2Today we will… Describe the 3 branches of government in the USA. Describe the 3 levels of government in the USA and explain the powers that each level has.Identify what ethnic groups in the USA make most political progress.Examine the gender and ethnic make up of the US Government and explain why some groups are underrepresented in the US Government.Assess the extent to which political progress has been made by different groups in US politics.
3Success CriteriaI can describe the 3 branches of government in the USA.I can describe the 3 levels of government in the USA and explain the powers that each level has.I can identify what ethnic groups in the USA make most political progress.I can examine the gender and ethnic make up of the US Government and explain why some groups are underrepresented in the US Government.I can assess the extent to which political progress has been made by different groups in US politics.
53 Branches of Government The US constitution outlines the system of government in the USA.There are 3 branches of government.Discuss each level of government with the pupils.
6Government in the USA Voters The Legislature The Executive The JudiciaryExplains and interprets the laws and the constitutionMakes the country’s lawsAdministers the countryCongressHouse of SenateRepresentativesThe President andThe Vice-PresidentThe Supreme CourtAppointed by the Presidentwith the advice and consent of the SenateElectElectVoters
7The Government of the USA – Task 1 Match the correct heads and tails to make four accurate statements about the American Government.TAILS…court system that operates in the US.…of government- Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.…President of the USA, and it carries out the laws passed in Congress.…makes the laws in the US. i.e. the American Parliament (Congress)HEADSThe American Government has three branches…The Legislative Branch refers to the people who…The Executive Branch is headed by the …The Judicial Branch is basically the …
8Executive BranchThe President and his office exercise the EXECUTIVE function.The Executive Branch consists of the people who carry out the laws which are made.The President and his staff are empowered to carry out the laws which are made by Congress.
9Legislative BranchThe LEGISLATIVE Branch contains the people who make the laws.These are the Senate and the House of Representatives, collectively known as Congress.The Legislative Branch is the law making branch (Legislation = Laws)The President is also involved because he has to sign all Bills before they become law.
10Judicial BranchThe JUDICIAL branch (the judges) determine whether a law passed is allowed by the Constitution, i.e. if it is constitutional.This function is carried out by the Supreme Court.The Supreme Court consists of 9 judges (justices) who are appointed by a President when a previous judge dies or retires.
11Separation of Powers/ Checks and Balances Americans feel that is dangerous for the 3 branches of government to be concentrated in the hands of one person.This is why each branch of government is kept separate from the others as set out in the Constitution.There are many checks and balances built into the Constitution to prevent any one group from becoming too powerful.
12Separation of Powers/ Checks and Balances For a Bill to become law in the USA, it has to pass both Houses of Congress and be signed by the President.Even then the Supreme Court might see it as unconstitutional.Therefore, each branch of government can act as a check on the power of the other two.
13Branches of the US Government – what have you learned? As you watch this clip, write in your jotter anything you don’t understand so you can ask the teacher once the clip is done.This link takes you to the Education Portal website. This clip explains the Branches of the US Government.
14Levels of US Government Federal GovernmentState GovernmentCity/ County Government
15Federal GovernmentThe Federal Government deals with matters concerning state issues and foreign affairs.The Federal Government is based in Washington DC. Its leader is the President (Currently Barack Obama). A President is elected every 4 years.Part of the Federal Government is called Congress – Congress is split into the Senate (100 Senators) and the House of Representatives (435).
16Powers of the Federal Government The ArmyThe Post officeThe currency of the USA (Dollar $)Disputes between statesForeign relations, including declaring war
17State Governments Each of the 50 states has its own government. The person that runs the state is called a Governor e.g. Florida’s Governor is Rick Scott.Each state elects its own version of Congress – State Senate and State House of Representatives.The State Government can pass laws on matters that only effect the people of that state e.g. on education, law and order, housing etc.
18Powers of the State Governments Local laws e.g. age you can drink alcohol, age you can drive a car etc.Punishments e.g. the form of capital punishment used in a state e.g. firing squad.Provision of roads, schools and local taxes.
19City/County Governments Although each of the states has its own government, these states still have a lot of people in them or cover a large area.The states are divided into smaller areas called counties (a bit like our councils).The leader of the city/ county government is the Mayor e.g. New York’s mayor is Michael Bloomberg (NOT Nicola Sturgeoid!!!)
21Fact file – Presidents by race/ethnic group and gender to 2012 (44 in total) On the next two slides you are going to see a fact file on the number of American Presidents that there have been and the number of minority groups in the US Congress in 2012.Copy the tables into your jotter.With your shoulder partner, discuss any of the statistics that stand out for you.
