Presentation on theme: "The Politics of Development in Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1The Politics of Development in Africa HIGHER MODERN STUDIESThe Politics of Development in Africaslide 1
2Politics of Development in Africa - Unit outline This unit can be split into threeConditions in Africa – Health and healthcare issuesAccess to education/food/safe waterLinks between health and educationEconomic/Political/Social factors affecting developmentIn what ways have organisations helped in promoting the development of AfricaThe African GovernmentsThe African UnionThe European UnionNon Governmental OrganisationsThe UKThe United NationsNote – South Africa will not be studied in this unit. Do not use it in examples!
31. What and Where is the Developing World? ‘Developing World’ is a term used to describe countries where people have low standards of living because poverty and hunger are widespread and where civil unrest and war frequently occur.Many developing world countries suffer from hunger and malnutrition - although not all people in developing countries are poor.Where is the Developing World?
4Factors used to measure the development of a country Infant Mortality – Number of babies who die before their first BirthdayLife expectancyPrimary school enrolmentAdult Literacy levels – Adults who can read and writeGDP – Gross Domestic Product – Money a country makes per yearAccess to safe water
5Facts about AfricaAfrica is the second biggest continent in the world.It comprises 53 countries covering 20% of the land area of the world and has 12% of the world population.The countries vary in terms of size, population, wealth, resources.Group TaskName as many African countries as you can in 3 minutes
6Virtually all of Africa was colonised by European countries in the 19th century. Most of these countries remained colonised until the 1960s when many became independentSince independence many of these countries have been marked with severe poverty/corrupt and authoritarian governments and political and economic instability.
7What Common Features Do African Countries Share? Although not every African country will have all of the features outlined below, many will have some of them………………..Poor roads and communicationsEducation poor by Western standardsCivil war or war with neighbouring countries commonLow average income per headMany work on the landUnemployment is highMedical care is poorLarge debt burden
9Conditions in African Countries Africa is the poorest continent in the world70% of its population live on less than $2 a day10 million children die every day from preventable diseasesAcute respiratory infectionsDiarrhoeaMeaslesMalariaMalnutritionIn some countries 1/5 die before their first birthday.
10Politics of Development in Africa Lesson AimsI will learnSome of the conditions within African countriesReasons for food shortages.
11Food ShortagesAccording to the Food and Agricultural Organisation there are more than 850 million people every day who cannot get enough food to meet their minimum energy needs.Sub Sahara Africa has the highest proportion of under nourished people.Malnutrition is one of the prime causes of low birth babies and poor growth.Malnutrition linked to the main child killersMeasles/Diarrhoea/malaria/pneumonia
12How does Malnutrition effect the development of a country? EconomyLoss of productivityAdults who have nutritional disorders unable to work efficiently or at allPeople get sick =less workers=less products to sellEducationChildren get sick cannot attend schoolChildren are undernourished and are unable to function/learn properlyHealthcareCost of caring for those who are suffering malnutrition
13Causes of food shortages Group TaskMind map outlining the causes of Food Shortages in AfricaCorrupt GovernmentNatural disastersenvironmentRole of womenCauses of food shortagesFree TradeWater scarcityHIV/AidsConflict/warDisease
14Reasons for food shortages Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have predicted that the world should be able to produce more than enough food for everyone in the planet so why are there food shortages?ConflictCrops/footstock/livestock and farm equipment are destroyedDisplacement of people - People are forced to flee their homes and move to neighbouring towns/countries
15Water is need to grow crops Water ScarcityAvailability to water and wells is already a problem for many communities in Africa.884 million people worldwide have no access to safe water. Many of these people live in African countries.It is thought that this problem will increase as development and population increases.Water is need to grow crops
16Natural DisastersDrought – Some countries go years without rain and cannot grow crops. Somalia and other countries in the horn of Africa have suffered severe drought in recent yearsFloods – 2007 Ethiopia and Sudan badly hitCyclones – In Feb people left homeless after a cyclone hit Madagascar. Many crops and farms were destroyed
17Free TradeMany farmers are encouraged to grow cash crops (cotton/coffee/tea) to sell to the rest of the world.Therefore basic food to sell to local people is not grown.Basic food is imported from rich countries at costly prices.
18Position of women Women play a crucial role in agriculture Certain customs and laws in some African countries exclude women from the right to own or inherit land.In some countries if a woman divorces her husband or if he dies she is not entitled to the land.Women produce most of the food for local consumption (men tend to produce cash crops).In some African communities 80% of food sold at market is produced by women. However, women are less likely to be educated and therefore may not use the best farming methods.Women are less likely to get loans/grants for improving farming methodsFemales receive only 5% of all agriculture extension services
19Disease and illnessHIV/AidsOne of the biggest problems facing AfricaApproximately 45 million people living with HIV/AidsOver 70% of adults living with Aids live in African countriesOver 80% of all children with Aids live in African countriesPeople die youngWorkers are lostLoss of skills and knowledge about farming and agricultureLess food is producedSituation of more dependents but less producers of food
20Environmental factors More and more land is being used for growing crops which is leading to deforestationNatural water supplies from the soil are taken away and due to lack of education land is not maintained properly. This can lead to desertification (drying up of land and soil).
