Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Thinking Skills Approaches What do effective teachers do to promote pupil learning?

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Thinking Skills Approaches What do effective teachers do to promote pupil learning?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Thinking Skills Approaches What do effective teachers do to promote pupil learning?

2 What do we mean by Thinking Skills? Thinking Skills is a method used by teachers to challenge their pupils to: Thinking Skills is a method used by teachers to challenge their pupils to: extend their understanding extend their understanding use their imaginations use their imaginations transfer learning across situations transfer learning across situations and, above all to think for themselves and, above all to think for themselves It is sometimes referred to as ‘cognitive acceleration’ It is sometimes referred to as ‘cognitive acceleration’ This summary is based on 30 studies that formed part of the Behaviour for Learning Anthology This summary is based on 30 studies that formed part of the Behaviour for Learning Anthology

3 How have thinking skills approaches benefited pupils? Pupils have benefited from acquiring thinking skills knowledge by: Pupils have benefited from acquiring thinking skills knowledge by: increase’s in grade achievement in both end of year and GCSE exams increase’s in grade achievement in both end of year and GCSE exams development’s in higher order thinking skills amongst gifted and talented students development’s in higher order thinking skills amongst gifted and talented students accelerates the development through even deeper levels of thinking and learning accelerates the development through even deeper levels of thinking and learning

4 Which techniques develop pupils’ thinking skills? Over the past 20 years there has been considerable research in how pupil thinking skills can be accelerated. Techniques include: Over the past 20 years there has been considerable research in how pupil thinking skills can be accelerated. Techniques include: concrete preparation concrete preparation cognitive challenge cognitive challenge social construction social construction metacognition metacognition bridging bridging Definitions and examples of the techniques are outlined in the slides following Definitions and examples of the techniques are outlined in the slides following

5 Concrete Preparation To make the most out of challenges pupils need to be prepared. To help pupils achieve this effective teachers: To make the most out of challenges pupils need to be prepared. To help pupils achieve this effective teachers: recap on relevant aspects of what pupils have already learned recap on relevant aspects of what pupils have already learned highlight and clarify the meaning of essential vocabulary through discussion with the pupils highlight and clarify the meaning of essential vocabulary through discussion with the pupils help pupils to become familiar with the task and what they have to do through examples help pupils to become familiar with the task and what they have to do through examples Unless you define terms and vocabulary a problem may not be seen as a problem Unless you define terms and vocabulary a problem may not be seen as a problem

6 Concrete Preparation: defined ‘To someone who has never seen a hat or a rabbit, it is not interesting to see a rabbit pulled out of a hat. For all he or she knows, hats are precisely where rabbits live.’ ‘To someone who has never seen a hat or a rabbit, it is not interesting to see a rabbit pulled out of a hat. For all he or she knows, hats are precisely where rabbits live.’ Adey, P. and Shayer, M. (1994) Improving learning through cognitive intervention. Adey, P. and Shayer, M. (1994) Improving learning through cognitive intervention.

7 Cognitive Challenge Cognitive challenge is a challenge that makes pupils think. It can: Cognitive challenge is a challenge that makes pupils think. It can: challenge someone’s usual way of thinking challenge someone’s usual way of thinking introduce new information that does not fit with previous experience introduce new information that does not fit with previous experience This challenge leads pupils to be curious about the problem and makes them think This challenge leads pupils to be curious about the problem and makes them think The tasks set should be interesting and challenging, but achievable with the help of others The tasks set should be interesting and challenging, but achievable with the help of others

8 An example of cognitive challenge A Key Stage 1 teacher asked her pupils to sort a pile of objects into two hoops. One hoop for mammoths and another for blue objects A Key Stage 1 teacher asked her pupils to sort a pile of objects into two hoops. One hoop for mammoths and another for blue objects During the process they came across a blue mammoth. This confused them and they discussed various options as a group During the process they came across a blue mammoth. This confused them and they discussed various options as a group Eventually one child suggested overlapping the hoops and placing the blue mammoth in the overlapping section, thus leaving the object in both Eventually one child suggested overlapping the hoops and placing the blue mammoth in the overlapping section, thus leaving the object in both