222012 US Government Facts White 43 Hispanic Black 1 Asian Black1AsianNative AmericanMen44Women
23Minorities in Congress Today (2012) House of (435) RepresentativesSenate(100)TotalHispanic27 (6.2%)3 (3%)30 (5.6%)Black42 (9.7%)1 (1%)43 (8%)Asian6 (1.4%)2 (2%)8 (1.5%)Native American0 (0%)Women75 (17%)16 (16%)91 (17%)Men360 (83%)84 (84%)444 (83%)
24REPRESENTATIONIn the USA, Blacks and Hispanics have never been properly represented in Congress in proportion to their numbers in population. However, the situation has started to improve.
25TaskOn the next few slides there is information regarding the representation of different ethnic groups in the US Congress.For each slide, make up a spider diagram containing information from the slides.Once you have completed this your teacher will give you 3 minutes in your groups to discuss your spider diagrams.
26African-Americans in Congress Collectively called the Black CaucusVery influentialSpecial interests as a group – look out for rights of African AmericansAll DemocratsExamples - Karen Bass, Bobby L Rush, Marcia L. Fudge
27African-Americans in Congress Despite the strength of the Black Caucus, Blacks are still under-represented in Congress.African-Americans are 13% of the populationHouse has 42 members - 10% of totalSenate had 1 member - 1% of totalNo Sturgeons
28Hispanics in Congress Hispanics make up 15% of the population Hispanics are still under-represented in Congress with 27 Congressmen (6%) and only 3 Senators (3%).Examples – Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, Juan VargasHispanics are participating much more in politics than in previous years
29Asians in Congress Asians make up 5.6% of the population Asians are still under-represented in Congress with 6 Congressmen (1.4%) and only 2 Senators (2%).Examples – Judy Chu, Grace Meng, Mark TakanoAsians are participating much more in politics than in previous years
30Native Americans in Congress There are currently no Native Americans in Congress in the USA.
31Political Progress?Although the number of ethnics in the US Government has increased over the years, there is not equality in participation in relation to the population e.g. Blacks make up 13% of the US population yet only 8% of Congress. Hispanics make up 15% of the US population but only 5.6% of Congress. Asians make up 5% of the US population and 1.5% of the Congress.
32Take the heading: Political Progress of Ethnic Minorities ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE USA HAVE MADE POLITICAL PROGRESSETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE USA HAVE NOT MADE MUCH POLITICAL PROGRESSCopy and complete the table by putting the following information into the correct column of the table.
33Many ethnic minorities cannot vote because they cannot fill in the complicated registration forms. Many Hispanics cannot register because they are illegal immigrants.The growing African American middle class participate in voting and show great support for the Democratic party.Asian Americans believe participation through voting has helped many of them achieve the American Dream.Many ethnic minorities now see voting as a waste of time as participation has not helped them get out of the poverty trap.More role models- Barack Obama was elected in Number of African Americans elected to Congress is on the increase.Hispanics do not have as many role models in important political positions as Blacks do – e.g.. Obama.As Blacks and Hispanics are under-represented in the richest group of Americans, they may find it very difficult to get the financial backing required to run a national election campaign.
34Why are minorities under-represented? Traditionally, ethnic minorities were less likely to join political parties or stand for election. Partly, this was due to discrimination and prejudice: white voters were reluctant to vote for minority candidates and political parties were reluctant to put forward candidates in areas with a large majority of white voters.
35Why are minorities under-represented? 2. Candidates in US elections also have to raise enormous sums of money to fight elections Ethnic minorities are also more likely to live in poverty, meaning that they have more important priorities – such as finding a job – than thinking about becoming involved in politics, let alone set about trying to raise funds for an election campaign.
36Why are minorities under-represented? 3. Role models have also been seen in the past as an obstacle to progress – with few significant role models to look up to for inspiration, many minority voters felt the system was white, middle class and middle aged and would deliver nothing for them. Many simply felt their vote would make no difference. There has only ever been 1 black President – Barack Obama.
37Women inUS PoliticsJanet A. Napolitano, Kathleen Sebelius, Sally Jewell
38Women in US PoliticsThe Nineteenth Amendment to the American Constitution was passed in The amendment prohibited the denial of voting rights based upon an individual’s gender - women in the United States could now vote on the same basis as men. However, by 1979 women made up less than five per cent of the seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and only about ten per cent of state legislative offices in the USA.A recent report from the Congressional Research Service has found that despite the fact that women make up over 50% of the population of the United States, their presence in congress has never been over 18%. The table on the next slide shows that, in fact, women are under represented in every area of government in the USA.
