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RO2(T) By POC Josh Sylvester Tactical Communications 2nd Class.

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1 RO2(T) By POC Josh Sylvester Tactical Communications 2nd Class

2 Contents Morse Code Morse Code Morse Code Morse Code Flag Recognition Flag Recognition Flag Recognition Flag Recognition Hoisting Procedures Hoisting Procedures Hoisting Procedures Hoisting Procedures Tactical Voice Procedure Tactical Voice Procedure Tactical Voice Procedure Tactical Voice Procedure Manoeuvring Definitions & Procedures Manoeuvring Definitions & Procedures Manoeuvring Definitions & Procedures Manoeuvring Definitions & Procedures Fleet work Formations Fleet work Formations Fleet work Formations Fleet work Formations Communication Safety Communication Safety Types of Communication Types of Communication Practices and Responsibilities Practices and Responsibilities Message Handling Message Handling Practical Rigging Practical Rigging Admin Voice Procedure Admin Voice Procedure

3 MORSE CODE … BACK

4 Morse Code by Flashing Light Non Directional Flashing is Morse Code sent from the mast head light, and is used when you want to send a message to more than one ship. Directional Flashing is Morse Code sent from a and is directed at one ship. FRX (Flash Receiving Exercises) and FTX (Flash Transmitting Exercises) use Tactical Voice Procedure and Tactical (Alpha Numeric) Call signs. Audible Morse is no longer used in the Royal Navy, but a good Tactical Communicator will be able to transmit and receive both visual and audible Morse Code.

5 Morse Code A.- B -… I.. J.--- Q --.- R.-. Y -.-- Z C -.-. D -.. K -.- L.-.. S … T E. F..-. M -- N -. U..- V … Long Break.---. Error G --. H …. O --- P.--. W.-- X

6 Flag Recognition The International Code of Signals, British Ensigns, and Parts of a flag. BACK

7 Flag Recognition - Alphabet Alpha I have a diver down; keep well clear at slow speed. Bravo I am taking in, discharging, or carrying dangerous cargo. Charlie "Yes" or "affirmative". Delta I am manoeuvring with difficulty; keep clear Echo I am directing my course to starboard Foxtrot I am disabled; communicate with me. On aircraft carriers: Flight Operations underway

8 Flag Recognition – Alphabet cont. Golf I require a pilot. I am the Leader, follow me. Hotel I have a pilot onboard. India I am directing my course to port. I am coming alongside. Juliet I am on fire and carrying dangerous cargo; stay clear. Kilo I wish to communicate with you.

9 Flag Recognition – Alphabet cont. Lima You should stop your vessel immediately Mike My vessel is stopped; making no way. November No or negative. Oscar Man overboard Papa All personnel return to ship; proceeding to sea Quebec Ship meets health regs; request clearance into port.

10 Flag Recognition – Alphabet cont. Romeo Preparing for RAS. Duty Ship. Sierra Moving Astern Conducting flag hoisting drills. Tango Keep clear, engaged in trawling. Do not pass ahead of me. Uniform You are running into danger. victor I require assistance. Whiskey I require medical assistance.

11 Flag Recognition – Alphabet X-Ray Stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals Yankee I am dragging anchor. Ship has Visual Communication Duty. Zulu I require a tug Code / Answer Message understood. 5 in a Relative Bearing. Flag that follows is from international code of signals

12 Flag Recognition - Substitutes 1 st Substitute Substitutes for the 1 st flag in the hoist. Absence of flag officer 2 nd Substitute Substitute for the 2 nd flag in the hoist. Absence of Chief of Staff. 3 rd Substitute Substitute for the 3 rd flag in the hoist. Absence of the CO.

13 Flag Recognition – Number Pennants

14 Flag Recognition - Other Speed Corpen (Course Pennant) Form(Formation) Port Starboard

15 Flag Recognition - Flag Officers Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore

16 Parts of a Flag Upper Hoist Lower Hoist Upper Fly Lower Fly

17 Ensigns St George’s cross with Union flag in upper hoist Used by the Royal Navy Red flag with Union Flag in top upper hoist Civil ensign of UK, by pleasure boats & merchant ships Blue flag with Union Flag in upper hoist Used by government bodies, defaced with their emblem Made up of the crosses of Saints Patrick, Andrew & George Flown on the Jack Staff of all RN Ships when alongside, when the ship is dressed, in the presence of a Fleet Admiral, or when a Court Martial is in progression.

