Presentation on theme: "UNIT 1 - Information Because of the increase in:"— Presentation transcript:
1UNIT 1 - InformationBecause of the increase in:the necessity to be physically fit to perform at a competitive levelandthe need to promote healthy lifestylesit is important that performers and coaches are able to:design appropriate training programmes,develop correct technique,minimise the risk of injury,optimise performance.The knowledge of the structure and function of the Body Systems is vital to this end.
2UNIT 1 - InformationThe skeletal and muscular systems work together to allow movement for physical activity.ABThe respiratory and cardiovascular systems work together to supply oxygen/ energy for muscle contraction.
3The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems UNIT 1 - InformationThe Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular SystemsThere are 206 bones in a human skeletonmetatarsalsfemurphalangesmetacarpalscarpalspelvisvertebraribscapulacraniummandiblesacrumclaviclesternumhumerusradiusulnapatellatibiafibulatarsalscocyxShow / hide bone namesShow / hide arrows
4UNIT 1 - InformationThe skeleton has many FUNCTIONS when taking part in physical activity. These include:Providing SUPPORT for the movement taking place.PROTECTING vital organs against impact and injury.Producing RED BLOOD CELLS which help carry O2 (Oxygen) for exercise.Providing points for MUSCULAR ATTACHMENT – ORIGIN/ INSERTION.Allowing MOVEMENT through the JOINT and LEVER systems.GCSE Physical Education
5UNIT 1 - Information BONES IRREGULAR (Provides support and protection) e.g. vertebraeLONG(Provides effective levers for movement)e.g. femurSHORT(Well adapted to resist compression forces and help in performing fine movements)e.g. carpalsBONESFLAT(Protective function)e.g. sternum
6Arms, shoulders, hips, legs Skull, spine, sternum, ribs UNIT 1 - InformationAPPENDICULARArms, shoulders, hips, legsSKELETONSkull, spine, sternum, ribsAXIAL
7UNIT 1 - InformationPhysical activity stimulates the production of bone tissue to compensate for the stresses of training.If the intensity is too high, damage and injury of the bone can occur e.g. shin splints.Reduced stress results in bone weight and strength reduction – ATROPHY – usually after a lay-off due to injury. It is important to return to full training slowly, to allow the bones to adapt.
8Joints enable the body to move. UNIT 1 - InformationJOINTSJoints enable the body to move.Joints are the place where 2 bones meet.Each type of physical activity will make particular demands oncertain jointse.g. butterfly swimmers require a wider than natural range ofmovement at the shoulder joint – ball and socket.Joints are structured for either STRENGTH or MOBILITY:SHOULDER JOINTShallow cavity to allow more movement but is less stableHIP JOINTSupports body weight – is more stable – less movement allowed
9UNIT 1 - InformationGood joint mobility is often an essential requirement to good performance in physical activity and has implications regarding training programmes.Joints can be classified according to the amount of movement they allow:1) IMMOVABLE / FIBROUS JOINTSThese joints are fixed and no movement is possible. Examples are found in the skull and pelvic girdle – areas of the body where great strength is required.2) SLIGHTLY MOVABLE / CARTILAGINOUS JOINTSThere are small gaps between the bones at these joints, filled with CARTILAGE to prevent grinding and enable slight movement. Examples are found between the vertebrae and between the ribs and sternum.3) FREELY MOVABLE / SYNOVIAL JOINTS
10The bones are linked by LIGAMENTS. UNIT 1 - InformationThe majority of joints in the body are synovial – they allow the greatest range of movement.The bones are linked by LIGAMENTS.There are 6 types of synovial joint, and each type has its own characteristic range and type of movement.They are designed to stop and prevent friction between the moving bones.Examples are the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee and ankle joints.These joints are important for physical activity – they are often put under a great deal of stress (e.g. the knee), but are so designed to be robust and withstand pressure.
11TYPE OF MOVEMENT UNIT 1 - Information FLEXION – Reducing the angle at a joint (bending).
12TYPE OF MOVEMENT UNIT 1 - Information EXTENSION – Increasing the angle at a joint (straightening).
13TYPE OF MOVEMENT UNIT 1 - Information CIRCUMDUCTION – A circular movement, which combines flexion,extension, abduction, and adduction so that themovement of the body-part describes a cone shape.
14TYPE OF MOVEMENT UNIT 1 - Information ROTATION – Is a circular movement made by a joint.
15TYPE OF MOVEMENT UNIT 1 - Information ABDUCTION – Is the sideways movement at the hip and shoulder joints away from the body.
16TYPE OF MOVEMENT UNIT 1 - Information ADDUCTION – Is movement at the hip and shoulder joints towards the body.
