4Consequences cannot easily be predicted and are not under our control Consequences cannot easily be predicted and are not under our control. The moral worth of an act must come from something intrinsic to the act itself.
6Reason is much better than experience because we should all be able to think, and agree, but what is right and wrong. As soon as we introduce experience to morality it becomes confused because we all have different experiences or have different cultures and customs.
8 Other things can be corrupted to serve evil ends (brave thief) but good cannot without changing its definition. Good intentions are all that matter even if the results are bad. Consequences do not matter only good intentions.
10Duty – we do something because it is the right thing to do – nothing else. Inclination – acting from inclination means you are behaving according to your personality – you are not choosing this behaviour – Kant says that the only moral praise comes from freely choosing to do a thing.
14Moral rules are examples of categorical imperatives. C. I Moral rules are examples of categorical imperatives. C.I.’s apply to everyone in a similar situation and is a command (do not lie). C.I.’s are tests that we apply to all maxims to test whether the maxims are moral or not.
22We cannot act on maxims that are logically impossible, as they simply cannot work. This is being treated in a way you would not like to be treated yourself i.e. always take what you want from who you want.
24We cannot act on maxims that rationally inconsistent i. e We cannot act on maxims that rationally inconsistent i.e. never help those in need. One day we might need help so it is rationally inconsistent to universalise this maxim – even though it is possible to do so.
26We should never use others as a means to an end without their knowledge. We should not do this because a human being deserves to be treated as a rational, thinking, feeling thing. Treating them as a means devalues them.
28Maxims and C. I. ’s should benefit everyone within society Maxims and C.I.’s should benefit everyone within society. This comes from Kant’s belief that we are all ends – all rational people who deserve to be treated with respect.
30How can we tell what someone’s motive really is. We cannot see motives How can we tell what someone’s motive really is? We cannot see motives! We cannot always dismiss consequences – they are important – people would never follow maxims unless they produced good consequences.
32Which categorical imperatives should we follow when they conflict Which categorical imperatives should we follow when they conflict? Always tell the truth and always protect the innocent – which one of these should we follow?
34Which duty do you follow when duties conflict Which duty do you follow when duties conflict? You might have a duty to tell the truth and a duty to keep promises – which one do you follow when they conflict. Sometimes we are morally obliged to not follow a certain duty.
35Explain the Problem of Ignoring Other Good Motives.
36Emotions are very important to us Emotions are very important to us. Why should we not act out of love, anger or compassion? Acting always from duty can mean we are lacking in humanity.
37 Explain the Problem of Misguided Perceptions of Duty.
38Do we obey bad laws or corrupt governments simply because it is our duty? Jim Crow laws? Living in a dictatorship?