18 Church Pennant Fly – Dutch Flag Hoist – St. George’s Cross

19 Commissioning Pennants Sea Cadets Royal Navy Flown at the Masthead, indicates that a ship is in commission. When a ship enters harbour for the last time, it will hoist the Paying Off Pennant, which is the same as the Commissioning Pennant, except it is as long as the ship itself!

20 Hoisting Procedures Reading a Mast, Colours, Evening Colours, Half Mast, and Dressing Overall. BACK

21 Hoisting Procedures Gaff Mast head Starboard Outer Starboard Inner Port Outer Port Inner Halyard Yardarm Tack line – Break between flags Bend on – Clipping on flags Execute – Pull the signal down fast Hoist – to haul a flag up Dip – to bring 1/3 down Close up – Bring the flags to the top

22 Hoisting Procedures – Half Mast Colours Ensign is hauled to the top of the mast in 20 seconds. Break for 2 marching paces, then slowly lower the ensign between 1/3 and ½ of the way down the mast. Evening Colours / Sunset Ensign is slowly raised to the top of the mast head. Break for 2 marching paces, then ensign is lowered fully in 40 seconds.

23 Dressing Ship Accession Day 6th Feb Accession Day 6th Feb Commonwealth Day - 2nd Monday in March Commonwealth Day - 2nd Monday in March Queens birthday - April 21st Queens birthday - April 21st Queens Official Birthday - Date Published Queens Official Birthday - Date Published Coronation Day - 2nd June Coronation Day - 2nd June Prince Phillips Birthday - 10th June Prince Phillips Birthday - 10th June Ships are to be dressed overall when in a foreign port on a day that the county would dress ship, like 4th of July in the USA Ships are to be dressed overall when in a foreign port on a day that the county would dress ship, like 4th of July in the USA

24 Manoeuvring Definitions & Procedures Relative Bearings, True Bearings, The Guide and Movement Restrictions. BACK

25 Manoeuvring Definitions Formation – The way a group of ships are organised to operate as. Formation – The way a group of ships are organised to operate as. Corpen – “Course Pennant” - Wheeling Corpen – “Course Pennant” - Wheeling Turn – Turning fully. Turn – Turning fully. Speed – The speed at which the formation should be operating at. Speed – The speed at which the formation should be operating at. Guide – The ship flying “Golf”, ship is the leader, and all are to form on, or take a bearing off this ship. Guide – The ship flying “Golf”, ship is the leader, and all are to form on, or take a bearing off this ship.

26 Bearings A TRUE BEARING has 3 figures and is displayed on a compass rose A RELATIVE BEARING has 1 or 2 figures, and “ANS” if it is.5. For example, if a ship was facing a true bearing of 000, to turn to starboard 45*, the relative bearing would be “STBD 4ANS” - STBD 45

27 The Guide The Guide Ship will usually have the OTC (Officer in Tactical Command) onboard The Guide Ship will usually have the OTC (Officer in Tactical Command) onboard The Guide will ALWAYS hoist flag GOLF to show it is guide. The Guide will ALWAYS hoist flag GOLF to show it is guide. When a formation wheels using Corpen, the pivot ship will become guide. When a formation wheels using Corpen, the pivot ship will become guide. If the Guide sheers from formation, the next ship in sequence number becomes Guide. If the Guide sheers from formation, the next ship in sequence number becomes Guide.

28 Movement Restrictions When in Column, ships can wheel up to 180°. When in Column, ships can wheel up to 180°. When in Line Abreast, ships can wheel up to 90°. When in Line Abreast, ships can wheel up to 90°. When on a Line of Bearing, ships can not wheel. When on a Line of Bearing, ships can not wheel. Ships can turn 180° to Port or Starboard. Ships can turn 180° to Port or Starboard.

