Presentation on theme: "26th September 2012 Dr Julian Tomkinson"— Presentation transcript:
1 26th September 2012 Dr Julian Tomkinson Hypertension26th September 2012Dr Julian Tomkinson
2 AimsTo understand the diagnosis, impact and management of hypertension in General Practice
3 Method Overview of NICE guidelines Applying to General Practice as we go alongCase examples / scenarios
4 Any areas you would like clarifying today? Questions?Any areas you would like clarifying today?
5 GP Curriculum3.01 Healthy People: promoting health and preventing disease3.12 Cardiovascular Health2.01 The GP consultation2.02 Patient Safety and Quality of Care2.04 Enhancing Professional Knowledge
6 Why is it important?Major risk factor for stroke, MI, heart failure, CKD, cognitive decline and premature deathUntreated hypertension can cause vascular and renal damage leading to a treatment resistant state.Each 2 mmHg rise in systolic blood pressureassociated with increased risk of mortality:– 7% from heart disease– 10% from stroke.
7 (~90% of cases are Primary & 10% are Secondary) PrevalenceAt least ¼ of UK population have hypertensionMore than ½ > 60’s have hypertension(~90% of cases are Primary & 10% are Secondary)
11 NICE Definitions Stage 1 hypertension: Clinic BP ≥ 140/90 and ABPM or HBPM average ≥ 135/85Stage 2 hypertension:Clinic BP ≥ 160/100ABPM or HBPM average ≥ 150/95Severe hypertension:Clinic systolic BP ≥ 180Clinic diastolic BP ≥ 110
12 Emergencies in hypertension If blood pressure is 220/120 mmHg or higher, or signs of accelerated (malignant) hypertension (BP 180/110 mmHg or higher with signs of papilloedema and/or retinal haemorrhage), arrange same-day admission
13 Diagnosing hypertension If the clinic BP is ≥ 140/90offer ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to confirm the diagnosis of hypertensionHome BP monitoring (HBPM) also possible
14 Scenario 1O&G clinic – 48 year old lady with menorrhagia. BP raised 165/100 when checked – what do you say to her?
15 Scenario 2 Pt seen in surgery: letter from ophthalmology pre-op clinic ‘BP 180/90. Please treat this patient's BP and send them back for their cataract surgery when you have got BP under control’BP today 120/80THOUGHTS?
16 Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) When using ABPM, ensure that at least two measurements per hour are taken during the person’s usual waking hours (for example, between 08:00 and 22:00).Use the average value of at least 14 measurements taken during the person’s usual waking hours to confirm a diagnosis of hypertension
17 Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) For each blood pressure recording, two consecutive measurements are taken, at least 1 minute apart and with the person seated and:blood pressure is recorded twice daily, ideally in the morning and evening andblood pressure recording continues for at least 4 days, ideally for 7 daysDiscard the measurements taken on the first day and use the average value of all the remaining measurements to confirm a diagnosis of hypertension.
18 Scenario 1 continued What do you do next? Mrs Haifa Tenchun 48 years oldCame to surgery 2 weeks ago after BP found raised in O&G clinicYou were running late and so simply arranged home BP measurement. Average is 148/92What do you do next?
19 Scenario 1 continuedMrs Haifa Tenchun 48 years old How do we explain hypertension to a patient?
20 What do patient’s think about BP? Many patients perceive stress as a major causative factor as well as family history, genetic make-up, race, personality traitsSpecific habits such as alcohol consumption, smoking and salt intakeFrustrated when lifestyle changes didn’t workBelieved they hadn’t been given enough info about cause
21 Scenario 1 continuedMrs Haifa Tenchun 48 years old Mrs HT is grateful for your explanation and fill follow your advice: What are the next steps in management?
