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GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory.

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Presentation on theme: "GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory."— Presentation transcript:

1 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Because of the increase in: the necessity to be physically fit to perform at a competitive level and the need to promote healthy lifestyles it is important that performers and coaches are able to: 1)design appropriate training programmes, 2)develop correct technique, 3)minimise the risk of injury, 4)optimise performance. The knowledge of the structure and function of the Body Systems is vital to this end.

2 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information The skeletal and muscular systems work together to allow movement for physical activity. The respiratory and cardiovascular systems work together to supply oxygen/ energy for muscle contraction. A B

3 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information There are 206 bones in a human skeleton The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems metatarsals femur phalanges metacarpals carpals pelvis vertebra rib scapula cranium mandible sacrum clavicle sternum humerus radius ulna patella tibia fibula tarsals cocyx Show / hide bone names Show / hide arrows

4 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B GCSE Physical Education UNIT 1 - Information The skeleton has many FUNCTIONS when taking part in physical activity. These include: 1)Providing SUPPORT for the movement taking place. 2)PROTECTING vital organs against impact and injury. 3)Producing RED BLOOD CELLS which help carry O 2 (Oxygen) for exercise. 4)Providing points for MUSCULAR ATTACHMENT – ORIGIN/ INSERTION. 5)Allowing MOVEMENT through the JOINT and LEVER systems.

5 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information BONES LONG (Provides effective levers for movement) e.g. femur IRREGULAR (Provides support and protection) e.g. vertebrae SHORT (Well adapted to resist compression forces and help in performing fine movements) e.g. carpals FLAT (Protective function) e.g. sternum

6 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information SKELETON APPENDICULAR Skull, spine, sternum, ribs Arms, shoulders, hips, legs AXIAL

7 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Physical activity stimulates the production of bone tissue to compensate for the stresses of training. If the intensity is too high, damage and injury of the bone can occur e.g. shin splints. Reduced stress results in bone weight and strength reduction – ATROPHY – usually after a lay-off due to injury. It is important to return to full training slowly, to allow the bones to adapt.

8 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information JOINTS Joints enable the body to move. Joints are the place where 2 bones meet. Each type of physical activity will make particular demands on certain joints e.g. butterfly swimmers require a wider than natural range of movement at the shoulder joint – ball and socket. Joints are structured for either STRENGTH or MOBILITY: SHOULDER JOINT Shallow cavity to allow more movement but is less stable HIP JOINT Supports body weight – is more stable – less movement allowed

9 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Good joint mobility is often an essential requirement to good performance in physical activity and has implications regarding training programmes. Joints can be classified according to the amount of movement they allow: 1) IMMOVABLE / FIBROUS JOINTS These joints are fixed and no movement is possible. Examples are found in the skull and pelvic girdle – areas of the body where great strength is required. 2) SLIGHTLY MOVABLE / CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS There are small gaps between the bones at these joints, filled with CARTILAGE to prevent grinding and enable slight movement. Examples are found between the vertebrae and between the ribs and sternum. 3) FREELY MOVABLE / SYNOVIAL JOINTS

10 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information The majority of joints in the body are synovial – they allow the greatest range of movement. The bones are linked by LIGAMENTS. There are 6 types of synovial joint, and each type has its own characteristic range and type of movement. They are designed to stop and prevent friction between the moving bones. Examples are the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee and ankle joints. These joints are important for physical activity – they are often put under a great deal of stress (e.g. the knee), but are so designed to be robust and withstand pressure.

11 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information TYPE OF MOVEMENT FLEXION – Reducing the angle at a joint (bending).

12 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information TYPE OF MOVEMENT EXTENSION – Increasing the angle at a joint (straightening).

13 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information TYPE OF MOVEMENT CIRCUMDUCTION – A circular movement, which combines flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction so that the movement of the body-part describes a cone shape.

14 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information TYPE OF MOVEMENT ROTATION – Is a circular movement made by a joint.

15 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information TYPE OF MOVEMENT ABDUCTION – Is the sideways movement at the hip and shoulder joints away from the body.

16 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information TYPE OF MOVEMENT ADDUCTION – Is movement at the hip and shoulder joints towards the body.