29 Distances between Ships A Large Ship is a ship over 450 feet in length. A Large Ship is a ship over 450 feet in length. A Small Ship is a ship under 450 feet in length. A Small Ship is a ship under 450 feet in length. The distance between 2 large ships should be 1000 yards. The distance between 2 large ships should be 1000 yards. The distance between 1 large ship and 1 small ship should be 1000 yards. The distance between 1 large ship and 1 small ship should be 1000 yards. The distance between 2 small ships should be 500 yards. The distance between 2 small ships should be 500 yards. The distance between ships is measured from foremast to foremast. The distance between ships is measured from foremast to foremast.

30 Formations Formations 1, 2, 3 and 4 BACK

31 Formations Form 1 – Ships form column in order of sequence numbers. Form 1 – Ships form column in order of sequence numbers. Form 2 – Ships form column in reverse order of sequence numbers. Form 2 – Ships form column in reverse order of sequence numbers. Form 3 – Ships form line abreast to starboard in order of sequence numbers. Form 3 – Ships form line abreast to starboard in order of sequence numbers. Form 4 – Ships form line abreast to port in order of sequence. Form 4 – Ships form line abreast to port in order of sequence.

32 Formations 1  LEAD SHIP – SP10 – Form 1 – G1 True Bearing Speed Formation Guide Ship

33 Formation  LEAD SHIP 000 – SP10 – Form 2 – G1

34 Formation LEAD SHIP 000 – SP10 – Form 3 – G1

35 Formation LEAD SHIP 000 – SP10 – Form 4 – G1

36 Communications Types of Communications and Types of Call signs BACK

37 Types of Communication Radio’s Radio’s Pyrotechnics (fire, flares etc.) Pyrotechnics (fire, flares etc.) Visual (flags, semaphore, Morse by Light) Visual (flags, semaphore, Morse by Light) Audible (bells, whistles, talking, audible Morse) Audible (bells, whistles, talking, audible Morse) Can you think of any more? Can you think of any more?

38 Types of Call sign International – used mainly in Admin Voice, an international callsign will be unique depending on your country and area. MFK58 is an International Call sign. International – used mainly in Admin Voice, an international callsign will be unique depending on your country and area. MFK58 is an International Call sign. Tactical – used for Tactical Voice, these are Alpha Numeric (one letter, one number). A3 is a Tactical Callsign. Tactical – used for Tactical Voice, these are Alpha Numeric (one letter, one number). A3 is a Tactical Callsign. Visual – used in flaghoists, directional and non directional Flashing Morse Exercises. These are the pennant numbers found on the side of ships, for example, RO7 is HMS Illustrious, D23 is HMS Bristol etc. Visual – used in flaghoists, directional and non directional Flashing Morse Exercises. These are the pennant numbers found on the side of ships, for example, RO7 is HMS Illustrious, D23 is HMS Bristol etc.

39 Communications Safety Fire Extinguishers and hazard awareness. BACK

40 Isolator Switch If you walk into a Comms Room and discover somebody on the floor, DO NOT touch them. If you walk into a Comms Room and discover somebody on the floor, DO NOT touch them. A switch should be located on the same wall as the door to the Comms Room, called an Isolator Switch. A switch should be located on the same wall as the door to the Comms Room, called an Isolator Switch. Hit this switch, and all electronics in the room are cut off. Hit this switch, and all electronics in the room are cut off. Only once the isolator switch has been used should you attend the casualty. Only once the isolator switch has been used should you attend the casualty.

41 Fire Extinguisher A CARBON DIOXIDE fire extinguisher should be located near the isolator switch of the Comms Room. A CARBON DIOXIDE fire extinguisher should be located near the isolator switch of the Comms Room. A CO2 Extinguisher will not damage your equipment. A CO2 Extinguisher will not damage your equipment. Be careful when handling a CO2 extinguisher, because they will cause Cold Burns, so handle them correctly. Be careful when handling a CO2 extinguisher, because they will cause Cold Burns, so handle them correctly.

42 Hazards Tripping Hazards (cables, chairs, feet etc) Tripping Hazards (cables, chairs, feet etc) Radiation Hazards (from radio aerials and equipment) Radiation Hazards (from radio aerials and equipment) Electrocution Hazards (by drinking in Comms Rooms) Electrocution Hazards (by drinking in Comms Rooms) Can you think of any more? Can you think of any more?

