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Transcendental Meditation - an introduction. Transcendental Meditation The plan  What is Transcendental Meditation?  What are the benefits?  How does.

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Presentation on theme: "Transcendental Meditation - an introduction. Transcendental Meditation The plan  What is Transcendental Meditation?  What are the benefits?  How does."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transcendental Meditation - an introduction

2 Transcendental Meditation The plan  What is Transcendental Meditation?  What are the benefits?  How does it work?  What is the technique itself?  How can I learn?

3 Transcendental Meditation - What is it, in a nutshell?  Transcendental Meditation is EASY  Sitting comfortably  20 minutes twice a day  Can be done anywhere  Practised by people from all walks of life, all around the world

4 How does Transcendental Meditation compare?  TM is fundamentally different  Relaxation techniques vary 10-fold!  TM is not mind control, not contemplation  We will explore the difference from several angles  the experience  physiological changes  long-term effects  the actual technique itself  But first a brief review of the benefits …

5 Benefits – why people learn Common reasons people give for starting Transcendental Meditation:  Stress relief, relaxation, insomnia, anxiety, depression, anger  Self-improvement, clarity of mind, peace, confidence  Health related issues e.g. general health, hypertension, chronic fatigue (ME), energy, injury, addiction, Alzheimer's …

6 Benefits – What do people find?  On the first occasion, 90% remark on the depth of relaxation  After 4 days, 50% report one or more of:  sleeping better  calmer, inner peace, quiet  more energy, mental and physical  more positive, less affected by problems  more efficient and productive A long-term strategy: routine daily practice is what brings the benefits

7 Benefits – What does science say?  100s of studies in top journals over 35 years  Scientifically proven benefits and applications Examples  Improved mental functioning Brain integration, increased creativity, improved educational and occupational performance  Improved health Cumulative reduction in health care costs in all categories of disease including heart disease, “as effective as anti-hypertensive drugs”  Improved personality and behaviour Improved job performance and team work, less absenteeism, reduced alcohol use...  Reduced conflict, increased peace Reduced crime rate, reduced conflict and war...

8 - HOW does it work?  Idle  Little improvement  Fine-tuning  Performs better Ordinary rest Dynamic rest

9 A special quality of rest  Wide awake yet silent, c.f. relaxation  Built into the physiology  Dynamic fine-tuning, mobilisation of unused reserves  NOT passive rest, slowing down, withdrawal from life

10 Front Middle Alpha Coherence Maps Eyes OpenTM PracticeEyes Closed References: International Journal of Psychophysiology, 116, (2006); Biological Psychology, 61, (2002); Consciousness and Cognition, 8(3), (1999); Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35 (1973); International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147–151, 1981.

11 Zen: Theta, (Kubota et al 2001) Compassion: Gamma, (Lutz et al. 2004) TM: Global Alpha (Travis 2009) EEG Patterns Differ Mindfulness = Eyes Closed (Cahn, personal communication)

12 Increased Physiological Relaxation Meta-analysis of 32 studies Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW: American Psychologist [42] , Basal GSR Respiration Rate Plasma Lactate Transcendental Meditation Rest

13 Cortisol, stress hormone Increased levels of the hormone cortisol in the circulation are well established correlates of both acute and chronic stress. The study shows that plasma cortisol decreased during Transcendental Meditation, whereas it did not change significantly in control subjects during ordinary relaxation. Sources: The transcendental meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress, Experientia 34(5): , Adrenocortical activity during meditation, Hormones and Behavior 10(1): 54ú60, 1978.

14 Reduced ill health A study of health insurance statistics on over 2,000 people practicing the Transcendental Meditation programme over a 5-year period found that the Transcendental Meditation meditators consistently had less than half the hospitalization than did other groups with comparable age, gender, profession, and insurance terms. The difference between the Transcendental Meditation and non-Transcendental Meditation groups increased in older- age brackets. In addition, the Transcendental Meditation meditators had fewer incidents of illness in 17 medical treatment categories, including 87% less hospitalization for heart disease and 55% less for cancer. Reference I: Medical care utilisation and the Transcendental Meditation programme, Psychosomatic Medicine : 493ú507. Reference II: Reduced health care utilisation in Transcendental Meditation practitioners, presented at the conference of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, Washington, D.C., March 22, 1987.