17 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information SECTION B TYPE OF JOINTBODY LOCATIONTYPES OF MOVEMENT Ball and socketHip, shoulder Flexion/ extension, rotation, abduction, adduction HingeKnee, elbowFlexion/ extension PivotNeckRotation CondyloidWrist, ankle Flexion/ extension, abduction, adduction SaddleBase of thumbs Flexion/ extension, abduction, adduction Gliding Carpals (hands), tarsals (feet) Gliding movements – where 2 bones with flat surfaces slide on each other – forward and back with slight sideways movement

18 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 – Information Ball and socket

19 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Hinge

20 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Pivot Atlas Vertebrae Axis

21 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B GCSE Physical Education UNIT 1 - Information Condyloid joint Movement

22 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems Saddle Saddle joint

23 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Gliding Gliding occurs between the small bones

24 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Strong joints are essential for: Coping with stress of physical activity. Contributing to a healthy, active lifestyle. Making skilled movements. FUNCTIONS OF LIGAMENTS, TENDONS AND CARTILAGE Ligaments, tendons and cartilage provide the strength, mobility and protection needed to help the joints, increase the flexibility and provide a greater range of movement.

25 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B GCSE Physical Education UNIT 1 - Information Ligaments are strong, fibrous, non-elastic bands of tissue which attach bone to bone across a joint. They control the movement and the stability of the joint. They hold a joint in place. They prevent unwanted movements at a joint. SECTION B Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Glossary LIGAMENTS Cartilage protects bone. It is a tough, smooth tissue that covers the end of bones and acts as a shock absorber. It reduces friction between the bones. Cartilage damage may occur over a period of time because of the constant stress/ impact and twisting/ turning of physical activity. CARTILAGE

26 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B GCSE Physical Education UNIT 1 - Information Tendons attach MUSCLE to BONE. They are strong but flexible. When muscles contract (shorten), they exert a pull on that tendon which acts across the joint to make a joint move. TENDONS

27 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B GCSE Physical Education UNIT 1 - Information The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems The structure of a knee joint showing the bones, ligaments, tendons, muscle and cartilage involved Ball-shaped end to long bone of leg or femur (rounded ends to bones ensure easy movement with little friction) Muscle Synovial fluid (oils or lubricates the joint helping it to move more easily) Ligament (tough strip of tissue joining bone to bone) Tendon (this joins muscle to bone) Cartilage (smooth, slippery, reduces friction, helps to reduce shock) Patella (kneecap) Tibia Show Bone Show Muscle Show Tendons Show Ligament Show Cartilage

28 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application 1. Match the scientific name for the bones on the left of the table with the common names by dragging them to the table. You can also drag the numbers to the diagram of the skeleton. Real NameCommon Name pelvis femur cranium mandible phalanges 1 2 3 4 5 1111 2222 3333 4444 5555 THIGH BONE SKULL FINGERS/TOES JAW BONE HIP

29 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application 2. Class activity: e.g. Set shot – Basketball (Teach and class practice) a) Attempt to break the skill down into ‘PHASES’. b) Construct a table, and for each phase: (i) identify the moving joint; (ii) name the type of movement; (iii) identify the muscles that are at work. (For (iii), remind groups that muscles can only PULL. Also, a muscle must span a joint if it is to move it – ORIGINS/ INSERTIONS).

30 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application 3. Class activity: e.g. Hockey – group to identify the function of the following structures in a warm-up: Synovial fluid; Ligaments; Articular cartilage. 4. Class to identify which muscles are agonists/ antagonists for the following joint actions during the ‘PUSH’ in hockey: Extending the knee. Flexing the elbow.

31 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application 5. In a game of hockey e.g. identify when a player would use: a) mainly FAST TWITCH fibres; b) mainly SLOW TWITCH fibres. Do different positions in a game of hockey place different demands on muscle fibre demand, and if so, why? Ball Games: Joint Movement 6. Work with a partner and identify basic body movements, joints and analysis of specific movements from chosen activities. 7. Consider the factors affecting performance and participation e.g. age and range of movement around a joint. 8. Identify the joints involved in, for example, throwing a ball (netball). 9. Identify the joints involved in, for example, kicking a ball (football). 10. Discuss the different types of movement around a joint. 11. Develop by pupils choosing their own activity and identifying movements at joints. 12. The above links with ‘specific’ training sessions and ‘specific’ training methods for sporting activity.

32 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application Analysis of Movement: 13. In pairs, discuss basic movements and actions of joints. 14.Activity and sport specific discussion regarding movement, muscles and joint actions. 15.Record movements and use for analysis/ discussion. 16.Consider the link between desired movement patterns, skill and sport specific fitness training.