21Corrupt governmentDoes not distribute food evenly
22Poor Farming MethodsOver cropping – planting too much = lots of poor quality cropsOvergrazingPoor water management (poor irrigation)
23Homework Essay – 02/03/09“Food shortages in African countries are mainly due to poor weather conditions.”DiscussCritically examine the reasons for food shortages in African countries.
24Problems with Healthcare Lesson aimsI will learnWhat health problems exist in AfricaThe various reasons for these problems
25Healthcare ProblemsHealth and healthcare are essential features of a developed country.Without a healthy workforce, it is not possible for the economy to function properly.Not enough healthy people to workToo many ill people draining the resourcesToo many people spending time caring for the sick
26Health and Development. In order for a country to develop it must have a healthy workforce.UK average life expectancy is 79 years but in Zimbabwe it is as low as 34 years in some regions (the lowest in the world).The infant mortality rate in the UK is 5 but in Ethiopia it is 110.10 million children die every day from preventable diseasesAcute respiratory infectionsDiarrhoeaMeaslesMalariaMalnutritionIn some countries 1/5 of all children die before their first birthday.
27Spread through mosquito bites MalariaSpread through mosquito bitesIt is estimated that 1 million children die every year from Malaria.Every 30secs an African child dies of MalariaApproximately 90% of all malaria deaths in are in AfricaWHO malariaDiarrhoeaCauses dehydration and malnutritionAccording to the WHO Diarrhoea accounts for 5% of deaths worldwide and as much 8.5% in Africa.
28Why is ill health such a problem in Africa? Lack of comprehensive healthcare - little or no free healthcare800 children die every day because parents cannot pay for medical treatmentVery few doctors and nurses – In 2004 there were more doctors from Ghana working in New Jersey and New York than in the whole of Ghana itself.Debt – money is spent repaying debt instead of investing in the healthcare systemLack of education – Hygiene and cleanlinessMalnutritionHygiene and cleanliness
29Lack of clean water and sanitation Dirty water causes diseases like diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid. Cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe Aug-Dec , 545 cases of cholera.In rural areas the only sources of water are lakes and rivers.In urban areas the water may be piped but very little in the way of sanitation. Sewage is often left untreated and therefore the water gets polluted.Only 50% of Africa has access to clean water and sanitation
30Ethiopia - 69% have no toilet facilities at all Ethiopia - 69% have no toilet facilities at all. Only 25% have access to protected clean tap water.
31Water projectsOne of the UN ‘s millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce by half the number of people who do have access to clean water.UN development report 2006 suggested that it would be 2040 before sub Sahara Africa reaches the MDG
32Lesson Aims We will learn How aids affects the development of a country.The educational problems within many African countries.
33Problem of HIV/Aids Kills 6000 people every day in Africa 70% of all adults and 80% of all children living with Aids live in Africa.25 million people are living with the diseaseHalf of all those with HIV become infected before they are 25In Botswana (worlds 2nd highest incidence of Aids) 37% of the population are infected and life expectancy is 39 yearsIn Zimbabwe 24.6% of the population have HIV/Aids.¼ of all those aged (working age) are infected
34Effects of HIV/AidsTreatment costs the government money – less money to spend on other public servicesIn some countries 50% of all beds are used by AIDS sufferersPeople get sick and cannot work – Poverty – (Majority of Africans with HIV/Aids are years)Doctors/teachers/nurses/skilled workers are lost
35Why is HIV/Aids out of control in Africa? Failure of the governments to respond to the problem.Weak healthcare system – virus goes undetected and untreatedLack of education – people do not know they have the disease, how it is spread or how to prevent it.Social status of women and culture –In many cultures and tribes it is normal for men to have several wives and mistresses. Women are viewed as inferior and less important than men.It is also common and accepted for men to use prostitutes.Less values on fidelitysexual promiscuity is common.Some religions do not believe in the use of contraception.
36What come be done to reduce and prevent HIV/Aids? EducationDistribution of contraceptionDrugs (to protect unborn children being infected)Anti retroviral drugs (AVRs) – helps prevent HIV turning to AidsMDG 6 – Combat HIV/Aids/Malaria and other diseasesSome countries have seen an improvement in recent years
37Botswana85% of Aids sufferers now have AVR drugs.More nurses and doctors
38number living with Aids has dropped from 15% to under 5%. Uganda –number living with Aids has dropped from 15% to under 5%.SenegalLess than 2% of the population have AidsSex education workersPreach about fidelity and abstinenceAllow the promotion of contraception
39How can healthcare problems be reduced? Clean waterEducationLow cost treatments, eg vitamins, vaccinations and mosquito nets.The Commission for Africa states that an extra one million health workers need to be trained in the next 10 years.More doctors.Conditions and pay needs to be improved to attract health workers and doctors.Fight against Aids – governments need to take bold steps on cultural factors and power relationships between men and women
41Education ProblemsLesson AimsI will learnThe importance of Education to the development of a country2. The problems that exist in Education in African countries
42Education Education is seen as a way out of poverty Education is an important factor in the development of a countryImproves food productionImproves healthcareImproves the economyNo education = no doctors/teachers/engineers/ scientists/skilled workers eg electricians.Nearly half of all Africans cannot read or write.
