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Transcendental Meditation & Health David W. Orme-Johnson, Ph.D. Former faculty Institute of Natural Medicine and Prevention Maharishi University of Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Transcendental Meditation & Health David W. Orme-Johnson, Ph.D. Former faculty Institute of Natural Medicine and Prevention Maharishi University of Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transcendental Meditation & Health David W. Orme-Johnson, Ph.D. Former faculty Institute of Natural Medicine and Prevention Maharishi University of Management Fairfield, IA 52557

2 Transcendental Meditation (TM ® ) is from the Vedic Tradition of India, the oldest continuous tradition of human knowledge.

3 TM is a key aspect of Ayur Veda, a complete traditional system of preventative medicine.

4 The Transcendental Meditation Technique “Yoga is the least excited state of consciousness, pure consciousness.” Yoga-Sutra 1.2 —Patanjali 250 BC

5 Forty Years of Research on the TM Technique

6 Restful Alertness Decreased Acute Stress Brain Coherence Decreased Chronic Stress Improved Cognitive Function Improved Stress Resilience Reduced Risk Factors Decreased Disease and Aging Systemic Effects of TM Body Rebalance TM Program Activity TM Balance of Rest and Activity Improved Self- Regulation

7 Baseline TM Practice FDG- PET (N = 3) Newberg, A., Travis, F., Wintering, N., Nidich, S., Alavi, A. & Schneider, R. Neural Imaging conference, Miami, Fl., FrontalIncreaseFrontalIncrease ThalamicDecreaseThalamicDecrease Basal Ganglia Decrease Decrease

8 Increased EEG Phase Synchrony During TM Ss: Control (12), TM (15) Functional integration of distant cortical activity to enhance flow of information and global binding of elements of experience. Hebert, Lehmann, Tan, Travis, & Arenander, Signal Processing, 85(11), , 2005 TM Control

9 NeuromuscularEfficiencyNeuromuscularEfficiency Self-AwarenessSelf-AwarenessAcademicPerformanceAcademicPerformance DecreasedAnxietyDecreasedAnxiety Self-DevelopmentSelf-Development InnerOrientationInnerOrientation MoralReasoningMoralReasoning ConceptLearningConceptLearning EmotionalStabilityEmotionalStability DecreasedNeuroticismDecreasedNeuroticism IntelligenceIntelligence ComputationalEfficiencyComputationalEfficiency CreativityCreativity BrainwaveCoherenceBrainwaveCoherence

10 Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Basal Skin Resistance Respiratory Rate Plasma Lactate TMRest Decreased Physiological Stress Meta-analysis of 32 studies Dillbeck & Orme-Johnson, American Psychologist 42:879-81, 1987

11 00.51 Concentration Mantra Meditation EMG - Biofeedback PMR Other Meditations Relaxation Response Other Relaxation Placebo TM Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Decreased Trait Anxiety Meta-analysis of 146 studies Eppley, Abrams, & Shear: J Clinical Psychology, 45: ,1989

12 Self-Help Kits Individual Counseling Individual Counseling Pharmacological Treatment Unconventional Treatment TM Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Decreased Cigarette Use Meta-analysis of 131 studies Alexander, Robinson, & Rainforth, Alcohol Treatment Quarterly, 11:13-87, 1994

13 Preventative Ed DUI Relaxation Peer Influence TM Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Decreased Alcohol Use Meta-analysis of 97 studies Alexander, Robinson, & Rainforth, Alcohol Treatment Quarterly, 11:13-87, 1994

14 00.51 Preventive Ed Peer Influence TM Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Decreased Drug Abuse Meta-analysis of 70 studies Alexander, Robinson, & Rainforth, Alcohol Treatment Quarterly, 11:13-87, 1994

15 Alexander, Rainforth, & Gelderloos, J Social Behavior & Personality, 6: , Other Meditation Other Relaxation TM Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Increased Self-Actualization Meta-analysis of 42 studies

16 Intima-MedialThickness Adjusted mean changes in millimeters TM Health Education p < Castillo- Richmond, et al.. Stroke 31: 568, 2000 Decrease in Carotid Atherosclerosis

17 Paul-Labrador etal, Arch Int Med,2006 Paul-Labrador etal, Arch Int Med, 2006 TM & Metabolic Syndrome

18 Rainforth, Schneider, Nidich, et al, Current Hypertension Reports 9: , 2007 * p =.0002 * p =.0002 ** p =.02 Meta-analysis of Stress Reduction Programs in Patients with High Blood Pressure

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20 Orme-Johnson, Psychosomatic Medicine 59: , 1987; Orme-Johnson & Herron, American Journal of Managed Care 3(1): Decreased Medical Care Utilization Decreased Medical Care Utilization TM: N = 2000 over 5 years compared to normative data and matched controls

21 Other TM Age Doctor Visits Outpatient Visits/1000 Members 0–1819– p <.0001 <.0001 Hospitalization Age 0–1819–3940+ p Patient Days/1000 Members D. Orme-Johnson, Psychosomatic Medicine, 49:493–507, 1987 Decreased Medical Care Utilization TM practitioners vs. the Norm

22 R. Herron, etal, J. Soc Behav Personality, 2001 Reduction in Health Care Cost Annual inflation-adjusted payments to private physicians for treatment Canada, >65 yrs age; all settings; N=163 p =


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