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Apprentice to Master Steve Barron.

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Presentation on theme: "Apprentice to Master Steve Barron."— Presentation transcript:

1 Apprentice to Master Steve Barron

2 Overview: Apprentice: Some starting points...
Master: Some ending points... and issues The journey: Many choices of routes... Stories – how can they help our purpose? The process for this afternoon

3 Apprentice – some starting points...
Academic starting points: A-level Foundation Degree Graduate Postgraduate PhD Professional starting points: New recruit Project “worker” Technical “expert” “General” Manager Developing PM “Agents” “Consultants”

4 Master – some ending points...
Academic ending points: Foundation Degree Graduate Postgraduate PhD Next steps...? Professional ending points: Project “worker” Project Engineer Project Manager Project Sponsor/Director Manager doing “projects” Strategic Roles

5 End Points – some issues...
(Start points are probably more clear) Interpretation of end point roles: Different industries/companies Different professional bodies Different learning approaches Projects have multiple facets Issues about “practice”

6 Ending points: Different professional bodies:
The End Point

7 The technical expert... The End Point

8 GAPPS: PM Complexity Factor
Projects have multiple facets GAPPS: PM Complexity Factor Stability of the overall project context Number of distinct disciplines, methods, or approaches involved in performing the project Magnitude of legal, social, or environmental implications from performing the project Overall expected financial impact (positive or negative) on the project's stakeholders Strategic importance of the project to the organisation or organisations involved Stakeholder cohesion regarding the characteristics of the product of the project Number and variety of interfaces between the project and other organisational entities

9 Ambiguity/ Agreement Certainty Projects have multiple facets
Far from No possibility of creating direction -frozen by anxiety or lost in chaos Situational Leadership Ambiguity/ Agreement Visionary or Transformational Leadership (High Uncertainty) Directive leadership through control, organising, planning, deciding, systems, etc. Leadership as an emergent property - engaged actors Close to Certainty Far from

10 Issues about practice... The Reflective Practitioner: Reflection and Practice Practice is messy, super-complex Practice focuses attention outside the course Practical environments are difficult to create and assess: involving the judgement of others Practice is where students go to: where they will need to make their own judgements and navigate and direct their own learning and development Ref: Assessment for Real World Learning - David Boud, Edinburgh 16/6/2008

11 Key features of a practice view
Practice is necessarily conceptualised - it cannot be readily discussed independently of the settings in which it occurs Practice is necessarily embodied - it involves whole persons including their motives, feelings and intentions. Discussion of it in isolation from the persons who practice is to misunderstand practice. Practice is co-constructed. - it occurs in relation to others and their views of practice construct it as much as those of a given practitioner (these may be peers, clients, experts, etc.) Assessment for Real World Learning - David Boud, Edinburgh 16/6/2008

12 Examples of stages of expertise: Dreyfus & Dreyfus
Novice Advanced Beginner Competence Proficiency Expertise Mastery Practical Wisdom Generally, we are lucky if academic programmes achieve level 3.

13 The end point: Assessment
Assessment is about judgement - Currently judging learning outcomes against standards. Assessment is about reliability and validity. Real judgement was thrown out in favour of repeatable, consistent, equitable assessment. Assessment must contribute to learning - now and for future learning beyond the programme. Assessment is about both informing students' judgements as well as making judgements on them (students need to engage with the purpose of assessment as a fundamental part of education)- summative assessment alone is too risky (blow educational benefits) Students must necessarily be involved in assessment - Assessment is a key influence in their formation and they are active subjects Assessment for Real World Learning - David Boud, Edinburgh 16/6/2008

14 The journey: Many choices of routes...
Defined by start and end points - syllabus Develop knowledge, skill, values, attitudes, beliefs, behaviours? Education or Training, Assessed/Non-Assessed Educational approaches: eg. experiential, lecture Influence of “sponsor” on syllabus

15 Summary (so far): The end point is not clear
What kind of Master? What kind of project? What kind of “project manager”? What kind of programme? Employability: can we produce practitioners?

16 Using Stories... We have used stories throughout history to communicate ideas, concepts and messages Communities of Practice How can we formally capture the ideas, concepts and messages from our stories?

17 Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge: recall of information: dates, events, places, knowledge of major ideas, mastery of subject matter Comprehension: understanding information, translate knowledge into new context, interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes, predict consequences Application: use information, methods, concepts, theories in new situations, solve problems using required skills or knowledge Analysis: seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of components Synthesis: use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from several areas, predict, draw conclusions Evaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas, assess value of theories, make choices based on reasoned argument, verify value of evidence

18 Bloom’s Taxonomy: Question Cues
Knowledge: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc. Comprehension: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend Application: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover Analysis: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer Synthesis: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite Evaluation: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize

19 The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension
Taxonomy for LTA The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyse 5. Evaluate 6. Create A. Factual Knowledge B. Conceptual Knowledge C. Procedural Knowledge D. Meta- Cognitive Knowledge A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Anderson, Krathwohl, (2001) See Source: Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing. Pearson Education ISBN X

20 The Knowledge Dimension:
A. Factual Knowledge - The basic elements of students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. B. Conceptual Knowledge - The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. C. Procedural Knowledge - How to do something, methods of inquiry and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques and methods. D. Meta-cognitive Knowledge - Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one's own cognition. Source: Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing. Pearson Education ISBN X

21 The Cognitive Process Dimension:
1. Remember - Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory 2. Understand - Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communication. 3. Apply - Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation 4. Analyse - Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose. 5. Evaluate - Make Judgements based on criteria and standards. 6. Create - Put elements together to form a coherent or functiional whole; reorganise elements into a new pattern or structure. Source: Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing. Pearson Education ISBN X

22 The process for the Workshop...
Telling stories Capture the story Capture the messages How do they relate to Learning and Teaching PM? In groups: look for themes, key messages, new ideas. Feeding back

23 Feedback - Individual Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-Cognitive
Development of: Knowledge Skill/Application/Practice Values/Attitudes Reflection 2. Knowledge dimension: Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-Cognitive 3. Cognitive Process dimension: Remembering Understanding Applying Evaluating Creating 4. Development to level: Adv Beginner Competency Proficiency 5. Process area: Behaviours/Relationships Business/Strategy Organising/Planning

24 Further reading: International Journal of Project Management 26 (2008) 251–257 Teaching methods for international R&D project management Blazenka Divjak, Sandra Katarina Kukec


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