43Education UK primary school enrolment 100% Somalia primary school enrolment can be as low as 22%Ethiopia 45 %Tanzania 82%Gender imbalances –Females are less likely to be educated – 2 thirds of the worlds 875 million illiterate adults are womenA good education is regarded as the best way out of poverty.
44Primary SchoolingUN - Millennium development Goal 2 - Achieve Universal Primary Education (by 2015)At present approximately 40 million children in Africa do not attend primary school.Over 50% of all countries in Africa will not meet this MDG.Secondary educationSub Sahara Africa – 20% of children are in secondary educationIn 10 countries it is below 8%
45Higher educationUniversities lack the resources only those who can afford to pay the fees can go to university.In Ethiopia only 3% of the population go on to higher education.Urban/Rural InequalitiesSchools tend to be located in urban areas and therefore children living in the towns have easier access.Ethiopia – Rural – 20% of the population can read and writeUrban 74% of the population can read and write
46Gender imbalanceTwo thirds of all illiterate adults in Africa are female.Reasons why women are less likely to go to schoolCarersHouseworkRole in food productionCollect waterArranged marriagesEarly marriagesIn many cultures and tribes women are viewed to be inferior to men
47Improving education especially among women would have a positive affect on various social and economic problems.Educated women would be more productive at home and better paid in the workplace.Educated women are more likely to remain unmarried for longer and have fewer children.When they do have children their children are more likely to survive and will be better nourished and better educated.Every extra year a girl spends at school could reduce child mortality by 10%
48Conditions of African schools There are not enough schoolsOvercrowding (as much as 70 pupils per class)Lack of resources (textbooks, pens/pencils)Lack of properly trained teachers eg. In Malawi and Namibia less than 60% of the teachers have completed teacher training courses.The pay and working conditions for teachers is poor and therefore it is not a desired profession.
49HIV/AIDS is likely to claim the lives of 10 per cent of teachers within the coming five years, and 20 per cent of school-age children will be AIDS orphans.A minimum of three million more teachers are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve the goal of universal primary education by 2015.
50Somalia Education and formal learning opportunities are limited. Quality and access to primary education is very limited.Most schools are concentrated in urban areas and fees usually come from parents and communities.1,172 schools and 285,574 children enrolled (19%) – one of the lowest enrolment rates in the world.Girls - low enrolment and high drop out rate. Only 37% of all pupils in primary schools are girls.Only 13% of all teachers are female.
51Future of EducationThe situation is improving, although the MDG of universal primary education will not be met by 2005.The number of children in Primary schools is increasing.Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya have abolished fees and 7m children started Primary school as a result.Since 2000 there has been a 90% increase in the number of children attending primary school (both boys and girls)Next challenge should be secondary education.
52HomeworkTo what extent does education impact the development of many countries within AfricaRead pages 5,6 and 7 economic factors affecting development.
53Economic Factors affecting development Lesson AimsWe will learnWhat economic factors can promote the development of many African countries?What economic factors can hinder the development of African Countries?
54Land ownership and tenure Land and natural resources are main source of income70% of the population earn their livelihood from the land.Proper management of land could have a positive effect on the economy.Often different organisations will claim rights over the same piece of land and in many cases there are no formal records to show who holds the rights in certain areas.When Africa was colonised many European farmers were assigned pieces of land. However after independence many governments tried to redistribute the land more evenly.This has been problematic ……..
55In many countries the land has been redistributed unfairly In many countries the land has been redistributed unfairly. The best pieces of land has often went to friends of government officials.Thousands of white farmers were evicted in Zimbabwe. There are now less than 300 white farmers in Zimbabwe compared to 4,500 before the invasions began.This has contributed to a catastrophic collapse in the economy as white farmers left the country taking their skills with them.
56If land is not distributed properly it can lead to conflict, however if it is sorted out fairly and land rights are clearly assigned the this can promote economic development.Farmers will work as a team instead of competing to produce the same products.Therefore, this produces efficient and productive agricultural practices
57Women and Land Ownership. Women are responsible for 60-80% of agricultural production so their access to farm land is very important. However, women are often excluded from land ownership.Women are often excluded from training programmes and government grants.If men and women had equal land rights the this would also boost the economy.
58DebtAfrica owes massive amounts of money to rich countries. Africa received billions of dollars in aid from governments, banks and charities, mostly in Europe and America.Each year Africa faces $14.5 billion in debt repaymentsThis money should have been spent on development programmes but much of the money has been lost to corrupt governments and poor administration.
59How Debt Can Cripple A Country CASE STUDY - ZambiaHow Debt Can Cripple A CountryZambia was once one of Africa’s richest countries. Now it is poorer than it was in 1975!ZAMBIAIt has one of the lowest life expectancy rates in the world at approximately 40 years. Expected that 50% of population will eventually die of AidsIn 2004, Zambia spent 7.35% of its GDP to repay its debt – this is twice what it spent on education.To meet its debts, Zambia has had to privatise its public services and take in foreign imports.Because of this, Zambia cannot address its health, educational and economic needs……..
60Loans can be given from country to country eg UK (Bilateral) or from a group of countries or an organisation like the IMF (Multi Lateral).Countries and organisations also impose conditions onto loans.The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have been heavily criticised for the conditions on debt.These conditions can lead to hardships for the countries involved.