39Women in US Politics Office % Women Senators 17.0 Members of the House of Representatives16.8State Governors12.0State-wide Elected Officials22.4State Legislators23.6Mayors of the 100 Largest Cities8.0Source: Women & Politics Institute, American University; and Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University.
40Worldwide Rankings of Women in National ParliamentsRankCountryPercent Women %1Rwanda56.32Andorra53.63Sweden45.020Nepal33.291USA16.9International Average19.3Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union“Women in National Parliaments,” August 2011.
41TaskWith your shoulder partner, write down 3 important points/ issues from the 2 tables.What do the statistics show you?
42Progress for WomenNot everything is negative. There has been some progress for women. In recent years, women have reached high office in the USA:Condoleezza Rice was President George W. Bush’s Secretary of State– one of the highest offices in the country and the person responsible for leading US foreign policy.Nancy Pelosi is the leader of the Democratic Party in the House of Representatives
43Progress for WomenHilary Clinton ran for the Democratic candidacy for the Presidency in 2008 and was only narrowly defeated by Barack Obama. After Obama was elected she was appointed US Secretary of State, serving in office fromSarah Palin was the Republican Party nominee for Vice President in the 2008 election and a leading figure in the ‘Tea Party’ movement, which advocates low taxes and strict interpretations of the constitution.
44Women in Federal Politics The 113th Congress ( ) saw 20 women elected as Senators and 81 as members of the House of Representatives, the most ever in U.S. history.These women include Elizabeth Warren (Massachusetts), Tammy Baldwin (Wisconsin), and Mazie Hirono (Hawaii), who are all the first female Senators from their states. Baldwin is the first openly gay Senator, and Hirono is the first Asian-American woman in the Senate. Nicola Sturgeon is NOT American.
45Women in the House of Representatives Congress( )108th( )109th( )110th(111th( )112th( )113th( )Men373372364361359357354Women626371747681Total435
46Women in the Senate Men 87 86 84 83 80 13 14 16 17 20 100 Women Total Congress( )108th( )109th( )110th(111th( )112th( )113th( )Men8786848380Women1314161720Total100
47TaskUsing the tables that you have just copied down, describe the progress of women in the House of Representatives and in the Senate.Your answer should include evidence that explains the progress of women since 2001 and also explains how much more progress they may still have to make.
48Why are women under-represented? Women are not unelectable and many are popular candidates and held in high regard in opinion polls.Hillary Clinton received 18 million votes when she sought the Democratic nomination for president in She also had the highest ratings of any member of the first Obama Administration ofIn 2011, opinion polls repeatedly put former vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin in the top rank of potential candidates for the Republican presidential nomination.
49Why are women under-represented? When it came to elected office, however, the picture was different. 84 per cent of the members of the 112th Congress ( ) were men. So why are women so under-represented?Women simply do not run for office. Many women are reluctant to stand for election and do not put themselves forward as candidates as they lack the confidence to do so.One other reason may be that women are still responsible for most childcare and household tasks so have no time to participate.
50Why are women under-represented? 3. Women also tend to view political activities more negatively than men. More than 50% of women see politics as male dominated and believe that the media more negatively treats women. About two-thirds of potential female candidates believe that Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin were subjected to sexist media coverage in the 2008 presidential campaigns e.g. covering their appearance instead of policies.Women are much less likely to be given encouragement to run for office from family members etc. Where women are given encouragement to run for office, 72% consider doing so. Where women do not receive encouragement, 78% say they would not consider running for office.
51ResearchIf time permits, your teacher will take you to ICT to do some research on politics in the USA.See what you can find out about:Women politiciansEthnic politiciansPolitical parties in the USAPlease book an ICT room and allow your pupils to carry out some further research on US politics.
52Was I successful?I can describe the 3 branches of government in the USA.I can describe the 3 levels of government in the USA and explain the powers that each level has.I can identify what ethnic groups in the USA make most political progress.I can examine the gender and ethnic make up of the US Government and explain why some groups are underrepresented in the US Government.I can assess the extent to which political progress has been made by different groups in US politics.
53Question:Both Women and ethnic groups are under represented in US politics.Describe, in detail, the reasons why each group are under represented.In your answer, you must use American examples. (8 Marks)