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Is critical psychiatry the same as anti-psychiatry? D B Double.

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Presentation on theme: "Is critical psychiatry the same as anti-psychiatry? D B Double."— Presentation transcript:

1 Is critical psychiatry the same as anti-psychiatry? D B Double

2 David Cooper ( ) Psychiatry and anti- psychiatry (1967)

3 David Cooper ( ) Psychiatry and anti- psychiatry (1967) [P]sychiatry … has aligned itself far too closely with the alienated needs of society

4 David Cooper ( ) Villa 21 – an experiment in anti- psychiatry

5 David Cooper ( ) Villa 21 – an experiment in anti- psychiatry Positive non-action, an effort to cease interference, to lay off other people and give them and oneself a chance

6 Definition by mainstream psychiatry International movement against psychiatry which is anti-medical, anti-therapeutic, anti- institutional and anti- scientific (Roth, 1973)

7 Definition by mainstream psychiatry International movement against psychiatry which is anti-medical, anti-therapeutic, anti- institutional and anti- scientific (Roth, 1973) Generally seen as a passing phase in the history of psychiatry

8 RD Laing ( ) Not an anti-psychiatrist

9 RD Laing ( ) Not an anti-psychiatrist Athough agreed with anti-psychiatric thesis that by and large psychiatry functions to exclude and repress those elements society wants excluded and repressed

10 RD Laing ( ) Madness is much more understandable than commonly assumed

11 RD Laing ( ) Madness is much more understandable than commonly assumed So-called normality is too often an abdication of our true potentialities

12 Thomas Szasz (1920-) Not an anti-psychiatrist

13 Thomas Szasz (1920-) Not an anti-psychiatrist, although also not a psychiatrist, as psychiatry is associated with coercion

14 Thomas Szasz (1920-) Not an anti-psychiatrist, although also not a psychiatrist, as psychiatry is associated with coercion Because both the anti- psychiatrists and I oppose certain aspects of psychiatry, our views are combined and confused

15 Thomas Szasz (1920-) Mental illness is a myth, as disease is physical

16 Thomas Szasz (1920-) Mental illness is a myth, as disease is physical State should not interfere in mental health practice or medicine in general

17 The anti element in anti-psychiatry Psychiatry objectifies people and therefore becomes part of the problem rather than the solution to mental health problems

18 The anti element in anti-psychiatry Psychiatry objectifies people and therefore becomes part of the problem rather than the solution to mental health problems May have gone too far in abandoning notion of mental pathology

19 Excesses of anti-psychiatry Cooper and Laing ultimately more interested in personal authenticity than changing psychiatry

20 Excesses of anti-psychiatry Cooper and Laing ultimately more interested in personal authenticity than changing psychiatry Few would want to go as far as Szasz in proposing no mental health law

21 Excesses of anti-psychiatry Cooper and Laing ultimately more interested in personal authenticity than changing psychiatry Few would want to go as far as Szasz in proposing no mental health law Coopers excursion into family, sexual and revolutionary politics

22 Critical psychiatry Does not deny its roots in anti-psychiatry

23 Critical psychiatry Does not deny its roots in anti-psychiatry Seeks to avoid excesses of anti- psychiatry and polarisation in the debate about nature of mental disorder

24 Critical psychiatry Psychiatry can be practised without the justification of postulating brain pathology as the basis for mental illness

25 Critical psychiatry Psychiatry can be practised without the justification of postulating brain pathology as the basis for mental illness Minds are enabled but not reducible to brains

26 Critical psychiatry Psychiatry can be practised without the justification of postulating brain pathology as the basis for mental illness Minds are enabled but not reducible to brains Genes set the boundaries of the possible; environments define the actual

27 Encouraging self-criticism Inclined to find fault, or to judge with severity

28 Encouraging self-criticism Inclined to find fault, or to judge with severity Characterised by careful, exact evaluation and judgement

29 Encouraging self-criticism Inclined to find fault, or to judge with severity Characterised by careful, exact evaluation and judgement Of the greatest importance to the way things might happen

30 Reflective practice Preparedness to think critically

31 Reflective practice Preparedness to think critically Tolerate the uncertainty and ambiguity required during reflection

32 Reflective practice Preparedness to think critically Tolerate the uncertainty and ambiguity required during reflection Ability to think about own thinking processes and critically assess assumptions and beliefs

33 Critical theory Loose collection of theories critical of society and the human sciences

34 Critical theory Loose collection of theories critical of society and the human sciences Frankfurt Institute for Social Research

35 Critical theory Rational basis of social existence theoretically impossible

36 Critical theory Rational basis of social existence theoretically impossible Systems of collective beliefs legitimate various power structures

37 Scientific basis of critical psychiatry Critique of science as positivism

38 Scientific basis of critical psychiatry Critique of science as positivism Interpretation important in establishing facts

39 Scientific basis of critical psychiatry Corporate interests are compromising objective research

40 Scientific basis of critical psychiatry Corporate interests are compromising objective research Bias in interpretation of randomised controlled trials

41 A simplified comparison Biomedical psychiatry Anti- psychiatry Critical psychiatry SciencePositivistNon- positivist

42 A simplified comparison Biomedical psychiatry Anti- psychiatry Critical psychiatry SciencePositivistNon- positivist FocusBrain mechanisms Person

43 A simplified comparison Biomedical psychiatry Anti- psychiatry Critical psychiatry Psycho- pathology YesNoYes

44 A simplified comparison Biomedical psychiatry Anti- psychiatry Critical psychiatry Psycho- pathology YesNoYes EmpiricalYesNoYes

45 A simplified comparison Biomedical psychiatry Anti- psychiatry Critical psychiatry Psycho- pathology YesNoYes EmpiricalYesNoYes Social control YesNoYes

46 Conclusion Mental disorders are not brain diseases

47 Conclusion Mental disorders are not brain diseases Psychiatrist is agent of social control

48 Conclusion Mental disorders are not brain diseases Psychiatrist is agent of social control Mental disorders must show through the brain but not always in the brain


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