61For example, the IMF can insist that education and health programmes are cut in order to reduce government spending and keep up debt repayments – In Ghana education and health are no longer free.IMF have forced some countries to privatise water supplies. Which means that water is even less affordable and less accessible. This has happened in Rwanda.The IMF can also force many African countries to remove government subsidies.
62In Sudan a condition attached to an IMF loan was the growing of cotton (cash crop) for export and importing cheaper American grain for food.The bottom fell out of the cotton market so there was not enough money to buy grain to eat.
63In 1996 the IMF and the World Bank launched the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative to provide debt relief to developing countries.However qualifying conditions are hard to achieve and currently only 24 countries have had their debts cancelled.The UK has cancelled 100% of the debt owed to it by HIPCs.
64Drop the DebtWorldwide campaign to cancel the debts of poor countries.Jubilee 2000Make poverty HistoryThere has been some successesBenin – 54% of money previously spent on debt repayments has went on health and education.Tanzania – abolished primary school fees.Uganda 2.2 million gained access to clean water.
65Currency and Exchange rates Decisions about exchange rates can have profound consequences on African countries.If the currency of an African country drops then this means that imports will be more expensive and exports worth less.
66Terms of TradeAfrican producers do not compete on equal terms in world markets.The World Trade Organisation insists on free trade therefore African governments are not allowed to subsidise farmers or impose import taxes.However, The USA and The EU subsidise their farmers and also have import taxes in order to protect their agricultural industry.
67The EU subsidises its farmers through the Common Agricultural Policy. CAP- Policy introduced to protect farmers and keep consumers with a constant supply of food. Farmers are given money by the government by the EU to grow various products.EU farmers often produce food surpluses which are sent to African countries. This food undercuts local producers and puts them out of business.Senegal and Ghana – unwanted chicken thighs and wings from Europe are sold at half the price – putting local farmers out of business.
68Example - SugarIn Africa it costs £75 to produce a tonne of sugar but in Europe the cost is around £300.However, two things work against African sugar producersThe CAP gives £550 million every year to sugar producers bringing their cost down.The EU applies huge import taxes on imported African Sugar making it impossible for producers in Malawi or Mozambique to compete.
69World Trade Organisation Set up to supervise world trade.Supposed to promote free trade by getting countries to abolish subsidies and tariffs.Target set to abolish farm export subsidies by 2013, however little progress has been made.WTO – criticised from being a club for rich countries.
70Economic factors that affect development Promoting developmentHindering developmentLand ownership – 70% of people make their money working on the land – agriculture/natural resources – good management can boost economyFree trade – can sell products all over the world – cash crops -Fair TradeWorld Trade Organisation – regulate trading – committed to free and fair tradeAid – LoansDebt reliefHIPCDistribution of land/corrupt government/lack of educationLack of infrastructure eg roads/bridgesCash cropsEU Subsidies/CAP/Import taxesWTO seen as rich countries club – many countries still continue to use subsidies and tariffs.Exchange ratesDebt (interest) – affects on health and educationConditions of debt eg cash crop
71HomeworkCritically examine the economic factors that affect development in Africa.(15 Marks)
72Read pages 5 and 6CompleteQ A-EQ A-DEconomic factors affecting developmentRead pages 7, 8 and 9 – make notes on Political factors affecting development.
73Political factors affecting development in African Countries Lesson AimsI will learnThe effects of War on developing countriesThe effects of Bad governance to developing countries
74war Political Factors affecting development Conflict/Wars Armed conflict leads to food shortages on a large scale and destroys economic and social development.Infrastructure destroyed eg roads/bridgesWorkers are killedCrops destroyedMoney spent on arms – not on health and educationFarms/livestock destroyedwarPeople displacedunemploymentBusinesses destroyed
75WarAfrica is a continent more affected by armed conflict than any other continent.Wars between countriesCivil Wars – Political/tribal/religious reasonsUnresolved disputes following independence.Recent examples of WarsSudanRwandaSomaliaMozambiqueCongo
76The scale of the problem of conflict in Africa was identified in The Commission for Africa Report (2005)Tony Blair set up The Commission for Africa in 2004.17 members including Bob Geldof investigated the problems that were restricting development in Africa.The report outlined the catastrophic affects of armed conflict and also detailed the cost of conflict to many African nations.Democratic Republic of Congo - $20 BillionRwanda after 1990s conflict - $1 billion (damage to property alone)
77Sudan – Background1955 – 1972 – First Sudanese Civil War – North and South– Second Sudanese Civil War2003 – War broke out in Darfur – region in Sudan (roughly the size of France)Groups fighting in SudanSudanese governmentJanjaweed (supported by the government)Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM)Justice for Equality Movement (JEM)
78Armed conflict – Sudan – Darfur 2003 – Rebels (Sudanese Liberation Movement) began attacking the governmentDisputes over equality – Arabs treated better than Black Africans.For many years there has been tension over land and grazing rights.The Sudanese government began fighting back and are thought to have organised an Arab emergency army called – Janjaweed.Janjaweed has been accused various offences against non Arab Sudanese people.Stealing property/landMurderTortureRape
794th March 2009 – The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for President Omar Al BashirJustice and Equality Movement - the most heavily armed and active of the rebel groups in Darfur - has welcomed the warrant as a victory for the refugees and the displaced, and a victory for humanity.But as a direct result of the indictment, Khartoum expelled 10 foreign aid agencies, including Oxfam, Care, Save the Children UK and Medecins Sans Frontieres from Darfur, who between them supply food and water to some 1.5 million people.
