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Social pyshcology – individual difference Miss Norris.

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1 Social pyshcology – individual difference Miss Norris

2 What is social change? * With the person next to you, think back to you research on conformity and obedience studies. Write a sentence defining social change, give an example of social change if you can think of one?

3 DEFINITION: “Social change occurs when a society as a whole adopts a new belief and behaviour.” Sometimes, social influence can be a force for a positive change. Eg: Ghandi – Salt tax Or negative eg: Nazi’s and extermination of the Jews.

4 * Implications of social change in, conformity, independent behaviour and obedience research. Firstly Conformity research * Which looks at contributing factors to social change E.g : exodus, deterioration of the minority, the role of internalisation and features of terrorism

5 What happens when the minority becomes majority? When minority becomes a majority. It can cause hostility, by loosing that majority position, people leave feeling unsatisfied, raising unfriendliness and the desire to leave the group. Both majority and minority groups may be experience this exodus.

6 What happens when the minority becomes majority? In South Africa after the election of a Black government. (Which didn’t improve the majority of peoples lives) there was a deterioration of the minority group of white people, as they felt there was no improvement.

7 Kruglansk (2003) Argues terroism might be seen as social change through the minority influence using direct force to try and bring about social change. But instilling fear in the majority.

8 Looking a terrorism, what factors have been identified in conformity research. when a minority become majority * Consistency and persistence * Internalisation of minority of opinion. Moscovici’s conversation theory Exposure -> chance of internalisation -> conflict-> reduction of conflict

9 Internalisation * Conformity to the Zeitgeist (sprit of the time) – who’s evidence suggest that a group to more likely to internalise a minority position if it already has widespread popular support. * Positive majority support [MOD 2005 had widespread support for fighting Iraqui terrorist attacks]

10 * Implication of research into independent behaviour

11 1. Conflict as a catalyst for social change. * Asch demonstrated that the presence of a confederate was one of a the most important variables for the rise in independent behaviour. * Eg: 1930’s Ghadhi started with 78 volunteers within 3 weeks more than 5 million where following his example.

12 2. The role of moral principles Kohlberg looking at Milgram’s findings, saw that those basing decisions on moral principles tended to be more defiant. Individuals who can resist obedience are more able to force new social change.

13 * Research into Obedience and implications of social change

14 * We have seen that although resisting authority may be difficult it can be possible, and that is where sometimes it can lead to bigger movements of social change. Examples?

15 * Obedience as a mechanism for social change History shows ethnic cleansing/genocide are all based on following orders from greater movements of power, e.g Nazi’s * Disobedience as a model for social change Milgram’s experiment shows defiance with peers. But disobedience can be just as important. Eg; Rosa Parks.

16 Zimbardo (2007) argues against Milgrams idea, that you can drift into destructive obedience. He said you can also drift into goodness or promote Pro Social behaviours. Which is a shift into positive social change. This is based on two factors: Gradual commitment, and using social models.

17 * In the same way that Milgram found that voltage could be slowly increased in small stages – “Foot in the door” Eg; Filling out a questionnaire more likely hood to sign up as an organ donor.

18 * Milgram found that GOOD social role models, give a rises in obedience and vice versa. * Similarly pro social models have been shown to increase behaviours such as charity donations and sharing of resources. The salvation army!!!

19 * Some find it tempting to suggest Milgram is out dated and not valid in explaining process of social change. Bass (1999) In a study of Milgram’s and similar experiments found no correlation between results and year of study. * Milgram’s findings may be just as valid now as they where in the 1960’s

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