve infrastructure after the war Road and transport maintenance Supporting education sector Reintegrate soldiers into society Improve food security Conditions attached to this aid Free and fair elections Free political prisoners Failure to meet these conditions would result in aid being withheld
The EU in Ethiopia Assisting government with economic policies Transport – Roads/Bridges/Railways Energy – Hydroelectric power plant
Lesson Aims I will learn 1.How the DFID promotes development of African Countries 2.Criticisms of the DFID
Department for International Development (DFID) Managed by the British government Douglas Alexander – Secretary of state for international development. DFID – Aims to help achieve the MDGs and eliminate world poverty DFID works Bilaterally and also in partnership with other governments, the UN, The EU, The World Bank and NGOs
Read Case studies on pages 19-21 and make notes on the work if the DFID
Kenya DFID aims to improve maternal and newborn health services through training of health workers provision of essential medical equipment raising the profile of those services in the community DFID has spent £7.2 Million deliveries by skilled attendants has increased from approximately 18% to 23% in the target districts. 93 health workers have been trained in emergency obstetric and neonatal care
DFID in Ghana Working with the Government in Ghana to improve business growth in the pineapple industry. Increased export from 2000 tonnes in the 1980s pineapples to 50, 000 tonnes in 2005 Has spent $215, 000 on a project to reduce malaria in expectant mothers Eg vouchers given with a discount up to 50% ($4 per net) Two thirds of women bought a net but many still cannot afford them.
Criticisms of the DFID Signed up to an agreement to allocate 0.7% of GNI to aid but 2004 the figure was 0.4%. Same year countries such as Norway and Netherlands gave over 0.8% of GNI. – (see page 19 textbook for details) Therefore Britain could and should be giving more. Tied aid – Britain has dropped all tied aid, however, there are concerns that British interests are linked to projects. Concerns that former colonies are given preference when it comes to deciding who should receive aid.
Lesson Aims I will learn 1.How NGOs help promote development of African countries 2.Criticism/failures of NGOs
Non Governmental Organisations Non Profit Non Political Non violent Voluntary Free from government control – although have a great deal of contact with governments NGOs are run by volunteers and ordinary members of the public (although some people do get paid). NGOs often work in partnership with African governments/Rich countries eg UK government and International bodies (EU and UN). NGOs will often deliver food organised by EU and UN
Where do NGOs get money? Fund raising events Donations In some cases NGOs are funded by the government – DFID and the EU are involved in funding Oxfam projects all over the world
Types of NGOs General groups that help with all aspects of development – Oxfam Specific groups – help one group eg Save the Children or help with a specific issue eg Wateraid
Successes/Advantages of NGOs Many success stories Bring expertise and experience Have helped millions of people by providing Short term and long term aid Emergency relief Teachers/doctors/nurses Schools Hospitals Training programmes
For example Oxfam is currently helping 1 million people in Zimbabwe who are at risk of Cholera and food shortages. Repairing water sources Providing soap, disinfectant Hygiene promotion programmes In Sudan Oxfam is working to assist thousands of displaced people – provides clean water, clothes, blankets etc
Currently working in 21 African Countries Money is not given to the government instead money is given to local groups Over £30 million a year is given to projects In Uganda Christian Aid is working to rehabilitate child soldiers and promote reconciliation between ethnic groups in order to avoid conflict. Has assisted 58 000 Ethiopians get clean water Provides food rations for children in Sudan as well as shelters, mosquito nets, blankets and farming equipment
Have programmes in 11 African countries Aims to improve quality of life through lasting improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene education. In Ethiopia Water Aid has helped over 820, 000 people gain access to clean water
Tanzania Worked with other agencies to persuade the government to abolish primary school fees. There are now 500,000 more children in schools across Tanzania
NGOs will often work in dangerous conditions where international organisations will not enter eg Christian Aid in Darfur – Some governments have had to pull workers out of these areas because of the dangers Since 2004 Christian Aid has supported over half a million people affected by the conflict in Darfur.