80Affects of Armed conflict in Sudan At least people have been killed according to president Bashir – Thought to be more like2 million people have fled their homes – These people have been uprooted from their homes and work – destroyed any chance of being self sufficient.people have escaped to Chad
81Aid has been disrupted because it is too dangerous for aid workers to come into the country. Government blocked food supplies in areas where rebels were living.At present aid of NGOs has been blocked in Darfur as a result of the indictment against the presidentMillions of dollars was spent on the military which meant that public services were neglected.Children are forced to become soldiers.Infrastructure destroyed.
82TaskRead page 8 and create a fact file outlining the results of armed conflict using examples
83Bad governance/Kleptocracy Kleptocracy/Corrupt Government – When a dictator or a group use their power to benefit themselves.Those who support the dictator or the regime are rewarded while those who do not are punished.The Commission for Africa identified bad governance as a key issue explaining the lack of development in Many African countries.The government and the police cannot be trustedTaxes are not collected efficientlyWidespread corruption – Government officials have lavish standards of living while ordinary people are living in absolute poverty.Human rights are abused.Legal system is not independent.
84ZimbabweRobert Mugabe is known throughout the world for his authoritarian and corrupt regime.Vote riggingRacismViolation of human rightsBeatings/torture and murder are commonRestricted pressFreud – using government and aid money wronglyDeceptionForeign journalists are bannedZIMBABWE
85TaskRead page 9 and write notes about corruption in Zimbabwe and the effects of the bad governance.
86Economic problems – Zimbabwe Zimbabwe was once the economic leader in Africa but as a consequence of mismanagement the country has experienced economic disasters.Exchange rate has fallenInflation has risen – 2005 it was 80%2004 unemployment rate was 80%Income per head is lower now than it was in 1980Land distribution policies – White farmers evicted – crippling the agricultural industry.Tourism has collapsed
87Social problems – Zimbabwe homes destroyed – people homelessSince 2000 Zimbabwe unable to feed itself – 50% of population need emergency food aid.However in May 2004 Mugabe refused food aid stating that Zimbabwe had enough food.Life expectancy in low70% of people live in poverty.Rate of HIV infection – 25% of the populationPrimary school completion rates are downPoor sanitation and water supplies – 2008 Cholera outbreak
88What must happen in order for countries to overcome political problems? Fair and free electionsIndependent legal systemTrials for those who have been involved in corruption
89Homework –Read pages 8 and 9 Open leaning pack and answer questions – war in the DRCQuestions in sections1.4 and 1.5
90Lesson AimsI will learnThe role of the African Union in promoting development in Africa.The role of the United Nations.
91Homework- Friday 27/03/09To what extent is conflict a factor in preventing development. (15 marks)Effects of war and conflict – how it hinders developmentExamples of recent conflictHowever, conflict is not the only factorHealth, education, economic factors, corrupt government.
92The role African governments in promoting/hindering development. African governments criticised for poor governance.Independence after colonial rule left many countries unprepared for government. This resulted in either one group taking control or the army exerting their power.Military regimesOne party dictatorshipsUgandaZimbabweSudanSince presidents have been assassinated and there has been approximately 186 military coups.
93Most African governments have experienced problems creating and implementing policies concerned with economic growth.Some governments have spent more money on weapons than on public health.The African Union reported that $148 billion per year is taken away from government accounts into personal accounts of government officials.
94International companies have also been involved in corruption. Shell has admitted paying money to the military in Nigeria and resultantly 29 members of staff were dismissed for corruption
95Uganda – Successful initiative Set out a Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP)Policies includeIncreased private investmentModernisation and investment of agricultureExpansion of exportsChecks on civil servants to minimise corruptionImproving transport networksImproving banking servicesUganda’s reforms have resulted in economic growth in recent years.However critics say that there is still corruption and that the economy still needs to improve in order to meet the MDGs
96The African UnionFounded in 2002 – 53 membersAimsSecure democracyPromote human rightsPromote economic growthCreate a common marketBring an end to intra African conflictWork with international organisations to tackle social and economic problemsChallenges?Health – particularly Aids and malariaPolitical issues – undemocratic governments/civil warsEconomic issues – debt/poverty/lack of skills/educationEcological issues – famine/desertification of land
97The African Union – Dealing with conflict The AU’s first military intervention – May 2003Peacekeeping forces from South Africa/Mozambique and Ethiopia were sent to Burundi to oversee the various agreements after the war.7000 AU troop also sent to Darfur for peacekeeping. However, this is not enough for an area the size of Darfur. Virtually impossible to keep the peace.Successes?Still there has been some successes eg less children being abducted/help given to refugees/reduced conflict.Some people have been able to return to their villages safely
98African Union – Dealing with democracy The AU has only existed for a few years so it is hard to assess effectiveness.It aims to promote participation and good governance.Can investigate governments that fail to meet certain standardsCan intervene where genocide and war crimes are reported.