9 Social Construction Once pupils have been set a challenge, effective teachers planned for them to work together to solve it, supported by each other and by the teacher – a process of constructing understanding and solving problems collaboratively Once pupils have been set a challenge, effective teachers planned for them to work together to solve it, supported by each other and by the teacher – a process of constructing understanding and solving problems collaboratively Conversation between the pupils and teacher helps to: Conversation between the pupils and teacher helps to: build new knowledge and understanding build new knowledge and understanding create dialogue within the group which helps children to refine their own thinking create dialogue within the group which helps children to refine their own thinking ‘In collaboration the child can always do more than he can do independently.’ Lev Vygotskty ‘In collaboration the child can always do more than he can do independently.’ Lev Vygotskty

10 Examples of social construction One study involved a year 5 class in solving a mystery murder set in The project required pupils to take on the role of history detectives, to think of questions, follow lines of enquiry and make hypotheses. The project was successful in bringing history to life and developing historical enquiry skills. One study involved a year 5 class in solving a mystery murder set in The project required pupils to take on the role of history detectives, to think of questions, follow lines of enquiry and make hypotheses. The project was successful in bringing history to life and developing historical enquiry skills. Another study found that secondary science learners were more motivated to learn if they were set a task which required them to solve a problem from a real- life context. They were less enthusiastic if they received precise instructions from the teacher to carry out a task designed to solely convey a particular point. Another study found that secondary science learners were more motivated to learn if they were set a task which required them to solve a problem from a real- life context. They were less enthusiastic if they received precise instructions from the teacher to carry out a task designed to solely convey a particular point.

11 Metacognition Metacognition occurs when pupils become aware of and understand their own thinking Metacognition occurs when pupils become aware of and understand their own thinking While pupils are working together on a task teachers can prompt them to say what they are thinking and why. This leads pupils to: While pupils are working together on a task teachers can prompt them to say what they are thinking and why. This leads pupils to: become more aware of their own thinking become more aware of their own thinking discuss ideas and concepts within the group discuss ideas and concepts within the group Pupils’ may not be explicitly aware of their thinking, so holding a plenary discussion after the task can help to embed thinking by getting pupils to reflect on the task. Pupils’ may not be explicitly aware of their thinking, so holding a plenary discussion after the task can help to embed thinking by getting pupils to reflect on the task.

12 An example of metacognition A secondary school designed a debriefing activity that could be used by pupils from years 7 to 10. Features included: A secondary school designed a debriefing activity that could be used by pupils from years 7 to 10. Features included: asking a high number of open questions asking a high number of open questions prompting pupils to carry on talking, so that they gave lengthy responses that justified their answers to questions prompting pupils to carry on talking, so that they gave lengthy responses that justified their answers to questions making frequent references to concepts such as cause, effect and planning and to learning skills making frequent references to concepts such as cause, effect and planning and to learning skills summarising the discussion and learning for the pupils summarising the discussion and learning for the pupils giving evaluative feedback to pupils from both the teacher and other pupils. giving evaluative feedback to pupils from both the teacher and other pupils.

13 Bridging Bridging involves enabling pupils to take their learning from one context to another and could include: Bridging involves enabling pupils to take their learning from one context to another and could include: using plenary sessions to broaden pupils understanding by connecting what they have just learnt to other situations using plenary sessions to broaden pupils understanding by connecting what they have just learnt to other situations offering examples of similar situations to pupils and getting them to discuss the similarities and differences to make links between the two offering examples of similar situations to pupils and getting them to discuss the similarities and differences to make links between the two getting pupils to use knowledge they have learnt in one context in another, for example what strategies were used for a science experiment that could be used with another? getting pupils to use knowledge they have learnt in one context in another, for example what strategies were used for a science experiment that could be used with another?