15 Transcendental Meditation Progressive muscular relaxation Simple bio- feedback Relaxation assisted biofeedback Stress mgt + relaxation * ** Blood Pressure Change Scores Rainforth M, Schneider R, Nidich S, et al: Stress Reduction Programs in Patients with Elevated Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 [9] Meta-analysis of Stress Reduction Programmes in Patients with High Blood Pressure * p =.0002 ** p =.02

16 Personality and behaviour  Benefits to behaviour are SPONTANEOUS  How you FEEL is the no. 1 health factor  Rediscovering the self, wholeness  Some examples: dependency, relationships  Hardware upgrade: potentiates new software

17 Decreased Substance Dependence 19 studies on Transcendental Meditation, n>3,200 Effect Size (standard deviations) Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis, Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13-87, Tobacco Use Alcohol Use Illicit Drug Use

18 Decreased Trait Anxiety Meta-analysis of 146 studies Effect Size (standard deviations) A statistical meta-analysis conducted at Stanford University of all available studies-146 independent outcomes-indicated that the effect of the Transcendental Meditation programme on reducing anxiety as a character trait was much greater than that of all other meditation and relaxation techniques, including muscle relaxation. This analysis also showed that the positive Transcendental Meditation result could not be attributed to subject expectation, experimenter bias, or quality of research design. Reference: Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis, Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: , T.M. Placebo Other relax Relax Resp Other med Muscle relax EMG biofeed Mantra Med Concentration

19 The big picture Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Vedic Tradition

20 Transcendental Meditation - technology of the Unified Field

21 Enlightenment  Spontaneous right action  Stress-free  Complete fulfilment  Absolute freedom  Nourishing everything

22 A day-by-day study of a two-month assembly in Israel during August and September of 1983 showed that, on days when the number of participants at a peace-creating assembly was high, the intensity of an ongoing war in neighboring Lebanon decreased sharply. When the number of participants was high, war deaths in Lebanon dropped by 76%. (p<.0001). [The mathematical expression p<.0001 indicates that, as a result of standard mathematical analysis, the likelihood that this result could be attributed to chance variation in levels of fighting was less than 1 in 10,000. This amounts to a much higher confidence level than is typical in the social sciences.] Reference: Yale University Journal of Conflict Resolution 32: 776–812, 1988.

23 In this carefully controlled experiment, the coherence-creating group increased from 800 to 4,000 over the two-month period. Although violent crime had been steadily increasing during the first five months of the year, soon after the start of the study, violent crime (measured by FBI Uniform Crime Statistics) began decreasing and continued to drop until the end of the experiment (maximum decrease 23.3%), after which it began to rise again. The likelihood that this result could be attributed to chance variation in crime levels was less than two parts per billion ( p < ). The drop in crime could not be attributed to other possible causes, including temperature, precipitation, weekends, and police and community anti-crime activities ( Social Indicators Research 47: , 1999).

24 Progress towards international peace: “Super-Radiance” Effect Peace/War Index (standard scores) Non-experimental period Israel Utopia Assembly, Fairfield, Iowa, USA Lebanon Yugoslavia Fairfield Netherlands Washington D.C., USA Seven Transcendental Meditation TM-Sidhi Assemblies P<10 -19

25 Transcendental Meditation - the mind is like an ocean

26 Transcendental Meditation - what happens

27 Transcendental Meditation - other techniques

28 Transcendental Meditation - the TM technique itself - 1

29 Transcendental Meditation - the TM technique itself - 2

30 Transcendental Meditation - the TM technique itself -3

31 Transcendental Meditation - the TM technique itself -4

32 Transcendental Meditation - the TM technique itself -5

33 Transcendental Meditation - how do I learn?  Personal interview: 5 mins  Day 1: Personal instruction: 1.5 hrs  Day 2: Seminar 1.5 hrs  Day 3: Seminar 1.5 hrs  Day 4: Seminar 1.5 hrs  Periodic meetings over 6 months

34 The Vedic Tradition Guru Dev

35 Transcendental Meditation - what does it cost?  Standard adult fee-high income £590Income > £40,000  Standard adult fee-middle income £490Income > £25,000  Standard adult fee-lower income £390Income < £25,000  Concessionary fee £290Income < £15,000, unemployed and people on low income people on low income  Student fee £290 Full-time >18 with student card  Under 18 fee £190 Full-time aged  Under 10 fee 25% of appropriate adult fee for the main parent  Family fee – both parents working 2 x course fee applicable to average of incomes. Includes children <18 living with parents and learning within 3 months of each other  Family fee – one parent working 1.5 x course fee applicable to income. Includes children <18 living with parents and learning within 3 months of each other  VIP and private instruction £1,180   All the attention required over 6 months  A sound strategic investment  Registered educational charity Maharishi Foundation

36 Transcendental Meditation - coming to learn When you learn:  Have enough time, few other commitments  Not “under the influence” Please bring:  One new white hanky  Two ripe fruits  Six or more cut flowers


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