99Case Study ZimbabweThe AU is heavily criticised for not dealing with the regime in Zimbabwe.Despite international outrage about vote rigging in the 2002 election – AU observers approved the result.There is a common view held within the AU that the USA and EU should not be allowed to dictate to Zimbabwe.July 2002 – AU decided not to make public a report on Human Rights by the AU commission that was highly critical of Zimbabwe
100AU – Dealing the economic and social development New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)Framework for development needs – Main objectives include:Eradicate povertyEnsure Africa plays a full part in the global economyAccelerate the empowerment of women.However, it is difficult to assess effectiveness in such a short period of time.Problems with funding and implementing policies
101The African Union Criticisms Successes Dealing with conflict Burundi SudanDemocracySetting example by encouraging democracyHas powers to investigate countries that fail to meet standards eg Zimbabwe – observers were sent inSocial/Economic Development - NEPADFinance – cannot afford troops/equipment – Darfur not as successful as it should have beenAU seen as a dictators club – many members are involved in authoritarian regimesPoor leadershipAU – reluctance to get involved in Zimbabwe – endorsed 2002 election resultsHard to assess – will take a long time – Lack of funding and expertise makes it difficult.
102The United Nations Lesson Aims How has the United Nations assisted African countries?Some of the criticisms/limitations of the UN
104Type of Aid Food Aid Military aid Emergency aid Equipment Financial ExpertiseMilitary aid
105Tied AidAid given with strings attached eg conditions that the recipients purchase goods and services from the donor country.Problems with tied aidDeveloping countries are forced to buy products that they do not need.Local businesses lose out because products are being imported from other countriesApproximately 75% of Canada’s aid is tied2001 – UK untied all of its aid
106In 2000 the UN adopted eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by the year 2015. Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerAchieve universal primary educationPromote gender equality and empower womenReduce child mortalityImprove maternal healthCombat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases.Ensure environmental sustainabilityDevelop a global partnership for development
107The United NationsOne of the Main aims of The UN is to promote social and economic development.Specialised agencies
108In groups of three you are going to put together a presentation about one of the UN specialised agencies.FAO – page 25UNICEF – page 23 and 24WFP – pages 27 and 28You must includeThe Aims of the organisationMDG the agency is cornered withCase studiesSuccessesFailuresTime 20mins
109How does the WHO help people in Develops local health clinicsTraining doctors, nurses, midwives and health visitorsimmunisation campaigns to wipe out killer diseases like TB, Whooping cough etcHelping governments to set up health servicesHow does the WHO help people indeveloping countriesAims to raise life expectancyImprove clean water suppliesAims to reduce infant mortalityWorks to combat aids
110Organising emergency relief for children after a disaster Education programmes to increase the number of children receiving a basic educationHelps to build schoolsHow does UNICEF help to meet the needs ofpeople in developing countries?Works with the WHO to set up medical facilitiesProvides textbooks, pencils, paper to schoolsOrganises projects to help mothers and children eg. Breastfeeding campaigns
111UNICEF in EthiopiaFood has been distributed to drought affected areas. Fifty feeding stations have been set up to give nutrition to children who do not get enough to eat.A training programme has been set up to teach health workers how to deal with children who are malnourished.Vaccination programme against meningitis, measles and polio.Water sanitation projects have reduced the number of children becoming sick
112UNICEF in SudanWorking to increase safe drinking water. Water pumps have been repaired and wells are being dug.Helping children to receive an education by building schools and providing resources textbooks, pencils, boards, notebooks etc.Mosquito nets have been provided to protect children from Mosquitoes which carry malaria
113UNICEF in MozambiqueMozambique is one of the poorest countries in the worldUNICEF works with Aids orphans and try to save them from abuse and exploitationThey are currently trying to ensure that all children between the ages of 6 and 12 receive a basic education.Health programme focuses on reducing infant deaths and introducing major vaccination programmes to protect children from measles, tetanus and polio.
114WHO malariaWHO and UNICEF malaria campaignDavid BeckhamUnicef and healthUnicef and aids
115Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) Aims to half the number of people living with hunger by 2015 – currently over 800 millionHelps governments to train people to improve the quality of crops – Thousands of farmers have been trained through the Farmer Field schoolSome schemes involve using appropriate fertilisers and pesticidesAdvises people about best fishing and farming methods – for example what crops to grow and how to make the best of their land.Tries to teach people how to improve water supply as water is essential for farmingProgress has been slow and the goal will not be met by 2015
116UNESCO – United Nations Education, Scientific and cultural Organisations Developing education systemsUNESCO has been involved in projects to introduce compulsory schooling.Sends teachers and lecturers to help improve teaching and learningAlso promotes science and arts projects as well as literacy
117The World Food Programme Aims to combat hunger in AfricaHelps people who may have been involved in a crisis such as flood, drought or natural disaster.Worlds largest provider of free school mealsfree school meals result in higher school enrolment and attendance If children are fed then they are likely to learn moreIn many African countries the WFP has been working to increase the number of girls receiving an education – The scheme involves giving free food to the parents of girls enrolled in schools.In Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, the WFP has put in place feeding programmes for war and Aids orphans
118Criticisms of the United Nations Excellent track record, however it is argued that more could be done.FinanceUN and all its agencies spend $10 billion each year, this works out at $1.70 for each of the worlds inhabitants and a tiny fraction of what governments spend on military budgets.WFP estimated they need £78m to do their job properly – to date it has only received £28UN has been forced to cut back spending over the last 10 years due to a financial crisis.Member states are not paying their contributions eg The USA currently owes $1.5 billion to the UN.