22 Assessing cardiovascular risk and target organ damage: Use a formal estimation of cardiovascular risk to discuss prognosis and healthcare options with people with hypertension.For all people with hypertension offer to:test urine for presence of proteintake blood to measure glucose, electrolytes, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and cholesterolexamine fundi for hypertensive retinopathyarrange a 12-lead ECG.CHECK OTHER SIG ISSUES SMOKING ALCOHOL BMI…NOTES FOR PRESENTERS:These are not key priorities for implementation in this area, however this has been included as it is considered an important part of the treatment pathway. Please note these recommendations would be applied during the person’s initial blood pressure measurement and at the diagnosis stages of the patient pathway.Key points to raise:Use a formal estimation of cardiovascular risk to discuss prognosis and healthcare options with people with hypertension, both for raised blood pressure and other modifiable risk factors.  [1.3.1]Estimate cardiovascular risk in line with the recommendations on Identification and assessment of CVD risk in ‘Lipid modification’ (NICE clinical guideline 67)*.  [1.3.2]*Clinic blood pressure measurements must be used in the calculation of cardiovascular risk.For all people with hypertension offer to:test for the presence of protein in the urine by sending a urine sample for estimation of the albumin:creatinine ratio and test for haematuria using a reagent striptake a blood sample to measure plasma glucose, electrolytes, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterolexamine the fundi for the presence of hypertensive retinopathyarrange for a 12-lead electrocardiograph to be performed. [2004, amended 2011] [1.3.3]Additional information:The recommendations in identification and assessment of CVD risk in ‘lipid modification’ are available here:For NICE guidance on the early identification and management of chronic kidney disease see ‘Chronic kidney disease’ (NICE clinical guideline 73, 2008).
24 Care pathway CBPM ≥140/90 mmHg & ABPM/HBPM ≥ 135/85 mmHg Stage 1 hypertensionCBPM ≥160/100 mmHg & ABPM/HBPM ≥ 150/95 mmHgStage 2 hypertensionCare pathwayIf target organ damage present or 10-year cardiovascular risk > 20%Offer antihypertensive drug treatmentConsider specialist referralIf younger than 40 yearsNOTES FOR PRESENTERS. Key priority recommendations are identified with [KPI] in these notesStep 1 treatment:Offer people aged under 55 years step 1 antihypertensive treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or a low-cost angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB). If an ACE inhibitor is prescribed and is not tolerated (for example, because of cough), offer a low-cost ARB. [new 2011] [1.6.6]Do not combine an ACE inhibitor with an ARB to treat hypertension. [new 2011] [1.6.7]Offer step 1 antihypertensive treatment with a calcium-channel blocker (CCB) to people aged over 55 years and to black people of African or Caribbean family origin of any age. If a CCB is not suitable, for example because of oedema or intolerance, or if there is evidence of heart failure or a high risk of heart failure, offer a thiazide-like diuretic. [new 2011] [1.6.8] [KPI]If diuretic treatment is to be initiated or changed, offer a thiazide-like diuretic, such as chlortalidone (12.5–25.0 mg once daily) or indapamide (1.5 mg modified-release once daily or 2.5 mg once daily) in preference to a conventional thiazide diuretic such as bendroflumethiazide or hydrochlorothiazide. [new 2011] [1.6.9] [KPI]For people who are already having treatment with bendroflumethiazide or hydrochlorothiazide and whose blood pressure is stable and well controlled, continue treatment with the bendroflumethiazide or hydrochlorothiazide. [new 2011] [1.6.10] [KPI]Related recommendations:Recommendations and have not been updated and reviewed since ‘Hypertension’ (NICE clinical guideline 34, 2006).Step 2 treatmentIf blood pressure is not controlled by step 1 treatment, offer step 2 treatment with a CCB in combination with either an ACE inhibitor or an *ARB. [new 2011] [1.6.13]If a CCB is not suitable for step 2 treatment, for example because of oedema or intolerance, or if there is evidence of heart failure or a high risk of heart failure, offer a thiazide-like diuretic. [new 2011] [1.6.14]For black people of African or Caribbean family origin, consider an ARB* in preference to an ACE inhibitor, in combination with a CCB. [new 2011] [1.6.15]*Choose a low-cost ARBAdditional information: the pathway above focuses on stage 1 and 2 hypertension. For the full care pathway see page 35 of the NICE guideline.Offer lifestyle interventionsOffer patient education and interventions to support adherence to treatmentOffer annual review of care to monitor blood pressure, provide support and discuss lifestyle, symptoms and medication
25 Scenario 1 continued Mrs Haifa Tenchun 48 years old Review appointment:eGFR >90 u&e’s / glucose normalCholesterol 5.0 HDl 1.0Urine NADHeight 155cm Weight 80kg BMI 33.3ECG normalOptician assessed eyes and no retinal damageWHAT NEXT?