33 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Links Muscular system Respiratory system Cardiovascular system Aerobic/ Anaerobic systems Energy continuum Training zones Intensity/ duration of exercise Short-term effects of exercise on the systems of the body Long-term benefits of exercise on the systems of the body Body types The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems

34 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems 1. “Muscles and joints work together to produce and control movement”. (i)In the diagram below, which muscle contracts to cause the bending of the knee? Is it: a) the quadriceps or b) the hamstring? (ii)What type of synovial joint is the knee joint and what type of movement does it allow? (iii) What attaches bone to a bone to ensure stability of the joint? A B

35 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 2. The diagram below shows the action of the upper arm muscle involved in lifting a weight. Study the diagrams and then answer the questions below. (i)In diagram 1, what is the movement upwards called? (ii)Which muscle is shortening (contracting) to cause this upward movement, is it A or B? (iii)If the contracting muscle is the agonistic or prime mover, what is the relaxing (flexing) muscle called? (iv)In diagram 2, what is the downward movement called? (v)What attaches the muscle to a bone to help in movement? Triceps B Biceps A Triceps B Diagram 1Diagram 2 Biceps A

36 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 3. “Good joint mobility is essential for efficient performance in most sporting activities.” Complete the following table: (iii) Describe an example of a movement in sport which involves (a) flexion/ extension and (b) adduction/ abduction. Description of synovial joint Type of synovial jointName of synovial joint (i) allows the widest range of movement (ii) permits movement in only one plane

37 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 4. The diagram below shows the leg of a football player preparing to kick a ball. (i)Which PRIME MOVER (AGONIST) muscle would need to CONTRACT (FLEX) in order to LIFT the lower leg in readiness to kick the ball? (ii)Which PRIME MOVER (AGONIST) muscle would need to CONTRACT (FLEX) in order to KICK the ball? (iii)Identify the type of joint at the KNEE (A). (iv)Which joint, A or B allows most movement? A B Quadriceps group Hamstring group Gastrocnemius Ball

38 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity (v)What is the term used for muscles which RELAX to allow movement to take place? (vi)What attaches muscle to bone in order for movement at the joint to take place? (vii)What attaches bone to bone to give joints stability? (viii)The movement in the diagram is an example of which type of muscular contraction? A B Quadriceps group Hamstring group Gastrocnemius Ball

39 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 5. The diagrams below shows the action of the leg muscle and joints involved in a STANDING LONG JUMP. Study the diagrams and then answer the questions below by completing the second column in the table. Show action Diagram 1 Bend Diagram 2 Jump A B

40 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity Muscles act in pairs, some contract while others extend. (i) In diagram 1 the knee is bending ready for take-off. Which muscle is contracting to cause the bending? Is it A or B? (ii) In diagram 2 the leg has straightened. Which muscle is contracting to cause this? Is it A or B? (iii) If the contracting muscle is the agonist or prime mover, what is the relaxing muscle called? (iv) What type of muscular contraction occurs in both diagrams in order to cause the movement? (v) What type of joint is the knee joint? (vi) What type of movement does the knee joint allow? (vii) What attaches a muscle to a bone to enable movement to take place? (viii) What attaches a bone to another bone in order to ensure stability of movement? Revisit diagram

41 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 6. Describe the movement at each joint Positions during a forward roll KneeHipShoulderElbow Flexed Using a grid like the one above, describe the type of movement at each position while: ● Running ● Diving – racing – front crawl ● Push pass (hockey) ● Any other activity of your choice

42 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 7. Label the diagram of a typical joint shown below by dragging the labels to their appropriate places BONE Articular cartilage – protects ends of bones by acting as a shock absorber and reducing friction. Synovial membrane – secretes synovial fluid. Synovial fluid – lubricates the joint, helping the bones move more easily. Joint capsule – contains and protects the joint structures. Ligaments – strong strap-like structures which prevent too much sideways movement.

43 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 8.Explain, using examples from sport, what the different categories of joints are and why we need them. 9.Complete the following table about the main categories of joints. Category of jointExtent of movementExample of such a joint Immovable Vertebrae Greater degree of movement 10. What factors affect the amount of movement possible at a joint? Very little movementSlightly moveable Synovial (freely movable) Hip, shoulder, knee, elbow Some movementSutures of skull

44 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 11. The diagram below shows the action of the upper muscle involved in lifting a weight. Study the diagrams and then answer the questions below. (i)Which muscle is involved in bending the arm? (ii)Which muscle is involved in straightening the arm? (iii)Which type of movement is taking place at the elbow joint? (iv)This movement is an example of a third order lever in action. Identify the pivot/ fulcrum and load/ resistance by dragging the labels to the appropriate points. Biceps A Triceps B PivotLoad

45 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 12. (i)Explain why synovial joints are so important for the sportsperson. (ii)Explain why it is important to train all the muscles acting on a joint. (iii)“Different synovial joints allow certain types of movement”. Complete the table for both extension/ flexion and rotation. Type of movement Name of synovial joint Location of jointSporting action Flexion/ Extension (increasing/decreasing the angle between two bones) Rotation (A circular movement – part of the body turns, while the rest remains still. A turning movement)


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