17UNIT 1 - Information TYPE OF JOINT BODY LOCATION TYPES OF MOVEMENT Ball and socketHip, shoulderFlexion/ extension, rotation, abduction, adductionHingeKnee, elbowFlexion/ extensionPivotNeckRotationCondyloidWrist, ankleFlexion/ extension, abduction, adductionSaddleBase of thumbsGlidingCarpals (hands),tarsals (feet)Gliding movements – where 2 bones with flat surfaces slide on each other – forward and back with slight sideways movementSECTION B
24Strong joints are essential for: UNIT 1 - InformationFUNCTIONS OF LIGAMENTS, TENDONS AND CARTILAGEStrong joints are essential for:Coping with stress of physical activity.Contributing to a healthy, active lifestyle.Making skilled movements.Ligaments, tendons and cartilage provide the strength, mobility and protection needed to help the joints, increase the flexibility and provide a greater range of movement.
25They control the movement and the stability of the joint. UNIT 1 - InformationLIGAMENTSLigaments are strong, fibrous, non-elastic bands of tissue which attach bone to bone across a joint.They control the movement and the stability of the joint.They hold a joint in place.They prevent unwanted movements at a joint.Information/DiscussionCARTILAGEPractical ApplicationCartilage protects bone.It is a tough, smooth tissue that covers the end of bones and acts as a shock absorber.It reduces friction between the bones.Cartilage damage may occur over a period of time because of the constant stress/ impact and twisting/ turning of physical activity.LinksDiagram/TableActivityGlossarySECTION BGCSE Physical Education
26UNIT 1 - InformationTENDONSTendons attach MUSCLE to BONE.They are strong but flexible.When muscles contract (shorten), they exert a pull on that tendon which acts across the joint to make a joint move.GCSE Physical Education
27The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems UNIT 1 - InformationThe Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular SystemsThe structure of a knee joint showing the bones, ligaments, tendons, muscle and cartilage involvedTendon (this joins muscle to bone)MuscleBall-shaped end to long bone of leg or femur (rounded ends to bones ensure easy movement with little friction)Patella (kneecap)Synovial fluid (oils or lubricates the joint helping it to move more easily)Cartilage (smooth, slippery, reduces friction, helps to reduce shock)Show BoneShow MuscleLigament (tough strip of tissue joining bone to bone)Show TendonsTibiaShow LigamentShow CartilageGCSE Physical Education
28UNIT 1 – Practical Application 1. Match the scientific name for the bones on the left of the table with the common names by dragging them to the table. You can also drag the numbers to the diagram of the skeleton.Real NameCommon Namepelvisfemurcraniummandiblephalanges1122334455THIGH BONEFINGERS/TOESHIPSKULLJAW BONE
29e.g. Set shot – Basketball (Teach and class practice) UNIT 1 – Practical Application2. Class activity:e.g. Set shot – Basketball (Teach and class practice)a) Attempt to break the skill down into ‘PHASES’.b) Construct a table, and for each phase:(i) identify the moving joint;(ii) name the type of movement;(iii) identify the muscles that are at work.(For (iii), remind groups that muscles can only PULL. Also, a muscle must span a joint if it is to move it – ORIGINS/ INSERTIONS).
30UNIT 1 – Practical Application 3. Class activity:e.g. Hockey – group to identify the function of the following structures in a warm-up:Synovial fluid;Ligaments;Articular cartilage.4. Class to identify which muscles are agonists/ antagonists for the following joint actions during the ‘PUSH’ in hockey:Extending the knee.Flexing the elbow.
31Ball Games: Joint Movement UNIT 1 – Practical Application5. In a game of hockey e.g. identify when a player would use:a) mainly FAST TWITCH fibres;b) mainly SLOW TWITCH fibres.Do different positions in a game of hockey place differentdemands on muscle fibre demand, and if so, why?Ball Games: Joint Movement6. Work with a partner and identify basic body movements, joints and analysis of specific movements from chosen activities.7. Consider the factors affecting performance and participation e.g. age and range of movement around a joint.8. Identify the joints involved in, for example, throwing a ball (netball).9. Identify the joints involved in, for example, kicking a ball (football).10. Discuss the different types of movement around a joint.11. Develop by pupils choosing their own activity and identifying movements at joints.12. The above links with ‘specific’ training sessions and ‘specific’ training methods for sporting activity.
32Analysis of Movement: UNIT 1 – Practical Application 13. In pairs, discuss basic movements and actions of joints.14. Activity and sport specific discussion regarding movement, muscles and joint actions.15. Record movements and use for analysis/ discussion.16. Consider the link between desired movement patterns, skill and sport specific fitness training.