43 Practises and Responsibilities Forbidden Practises and Visual Operator Responsibilities BACK

44 Forbidden Practises The following practises are specifically forbidden on Sea Cadet Circuits. Many are forbidden on the vast majority of other Radio Frequencies around the world. Infringement may result in the removal of an operator from the circuit, withdrawal of a Permit to Transmit and even, in some cases, criminal prosecution:

45 Forbidden Practises a) Transmission on a directed net without permission. b) Excessive tuning and testing. c) Unauthorised transmission of Place, Unit or Personal Names in Clear. d) Use of profane, indecent or obscene language. e) Use of excessive or unauthorised transmitting power. f) Transmitting at speeds beyond the capabilities of the receiving operator. g) Operation on a circuit by any person not holding a valid Permit to Transmit, except under the supervision and with the express permission of an Authorised Person. h) Use of unauthorised Callsigns, except where local Callsigns have been approved. i) Use of precedence Flash by SCC stations.

46 Visual Operator’s Responsibilities Responsibilities 1. Ensuring no unauthorised transmissions are made. 2. Giving an immediate answer to a call. 3. Observing the following rules: Practices specifically FORBIDDEN - 1. Unofficial conversation between operators. 2. Transmitting an operator’s personal sign. 3. Unauthorised use of plain language in place of authorised Prosigns or operating signals. 4. Use of profane, indecent or obscene language. Practises to be AVOIDED – 1. Use of too wide a beam or too bright a light. 2. Transmitting too fast for the receiving operator to read.

47 Tactical Voice Procedure Delayed Executive Method and Immediate Executive Method BACK

48 Saying the Delayed Executive Method If you wanted to make all ships turn 90° to starboard, you would SAY over the radio the following: If you wanted to make all ships turn 90° to starboard, you would SAY over the radio the following: Z0, this is A1, execute to follow, turn starboard 9, B2 over. Call sign for all ships Your CSMeans “await another message before executing it” The order Means you await a receipt Z0, this is A1, standby EXECUTE, C3 over. Means “Carry out the order......now”

49 So the radio transmission would go: Z0, this is A1, execute to follow, turn starboard 9, B2 over. This is B2, roger out. Z0 this is A1, standby execute, C3 over. This is C3, Roger out.

50 Writing the Delayed Executive Method You also have to log that transmission, so you would write: You also have to log that transmission, so you would write: Z0 de A1 IX Tu STBD 9 B2 K All ships This is Your CS Execute to follow Turn Starboard Relative Bearing 90° CS you want a receipt off over Z0 de A1 SB IX C3 K Stand by Execute

51 So the log would look like: Z0 de A1 IX Tu STBD 9 B2 K De B2 R + Z0 de A1 SB______IX C3 K de C3 R +

52 Saying the Immediate Executive Method Basically, it is spoken nearly the same as the Delayed, however it is done immediately with no chance to respond, like so: Z0, this is A1, immediate execute, speed 30, I say again, speed 30, standby execute over As you can see, it is all done in one message. It is vitally important you repeat the order, so everybody hears it. If by the time you have reached “standby” and your Captain is not ready to action the order, you continue saying “standby”. Standby....standby....standby......Execute. Everybody should receipt the order afterwards.

53 So the radio transmission would go: Z0, this is A1, immediate execute, speed 30, I say again, speed 30, standby execute over. This is B2, roger out. This is C3 roger out. ZO this is A1, roger out.

54 Writing the Immediate Executive Method Written in the same way as the delayed method, but all together: Z0 de A1 IMIX SP30 ISA SP30 SB____________ IX K Call signs Immediate Execute Speed 30 I say again Standby Execute Over

55 So the log would look like: Z0 de A1 IMIX SP30 ISA SP30 SB____________ IX K de B2 R + de C3 R + Z0 de A1 R +

56 Admin Voice Procedure Transmitting priority messages, test transmission, radio check and time check. BACK

57 Radio Check To ensure your radios are all working, it is necessary to do a Radio Check before transmitting: To ensure your radios are all working, it is necessary to do a Radio Check before transmitting: GALL this is GCON, Radio Check over this is GLEA, roger over this is GSYL, roger over this is GTOR roger over GALL this is GCON roger out.