27 Additional recommendations Lifestyle interventionsOffer guidance and advice about:diet (including sodium and caffeine intake) and exercisealcohol consumptionsmoking.(Hypertension).htmPatient education and adherenceProvide:information about benefits of drugs and side effectsdetails of patient organisationsan annual review of care.NOTES FOR PRESENTERS:These are not key priorities for implementation in this area however this has been included as it is considered an important part of the treatment pathway. Note these recommendations did not require updating in Please note these recommendations should be applied throughout the patient pathway.Key points to raise:Lifestyle interventionsRecommendations 1.4.1–1.4.8 in the NICE guideline have not been updated and reviewed since ‘Hypertension’ (NICE clinical guideline 18, 2004).Patient education and adherenceRecommendations 1.7.1–1.7.3 in the NICE guideline cover recommendations concerning patient education and adherence to treatment. These have not been updated and reviewed since ‘Hypertension’ (NICE clinical guideline 18, 2004).Because evidence supporting interventions to increase adherence is inconclusive, only use interventions to overcome practical problems associated with non-adherence if a specific need is identified. Target the intervention to the need. Interventions might include:suggesting that patients record their medicine-takingencouraging patients to monitor their conditionsimplifying the dosing regimenusing alternative packaging for the medicineusing a multi-compartment medicines system.This recommendation is taken from ‘Medicines adherence’ (NICE clinical guideline 76).  [1.7.4]Additional informationFor NICE guidance on the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular disease see ‘Obesity’ (NICE clinical guideline 43, 2006) and ‘Prevention of cardiovascular disease at population level’ (NICE public health guidance 25, 2010).
28 CODING ON COMPUTERUSE CORRECT READ CODES – check with practice
29 Scenario 1 continuedMrs Haifa Tenchun 49 years old Reviews: 6 months (practice nurse) 165/95 BMI months (practice nurse) 166/98 BMI 34 (asked to make appointment to see GP) What would you say / do now? Home readings arranged and BP 155/98
30 Summary of antihypertensive drug treatment Aged over 55 years or black person of African or Caribbean family origin of any ageAged under 55 yearsSummary of antihypertensive drug treatmentAC2Step 1KeyA – ACE inhibitor or low-cost angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)1C – Calcium-channel blocker (CCB)D – Thiazide-like diureticA + C2Step 2A + C + DStep 3NOTES FOR PRESENTERS. Key priority recommendations are identified with [KPI] in these notes.Step 3 treatmentBefore considering step 3 treatment, review medication to ensure step 2 treatment is at optimal or best tolerated doses. [new 2011] [1.6.16]If treatment with three drugs is required, the combination of ACE inhibitor (or angiotensin-II receptor blocker), calcium-channel blocker and thiazide-like diuretic should be used.  [1.6.17]Step 4 treatmentRegard clinic blood pressure that remains higher than 140/90 mmHg after treatment with the optimal or best tolerated doses of an ACE inhibitor or an ARB plus a CCB plus a diuretic as resistant hypertension, and consider adding a fourth antihypertensive drug and/or seeking expert advice. [new 2011] [1.6.18]For treatment of resistant hypertension at step 4:Consider further diuretic therapy with low-dose spironolactone4 (25 mg once daily) if the blood potassium level is 4.5 mmol/l or lower. Use particular caution in people with a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate because they have an increased risk of hyperkalaemia.Consider higher-dose thiazide-like diuretic treatment if the blood potassium level is higher than 4.5 mmol/l. [new 2011] [1.6.19] [KPI]When using further diuretic therapy for resistant hypertension at step 4, monitor blood sodium and potassium and renal function within 1 month and repeat as required thereafter. [new 2011] [1.6.20]If further diuretic therapy for resistant hypertension at step 4 is not tolerated, or is contraindicated or ineffective, consider an alpha- or beta-blocker. [new 2011] [1.6.21]If blood pressure remains uncontrolled with the optimal or maximum tolerated doses of four drugs, seek expert advice if it has not yet been obtained. [new 2011] [1.6.22]Footnotes(1) Choose a low-cost ARB. (2) A CCB is preferred but consider a thiazide-like diuretic if a CCB is not tolerated or the person has oedema, evidence of heart failure or a high risk of heart failure. (3) Consider a low dose of spironolactone4 or higher doses of a thiazide-like diuretic. (4) At the time of publication (August 2011), spironolactone did not have a UK marketing authorisation for this indication. Informed consent should be obtained and documented. (5) Consider an alpha- or beta-blocker if further diuretic therapy is not tolerated, or is contraindicated or ineffective.Resistant hypertensionA + C + D + consider further diuretic3, 4 or alpha- or beta-blocker5Consider seeking expert adviceStep 4See slide notes for details of footnotes 1-5
31 Initiating drug treatment Offer antihypertensive drug treatment to people aged under 80 years with stage 1 hypertension who have one or more of the following:− target organ damage− established cardiovascular disease− renal disease− diabetes− a 10-year cardiovascular risk equivalent to 20% or greater.