119BureaucraticThe UN can be overly bureaucratic in its decision making – too many rules and regulations. Too much paperwork – too slow.UN criticised for being too slow to act in Ethiopia and Sudan where millions were facing famine.2004 – FAO wanted £9m to spray locust larvae in the Sahel in the SaharaThe money did not come larvae became locusts – crops destroyed – FAO needed £100m to repair damage
120The UN will not meet the MDGs by 2015? Areas for improvementThe UN will not meet the MDGs by 2015?Poverty and Hunger? – over 800 million go hungry everydayEducation – 40 million children still do not attend school therefore universal primary education will not be met until 2040.Equality – still gender imbalances eg Somalia only 37% of pupils in schools are girls. Women still do not have land rights in many countries.HIV/Aids – 70% (80% children) of all Aids sufferers live in Africa, thousands still being infected every day. Zimbabwe approx ¼ of population living with the disease
121Only Africans can bring change to Africa CorruptionDictatorshipWarThese problems must be addressedMDG are achievable but it is a two way street
122Homework –Assess the effectiveness of one UN agency in responding to problems in African Countries.(15 marks)Areas to includeAim of your chosen agency – mention MDGs associated with your agencyExamples of successes in specific African countriesAreas for development/criticisms eg Funding/too slowHave the MDGs been met?
123Multi Lateral Aid – The European Union Aid is given through the European Development FundandEuropean Commission for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO)March 2009 – allocated 247million Euro to 12 African Countries including, Sudan (110 million) Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo and Chad
124Cotonou Agreement was signed in 2000 Agreement between EU countries and 70 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries.20 year programme working to improve conditions in ACP countries.The EU aims to help countriesBalance their economiesImprove social servicesIntegrate into the global economy – Free TradePromote equality between men and womenImprove democracyThe EU can impose sanctions on countries that abuse human rights
125Criticisms of The Cotonou Agreement and EU Aid Free trade can damage the economies of many African countriesFree trade means that import and export taxes are taken away.African countries will be flooded with EU goods and local businesses will lose out.
126The EU in EritreaRehabilitation programmes to improve infrastructure after the warRoad and transport maintenanceSupporting education sectorReintegrate soldiers into societyImprove food securityConditions attached to this aidFree and fair electionsFree political prisonersFailure to meet these conditions would result in aid being withheld
127The EU in EthiopiaAssisting government with economic policiesTransport – Roads/Bridges/RailwaysEnergy – Hydroelectric power plant
128Lesson AimsI will learnHow the DFID promotes development of African CountriesCriticisms of the DFID
129Department for International Development (DFID) Managed by the British governmentDouglas Alexander – Secretary of state for international development.DFID – Aims to help achieve the MDGs and eliminate world povertyDFID works Bilaterally and also in partnership with other governments, the UN, The EU, The World Bank and NGOs
130Read Case studies on pages 19-21 and make notes on the work if the DFID
131KenyaDFID aims to improve maternal and newborn health services throughtraining of health workersprovision of essential medical equipmentraising the profile of those services in the communityDFID has spent £7.2 Milliondeliveries by skilled attendants has increased from approximately 18% to 23% in the target districts.93 health workers have been trained in emergency obstetric and neonatal care
132DFID in GhanaWorking with the Government in Ghana to improve business growth in the pineapple industry.Increased export from 2000 tonnes in the 1980s pineapples to 50, 000 tonnes in 2005Has spent $215, 000 on a project to reduce malaria in expectant mothersEg vouchers given with a discount up to 50% ($4 per net)Two thirds of women bought a net but many still cannot afford them.
133Criticisms of the DFIDSigned up to an agreement to allocate 0.7% of GNI to aid but 2004 the figure was 0.4%.Same year countries such as Norway and Netherlands gave over 0.8% of GNI. – (see page 19 textbook for details)Therefore Britain could and should be giving more.Tied aid – Britain has dropped all tied aid, however, there are concerns that British interests are linked to projects.Concerns that former colonies are given preference when it comes to deciding who should receive aid.
