4Definitions of Poverty There is no single definition of Poverty.There are two different ways of defining poverty:RelativeAbsolute
5Absolute PovertyThis term is used to describe the type of poverty experienced in very poor, lesser developed countries. This could be when people are living on very little money to survive, for example $1/2 per day. In the United Kingdom nobody lives on incomes this low. So, does absolute poverty exist in the UK? In recent years the government has defined absolute poverty as households living on half the average national income.
6Relative PovertyRelative poverty is defined in terms of the society in which a person lives. It applies to wealthy, developed countries such as the UK. A ‘minimum income standard’ is set, beneath which a person is said to be living in poverty.‘Households below Average Income’ is a government report which is published regularly. This report measures levels of poverty in the UK, based on the number of people living on an income of below 60 per cent of the average national income.
7Social ExclusionSocial exclusion is more than just the absence of money; it is the inability to take part in activities which would enable a person to get out of poverty. The government has defined social exclusion as:“What can happen when people or areas suffer from acombination of linked problems such as unemployment,poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime, badhealth and family breakdown”.There are a variety of groups in the UK who are vulnerable to social exclusion – for example: women, ethnic minorities, lone parents, older people and people from certain geographical areas (like rural areas with poor access to services). People who are socially excluded may have low aspirations and few expectations of attaining highly paid jobs or being educated to a high standard.
8Social Exclusion Separation from friends and family Separation from the environmentSeparation from social services
9Separation from the environment This may be due to…Fewer qualifications / skills,A low income,Unemployment
10Separation from the environment These reasons and others such as being retired mean that a person is not receiving an income that means they can afford to gain access to various resources that are seen by society to be necessities.This is ultimately a type of poverty called relative poverty.
11Separation from the environment According to a report done by Save the Children, almost 10% of Scottish children are living in severe poverty.According to the “Living Below The Radar”, nearly 10% of children aged 15 and under living with both parents are living on £7000 or less a year after housing costs.72% of these children are living in families which bring in no income from jobs.
12Separation from family and friends This may be due to…Lone parent families,Being elderlyIsolation from neighboursHaving no family.
13Separation from family and friends Separation from family and friends The “Living Below The Radar” report found that of the children living in severe poverty, 20% can’t afford to celebrate their birthday or similar events.The report also found that ¼ of these children miss out on going to playgroups due to cost.These youngsters are ultimately being excluded from society due to their parent’s lack of money.
14Separation from social services This may be due to…Being alienated from education,Being denied access to decent housing,Being denied access to health services.
15POVERTY (p.50-51)Define absolute and relative poverty. What is the difference?Why is the term ‘social exclusion’ useful when talking about poverty?Give an example of social exclusion.Which groups are more vulnerable to poverty? Why?