14 An example of why bridging is important A study from Brazil looked at children who sold fruit on the streets. The teacher presented them with the same set of problems, but in three different ways. A study from Brazil looked at children who sold fruit on the streets. The teacher presented them with the same set of problems, but in three different ways. The first was just like the buying and selling of fruit The first was just like the buying and selling of fruit The second was similar but involved different goods The second was similar but involved different goods The third removed all context and left abstract sums only The third removed all context and left abstract sums only The children answered almost all of the first set correctly, only three quarters of the second and scored an average of 40% on the decontextualised third set. The children answered almost all of the first set correctly, only three quarters of the second and scored an average of 40% on the decontextualised third set. By using plenary sessions this type of issue can be overcome, by allowing pupils to connect their understanding and learning to other situations By using plenary sessions this type of issue can be overcome, by allowing pupils to connect their understanding and learning to other situations

15 How was the information gathered? The evidence underpinning this bite was drawn together as an anthology of the evidence from 30 high quality Research for Teachers studies written for GTC during the period 2000 – The 30 underpinning studies were all selected as high quality studies which are directly relevant to current practice These included: The evidence underpinning this bite was drawn together as an anthology of the evidence from 30 high quality Research for Teachers studies written for GTC during the period 2000 – The 30 underpinning studies were all selected as high quality studies which are directly relevant to current practice These included: Assessment for Learning: putting it into practice - Enquiry-based learning, cognitive acceleration and the spiral curriculum: Jerome Bruner’s constructivist view of teaching and learning - Social interaction as a means of constructing learning: the impact of Lev Vygotsky’s ideas on teaching and learning -

16 How can teachers use the evidence in this study? If you are not familiar with Thinking Skills approaches could you begin in a small way, by introducing to each exercise you set your students, a prompt to think about what they’ve been doing? If you are not familiar with Thinking Skills approaches could you begin in a small way, by introducing to each exercise you set your students, a prompt to think about what they’ve been doing? This could take the form of a set of questions, for example ‘what have I learned previously that could help?’ or ‘what is the main idea I am trying to use?’ This could take the form of a set of questions, for example ‘what have I learned previously that could help?’ or ‘what is the main idea I am trying to use?’ Bridging learning across a variety of contexts helps pupils’ understanding. Could you work with a colleague to develop ways of enabling pupils to apply learning from a lesson context to everyday challenges? Bridging learning across a variety of contexts helps pupils’ understanding. Could you work with a colleague to develop ways of enabling pupils to apply learning from a lesson context to everyday challenges?

17 How can school leaders use the evidence in this study? The evidence is clear about the value of pupils thinking aloud, so they can move towards new understandings. The evidence is clear about the value of pupils thinking aloud, so they can move towards new understandings. To what extent are pupils in your school able to talk about their own thinking? You may wish to ask your teachers to set their class a task and challenge the pupils to explain their thinking as they go. To what extent are pupils in your school able to talk about their own thinking? You may wish to ask your teachers to set their class a task and challenge the pupils to explain their thinking as they go. Do you, as a staff, need to use metacognition and model your own thinking aloud in order to help pupils understand that suggestions that do not work are just as useful as ones that do in promoting effective thinking? Do you, as a staff, need to use metacognition and model your own thinking aloud in order to help pupils understand that suggestions that do not work are just as useful as ones that do in promoting effective thinking?

18 Follow-up reading This BITE is based on the Research for Teachers ‘Behaviour for Learning Anthology’ accessible here: This BITE is based on the Research for Teachers ‘Behaviour for Learning Anthology’ accessible here: See also: See also: Vygotsky’s ideas on Teaching and Learning: Vygotsky’s ideas on Teaching and Learning: Improving learning through cognitive intervention: Improving learning through cognitive intervention:

19 Contact details This presentation was produced by CUREE: This presentation was produced by CUREE: CUREE Ltd 4 Copthall House Station Square Coventry CV1 2FL CUREE Ltd 4 Copthall House Station Square Coventry CV1 2FL


Download ppt "Thinking Skills Approaches What do effective teachers do to promote pupil learning?"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google