32 Initiating Drug Treatment who have stage 2 hypertension at any age.If aged under 40 with stage 1 hypertension and without evidence of target organ damage, cardiovascular disease, renal disease or diabetesNB consider specialist evaluation of secondary causes of hypertension & further assessment of potential target organ damage
33 Scenario 1 continuedMrs Haifa Tenchun 49 years old What treatment do you recommend?
34 Scenario 1 continuedMrs Haifa Tenchun 49 years old Start ramipril 1.25mg. What review arrangements do you make? u+e’s normal after 2 weeks BP 135/85
35 Reviewing new medication for hypertension? Ask about adverse effects Check clinic blood pressureIf blood pressure is within the target range and treatment is well tolerated:Either, review the person in 12 months depending on clinical judgement.Or, if the blood pressure has been well controlled for a prolonged period of time and the person's cardiovascular risk is low, consider withdrawing or reducing drug treatmentIf blood pressure is above the target range:Check and confirmconsider secondary hypertensionConsider increasing / changing medication
37 Monitoring antihypertensive drug treatment For patients identified as having a ‘white-coat effect’ consider ABPM or HBPM as an adjunct to clinic blood pressure measurements to monitor response to treatment.Aim for ABPM/HBPM target average of< 135/85 mmHg in people aged under 80< 145/85 mmHg in people aged 80 and over(White Coat Hypertension (WCH) is reported to occur in as many as 25% of the population)
38 It is estimated that between ComplianceIt is estimated that between50–80% of patients with hypertension do not take all of their prescribed medication
39 Compliance improved by improving patient education, providing counselling, involving families and other members of the health care team
40 Common / important side effects ACE inhibitors eg ramipril?Calcium channel blockers eg amlodipine?Angiotensin 2 blockers eg losartan?Thiazide-like diuretics eg indapamide?
41 Scenario 2 48 year old man sent from A&E with BP 180/100 Smoker minimal alcoholBMI 30
42 Scenario 2 continued Home readings average 180/99 eGFR 65 Cholesterol / HDl ratio 2.9ECG suggests left ventricular hypertrophyNegative catecholoamine screenUSS abdomen normalEcho marked left ventricular hypertrophyAdmits to heavy use of anabolic steroidsStart ramipril and titrate up to 10mgNo significant response add amlodipine 5gAdd indapamide still hypertensiveAwait cardiology
43 You visit Mr Siegfried Avant age 82 at home Scenario 3You visit Mr Siegfried Avant age 82 at homeLetter from hospital shows he had a CVA 3 weeks ago and has been left with a left sided hemiparesisLooking at the notes before you leave you see:/90/86/100 (comment in notes check 1 month)/95 (1 month later 150/89 with remark ‘watch BP’)/100 (see 1 week)THOUGHTS?
44 Driving The DVLA's medical rules regarding hypertension are: For group 1 entitlement (cars, motorcycles):Driving may continue unless treatment causes unacceptable side effects.The DVLA need not be notified.For group 2 entitlement (lorries, buses):Disqualifies from driving if resting systolic blood pressure is consistently 180 mmHg or more and/or resting diastolic blood pressure is consistently 100 mmHg or more.Re-licensing may be permitted when blood pressure is controlled provided that treatment does not cause side effects which may interfere with driving.The person should check with their insurer that they are still covered for driving.The latest information from the DVLA regarding medical fitness to drive can be obtained atwww.dvla.gov.uk/medical/ataglance.