33Cardiovascular system Aerobic/ Anaerobic systems Energy continuum UNIT 1 - LinksThe Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular SystemsMuscular systemRespiratory systemCardiovascular systemAerobic/ Anaerobic systemsEnergy continuumTraining zonesIntensity/ duration of exerciseShort-term effects of exercise on the systems of the bodyLong-term benefits of exercise on the systems of the bodyBody types
34The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems UNIT 1 - ActivityThe Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems1.“Muscles and joints work together to produce and control movement”.In the diagram below, which muscle contracts to cause the bending of the knee? Is it:a) the quadriceps orb) the hamstring?What type of synovial joint is the knee joint and what type of movement does it allow?(iii) What attaches bone to a bone to ensure stability of the joint?AB
35UNIT 1 - Activity2. The diagram below shows the action of the upper arm muscle involved in lifting a weight.Study the diagrams and then answer the questions below.Diagram 1Diagram 2Biceps ABiceps ATriceps BTriceps BIn diagram 1, what is the movement upwards called?Which muscle is shortening (contracting) to cause this upward movement, is it A or B?If the contracting muscle is the agonistic or prime mover, what is the relaxing (flexing) muscle called?In diagram 2, what is the downward movement called?What attaches the muscle to a bone to help in movement?
36Description of synovial joint UNIT 1 - Activity3. “Good joint mobility is essential for efficient performance in most sporting activities.”Complete the following table:Description of synovial jointType of synovial jointName of synovial joint(i) allows the widest range of movement(ii) permits movement in only one plane(iii) Describe an example of a movement in sport which involves (a) flexion/ extension and (b) adduction/ abduction.
37UNIT 1 - Activity4. The diagram below shows the leg of a football player preparing to kick a ball.ABQuadriceps groupHamstring groupGastrocnemiusBallWhich PRIME MOVER (AGONIST) muscle would need to CONTRACT (FLEX) in order to LIFT the lower leg in readiness to kick the ball?Which PRIME MOVER (AGONIST) muscle would need to CONTRACT (FLEX) in order to KICK the ball?Identify the type of joint at the KNEE (A).Which joint, A or B allows most movement?
38UNIT 1 - ActivityABQuadriceps groupHamstring groupGastrocnemiusBallWhat is the term used for muscles which RELAX to allow movement to take place?What attaches muscle to bone in order for movement at the joint to take place?What attaches bone to bone to give joints stability?The movement in the diagram is an example of which type of muscular contraction?
39Show action UNIT 1 - Activity 5. The diagrams below shows the action of the leg muscle and joints involved in a STANDING LONG JUMP. Study the diagrams and then answer the questions below by completing the second column in the table.ABDiagram 1BendDiagram 2JumpShow action
40UNIT 1 - ActivityMuscles act in pairs, some contract while others extend.Revisit diagram(i) In diagram 1 the knee is bending ready for take-off. Which muscle is contracting to cause the bending? Is it A or B?(ii) In diagram 2 the leg has straightened. Which muscle is contracting to cause this? Is it A or B?(iii) If the contracting muscle is the agonist or prime mover, what is the relaxing muscle called?(iv) What type of muscular contraction occurs in both diagrams in order to cause the movement?(v) What type of joint is the knee joint?(vi) What type of movement does the knee joint allow?(vii) What attaches a muscle to a bone to enable movement to take place?(viii) What attaches a bone to another bone in order to ensure stability of movement?
41Positions during a forward roll UNIT 1 - Activity6. Describe the movement at each jointPositions during a forward rollKneeHipShoulderElbowFlexedUsing a grid like the one above, describe the type of movement at each position while:● Running● Diving – racing – front crawl● Push pass (hockey)● Any other activity of your choice
42UNIT 1 - Activity7. Label the diagram of a typical joint shown below by dragging the labels to their appropriate placesBONEJoint capsule – contains and protects the joint structures.Articular cartilage – protects ends of bones by acting as a shock absorber and reducing friction.Synovial membrane – secretes synovial fluid.Synovial fluid – lubricates the joint, helping the bones move more easily.Ligaments – strong strap-like structures which prevent too much sideways movement.
43UNIT 1 - ActivityExplain, using examples from sport, what the different categories of joints are and why we need them.9. Complete the following table about the main categories of joints.Category of jointExtent of movementExample of such a jointImmovableVertebraeGreater degree of movementSutures of skullSynovial (freely movable)Some movementSlightly moveableHip, shoulder, knee, elbowVery little movement10. What factors affect the amount of movement possible at a joint?
44UNIT 1 - Activity11. The diagram below shows the action of the upper muscle involved in lifting a weight.Study the diagrams and then answer the questions below.Which muscle is involved in bending the arm?Which muscle is involved in straightening the arm?Which type of movement is taking place at the elbow joint?This movement is an example of a third order lever in action. Identify the pivot/ fulcrum and load/ resistance by dragging the labels to the appropriate points.Biceps ATriceps BPivotLoad
45UNIT 1 - Activity12.Explain why synovial joints are so important for the sportsperson.Explain why it is important to train all the muscles acting on a joint.“Different synovial joints allow certain types of movement”.Complete the table for both extension/ flexion and rotation.Type of movementName ofsynovial jointLocation of jointSporting actionFlexion/ Extension (increasing/decreasing the angle between two bones)Rotation(A circular movement – part of the body turns, while the rest remains still. A turning movement)