134Lesson AimsI will learnHow NGOs help promote development of African countriesCriticism/failures of NGOs
135Non Governmental Organisations Non ProfitNon PoliticalNon violentVoluntaryFree from government control – although have a great deal of contact with governmentsNGOs are run by volunteers and ordinary members of the public (although some people do get paid).NGOs often work in partnership with African governments/Rich countries eg UK government and International bodies (EU and UN).NGOs will often deliver food organised by EU and UN
136Where do NGOs get money?Fund raising eventsDonationsIn some cases NGOs are funded by the government – DFID and the EU are involved in funding Oxfam projects all over the world
137Types of NGOsGeneral groups that help with all aspects of development – OxfamSpecific groups – help one group eg Save the Childrenor help with a specific issue eg Wateraid
138Successes/Advantages of NGOs Many success storiesBring expertise and experienceHave helped millions of people by providingShort term and long term aidEmergency reliefTeachers/doctors/nursesSchoolsHospitalsTraining programmes
139For example Oxfam is currently helping 1 million people in Zimbabwe who are at risk of Cholera and food shortages.Repairing water sourcesProviding soap, disinfectantHygiene promotion programmesIn Sudan Oxfam is working to assist thousands of displaced people – provides clean water, clothes, blankets etc
140Currently working in 21 African Countries Money is not given to the government instead money is given to local groupsOver £30 million a year is given to projectsIn Uganda Christian Aid is working to rehabilitate child soldiers and promote reconciliation between ethnic groups in order to avoid conflict.Has assisted Ethiopians get clean waterProvides food rations for children in Sudan as well as shelters, mosquito nets, blankets and farming equipment
141Have programmes in 11 African countries Aims to improve quality of life through lasting improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene education.In Ethiopia Water Aid has helped over 820, 000 people gain access to clean water
142TanzaniaWorked with other agencies to persuade the government to abolish primary school fees.There are now 500,000 more children in schools across Tanzania
143NGOs will often work in dangerous conditions where international organisations will not enter eg Christian Aid in Darfur – Some governments have had to pull workers out of these areas because of the dangersSince 2004 Christian Aid has supported over half a million people affected by the conflict in Darfur.
144NGOs have been successful in persuading governments across the world to assist African countries. For exampleDrop the Debt and Make Poverty History have acted as a pressure group to persuade governments to write off some of the debt owed by African countriesBritain eventually dropped the debt of the poorest countries in Africa.NGOs will train and employ local people
145Disadvantages/Criticisms NGOs often act as a business – employ workers and compete for funding from the public. (BINGOs)Too much money is spent on administration and therefore promises are often not deliveredNGOs often lack the experience and expertise of government and international agencies like the UN.NGOs can cause problems when they do not consult governments – can start a project but are unable to see it throughNGOs can prolong conflict by feeding rebel groups and soldiers – by stepping in to assist corrupt states some NGOs are thought to be legitimising the actions of the government
146NGOs are not free completely from government control – 25% of Oxfam's budget comes from the British government and the EU.Medecins San Frontiers – approximately 46% of budget comes from government sources.NGOs act as agents or contractors for the UN or Western governments in the distribution of relief – most of the humanitarian assistance provided by the World Food Programme is distributed through NGOs (this is often a more efficient/cheaper/less dangerous way for donor countries to operate this way)
147NGOs can cause conflict in many cultures by lobbying for western values eg feminism/contraception/fidelityNGOs are unelected and therefore are unaccountable – only held responsible to themselves.NGOs are also criticised for creating a culture of dependency in many Africa Countries.Moeletsi Mbeki a famous South African economist suggested to Bob Geldof after Live 8 that the core problem in many African countries is bad governance. Only when this is tackled can aid make a difference.
148NGOs are working alongside corrupt governments therefore it is not making any real difference. Almost 1 trillion dollars has been given in aid since the 1960s. However, improvement has been slow. Some countries have declined in terms of development eg Zimbabwe.In order for aid to work it has to work alongside effective and good governments.South Africa and Botswana have well run governments and need very little aid.It is thought that countries get dependent on Aid eg Mozambique.Only Africans can bring change to Africa.
149How effective are NGOs? Disadvantages Advantages Often act act like a business – BINGOs. Compete for funding from the public – need to pay some workers – not all money donated goes directly towards aid projectsUnelected and unaccountable – NGOs can have their own agenda and are answerable only to themselvesLimitations to the work that can be done – limited numbers and resources – Lack expertise and experience of agencies like the UNLong term commitment may be problematic due to lack of funds – can start a project but unable to follow it throughAdvantagesNon profit, voluntary and free from government control – money from donationsCan act as a pressure group – influence government decisions – eg Make Poverty HistoryGo to places where governments or organisations like the UN cannot or will not go – eg DarfurNGOs are often first to respond to disasters or emergencies – do not have to go through the same long procedures that the UN or governments have to
150Advantages Disadvantages Helped in the fight for free primary education eg TanzaniaHelped fight for empowerment of women and equalityNGOs often work in partnership with African governments/Rich countries eg UK government and International bodies (EU and UN).NGOs will often deliver food organised by EU and UNAid is delivered to people regardless of political or religious viewsDisadvantagesNGOs have been accused of causing conflict by lobbying and promoting western values – feminism/contraception/fidelityWhereas aid workers should always respect culture and customWhen working for governments NGOs must follow their rules and regulationsNGOs have been accused of causing and prolonging conflict by feeding rebel groups and armies
151Advantages Disadvantages Have helped save thousands of lives through distribution of healthcare, food and clean water. Examples Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Mozambique etcHelped support the Edna Adan Maternity hospital (Somaliland)– offering healthcare and trainingDisadvantagesCreated a dependency culture – Moeletsi Mbeki – main problem is corrupt government1 trillion dollars given in aid since 1960s – only limited improvementAfrica needs to learn to do things for itself
152Homework question –Examine the effectiveness of Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in responding to problems in Africa.You should provide arguments to show that NGOs are successful and also outline any criticisms or limitations of NGOs – use examples where possible
153TasksRead pages 32 to 36Open learning pack questions 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9