NGOs have been successful in persuading governments across the world to assist African countries. For example Drop the Debt and Make Poverty History have acted as a pressure group to persuade governments to write off some of the debt owed by African countries Britain eventually dropped the debt of the poorest countries in Africa. NGOs will train and employ local people
Disadvantages/Criticisms NGOs often act as a business – employ workers and compete for funding from the public. (BINGOs) Too much money is spent on administration and therefore promises are often not delivered NGOs often lack the experience and expertise of government and international agencies like the UN. NGOs can cause problems when they do not consult governments – can start a project but are unable to see it through NGOs can prolong conflict by feeding rebel groups and soldiers – by stepping in to assist corrupt states some NGOs are thought to be legitimising the actions of the government
NGOs are not free completely from government control – 25% of Oxfam's budget comes from the British government and the EU. Medecins San Frontiers – approximately 46% of budget comes from government sources. NGOs act as agents or contractors for the UN or Western governments in the distribution of relief – most of the humanitarian assistance provided by the World Food Programme is distributed through NGOs (this is often a more efficient/cheaper/less dangerous way for donor countries to operate this way)
NGOs can cause conflict in many cultures by lobbying for western values eg feminism/contraception/fidelity NGOs are unelected and therefore are unaccountable – only held responsible to themselves. NGOs are also criticised for creating a culture of dependency in many Africa Countries. Moeletsi Mbeki a famous South African economist suggested to Bob Geldof after Live 8 that the core problem in many African countries is bad governance. Only when this is tackled can aid make a difference.
NGOs are working alongside corrupt governments therefore it is not making any real difference. Almost 1 trillion dollars has been given in aid since the 1960s. However, improvement has been slow. Some countries have declined in terms of development eg Zimbabwe. In order for aid to work it has to work alongside effective and good governments. South Africa and Botswana have well run governments and need very little aid. It is thought that countries get dependent on Aid eg Mozambique. Only Africans can bring change to Africa.
How effective are NGOs? Advantages Non profit, voluntary and free from government control – money from donations Can act as a pressure group – influence government decisions – eg Make Poverty History Go to places where governments or organisations like the UN cannot or will not go – eg Darfur NGOs are often first to respond to disasters or emergencies – do not have to go through the same long procedures that the UN or governments have to Disadvantages Often act act like a business – BINGOs. Compete for funding from the public – need to pay some workers – not all money donated goes directly towards aid projects Unelected and unaccountable – NGOs can have their own agenda and are answerable only to themselves Limitations to the work that can be done – limited numbers and resources – Lack expertise and experience of agencies like the UN Long term commitment may be problematic due to lack of funds – can start a project but unable to follow it through
Advantages Helped in the fight for free primary education eg Tanzania Helped fight for empowerment of women and equality NGOs often work in partnership with African governments/Rich countries eg UK government and International bodies (EU and UN). NGOs will often deliver food organised by EU and UN Aid is delivered to people regardless of political or religious views Disadvantages NGOs have been accused of causing conflict by lobbying and promoting western values – feminism/contraception/fidelity Whereas aid workers should always respect culture and custom When working for governments NGOs must follow their rules and regulations NGOs have been accused of causing and prolonging conflict by feeding rebel groups and armies
Advantages Have helped save thousands of lives through distribution of healthcare, food and clean water. Examples Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Mozambique etc Helped support the Edna Adan Maternity hospital (Somaliland)– offering healthcare and training Disadvantages Created a dependency culture – Moeletsi Mbeki – main problem is corrupt government 1 trillion dollars given in aid since 1960s – only limited improvement Africa needs to learn to do things for itself
Homework question – Examine the effectiveness of Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in responding to problems in Africa. You should provide arguments to show that NGOs are successful and also outline any criticisms or limitations of NGOs – use examples where possible
Tasks Read pages 32 to 36 Open learning pack questions 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9