5End Points – some issues... (Start points are probably more clear)Interpretation of end point roles:Different industries/companiesDifferent professional bodiesDifferent learning approachesProjects have multiple facetsIssues about “practice”
6Ending points: Different professional bodies: The End Point
8GAPPS: PM Complexity Factor Projects have multiple facetsGAPPS: PM Complexity FactorStability of the overall project contextNumber of distinct disciplines, methods, or approaches involved in performing the projectMagnitude of legal, social, or environmental implications from performing the projectOverall expected financial impact (positive or negative) on the project's stakeholdersStrategic importance of the project to the organisation or organisations involvedStakeholder cohesion regarding the characteristics of the product of the projectNumber and variety of interfaces between the project and other organisational entities
9Ambiguity/ Agreement Certainty Projects have multiple facets Far fromNo possibility of creatingdirection -frozen by anxietyor lost in chaosSituationalLeadershipAmbiguity/AgreementVisionary orTransformationalLeadership(High Uncertainty)Directiveleadershipthrough control, organising, planning, deciding, systems, etc.Leadershipas an emergentproperty - engaged actorsClose toCertaintyFar from
10Issues about practice...The Reflective Practitioner: Reflection and PracticePractice is messy, super-complexPractice focuses attention outside the coursePractical environments are difficult to create and assess: involving the judgement of othersPractice is where students go to: where they will need to make their own judgements and navigate and direct their own learning and developmentRef: Assessment for Real World Learning - David Boud, Edinburgh 16/6/2008
11Key features of a practice view Practice is necessarily conceptualised - it cannot be readily discussed independently of the settings in which it occursPractice is necessarily embodied - it involves whole persons including their motives, feelings and intentions. Discussion of it in isolation from the persons who practice is to misunderstand practice.Practice is co-constructed. - it occurs in relation to others and their views of practice construct it as much as those of a given practitioner (these may be peers, clients, experts, etc.)Assessment for Real World Learning - David Boud, Edinburgh 16/6/2008
12Examples of stages of expertise: Dreyfus & Dreyfus NoviceAdvanced BeginnerCompetenceProficiencyExpertiseMasteryPractical WisdomGenerally, we are lucky if academic programmes achieve level 3.
13The end point: Assessment Assessment is about judgement - Currently judging learning outcomes against standards. Assessment is about reliability and validity. Real judgement was thrown out in favour of repeatable, consistent, equitable assessment.Assessment must contribute to learning - now and for future learning beyond the programme.Assessment is about both informing students' judgements as well as making judgements on them (students need to engage with the purpose of assessment as a fundamental part of education)- summative assessment alone is too risky (blow educational benefits)Students must necessarily be involved in assessment - Assessment is a key influence in their formation and they are active subjectsAssessment for Real World Learning - David Boud, Edinburgh 16/6/2008
14The journey: Many choices of routes... Defined by start and end points - syllabusDevelop knowledge, skill, values, attitudes, beliefs, behaviours?Education or Training, Assessed/Non-AssessedEducational approaches: eg. experiential, lectureInfluence of “sponsor” on syllabus
15Summary (so far): The end point is not clear What kind of Master?What kind of project?What kind of “project manager”?What kind of programme?Employability: can we produce practitioners?
16Using Stories...We have used stories throughout history to communicate ideas, concepts and messagesCommunities of PracticeHow can we formally capture the ideas, concepts and messages from our stories?
17Bloom’s TaxonomyKnowledge: recall of information: dates, events, places, knowledge of major ideas, mastery of subject matterComprehension: understanding information, translate knowledge into new context, interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes, predict consequencesApplication: use information, methods, concepts, theories in new situations, solve problems using required skills or knowledgeAnalysis: seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of componentsSynthesis: use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from several areas, predict, draw conclusionsEvaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas, assess value of theories, make choices based on reasoned argument, verify value of evidence
19The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension Taxonomy for LTAThe Knowledge DimensionThe Cognitive Process Dimension1. Remember2. Understand3. Apply4. Analyse5. Evaluate6. CreateA. Factual KnowledgeB. Conceptual KnowledgeC. Procedural KnowledgeD. Meta- Cognitive KnowledgeA Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Anderson, Krathwohl, (2001)SeeSource: Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing. Pearson Education ISBN X
20The Knowledge Dimension: A. Factual Knowledge - The basic elements of students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it.B. Conceptual Knowledge - The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together.C. Procedural Knowledge - How to do something, methods of inquiry and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques and methods.D. Meta-cognitive Knowledge - Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one's own cognition.Source: Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing. Pearson Education ISBN X
21The Cognitive Process Dimension: 1. Remember - Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory2. Understand - Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communication.3. Apply - Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation4. Analyse - Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose.5. Evaluate - Make Judgements based on criteria and standards.6. Create - Put elements together to form a coherent or functiional whole; reorganise elements into a new pattern or structure.Source: Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing. Pearson Education ISBN X
22The process for the Workshop... Telling storiesCapture the storyCapture the messagesHow do they relate to Learning and Teaching PM?In groups: look for themes, key messages, new ideas.Feeding back
23Feedback - Individual Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-Cognitive Development of:Knowledge Skill/Application/Practice Values/Attitudes Reflection2. Knowledge dimension:Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-Cognitive3. Cognitive Process dimension:Remembering Understanding Applying Evaluating Creating4. Development to level: Adv Beginner Competency Proficiency5. Process area: Behaviours/Relationships Business/Strategy Organising/Planning
24Further reading:International Journal of Project Management 26 (2008) 251–257 Teaching methods for international R&D project management Blazenka Divjak, Sandra Katarina Kukec