58 Radio Check If the signal you receive is not “loud and clear” (which is demonstrated by replying ROGER), then you can replace ROGER and use the following: If the signal you receive is not “loud and clear” (which is demonstrated by replying ROGER), then you can replace ROGER and use the following: Signal Strength Loud Good Weak Very Weak Fading Readability Clear Readable Distorted With Interference Intermittent So a radio check could go: GLEA this is GCON Radio Check over this is GLEA, fading and distorted over GLEA this is GCON roger out

59 Time Check Sometimes it is necessary to check the time over radio. Done like so: Sometimes it is necessary to check the time over radio. Done like so: GLEA this is GCON request time check, over this is GLEA wait out. GCON this is GLEA time check at 1812Z 15 seconds 10 seconds TIME 1812Z over this is GCON roger out You must wait until the countdown is in time with the clock.

60 Test Transmission Stations may want to test transmissions between another station. You can do this by doing the following: Stations may want to test transmissions between another station. You can do this by doing the following: GLEA this is GCON Request test transmission, over this is GLEA Testing over this is GCON roger out

61 Submitting Priority Messages You should now fill in a Message form as shown by your instructor. Then the following will happen: You should now fill in a Message form as shown by your instructor. Then the following will happen: GALL this is GCON, This is a directed net, I am control, of what precedence and for whom are your messages? Over This is GLEA, priority for GTOR over This is GTOR, no traffic over This is GSYL, routine for GLEA over. From the above, each operator should create a traffic list, showing which call sign has what message for whom.

62 Next stage Once you have created your traffic list, control will request for messages to be sent, going in priority of precedence: Once you have created your traffic list, control will request for messages to be sent, going in priority of precedence: GLEA this is GCON send your priority over this is GTOR over this is GLEA, priority for GTON. (here you go through your message; DTG, From, To, Info, // unclass. SIC: Message //) Over this is GCON roger out this is GTOR roger out If you didn’t hear a section of the message, you transmit “Say again all after/before....” here The receiver of the message must receipt here to show the sender you are listening.

63 Practical Rigging (Aerials) Safety Checks and Maintenance on Aerials BACK

64 Safety Checks Aerials shouldn’t be more than 15m high if you are within one mile of an airfield. Aerials shouldn’t be more than 15m high if you are within one mile of an airfield. Remember to check the ground beneath you for pipes and wires, and check the area above you for pylons and extended cables or branches. Remember to check the ground beneath you for pipes and wires, and check the area above you for pylons and extended cables or branches. Make sure that everybody on your team is paying attention while you erect and aerial. Make sure that everybody on your team is paying attention while you erect and aerial. Make sure you are wearing hard hats at all times. Make sure you are wearing hard hats at all times.

65 Maintenance on Aerials ALWAYS tell somebody that you are working on an aerial. ALWAYS tell somebody that you are working on an aerial. Put a “Persons aloft” sign up. Put a “Persons aloft” sign up. Take a buddy to help you out. Take a buddy to help you out. Take the Safe to transmit keys out of the radios!! Take the Safe to transmit keys out of the radios!! If there are no keys, remove the fuses. If there are no keys, remove the fuses. Wear the appropriate safety equipment. Wear the appropriate safety equipment. Cadets are discouraged to work on aerials. Your Unit Communications Instructor should do all necessary work. Cadets are discouraged to work on aerials. Your Unit Communications Instructor should do all necessary work.

66 Message Handling The Basics, Pro Words, Precedence's and DTG’s BACK

67 The Basics A good communicator should always have the following at hand: A Pen (NEVER write in red!!) A Pen (NEVER write in red!!) Pencil (Cross out mistakes, DON’T erase them!) Pencil (Cross out mistakes, DON’T erase them!) Paper (Lined preferably, and lots of!) Paper (Lined preferably, and lots of!) Carbon Paper (Makes copying messages easy!) Carbon Paper (Makes copying messages easy!) Clipboard (Always handy, elastic band will stop paper from flapping!) Clipboard (Always handy, elastic band will stop paper from flapping!) Message Forms, Radio Operator Logs and Message Handling Logs Message Forms, Radio Operator Logs and Message Handling Logs

68 Date & Time Groups DTGs, or Date and Time Groups are used to identify individual messages minutes, hours, days or weeks after they have been sent. DTGs, or Date and Time Groups are used to identify individual messages minutes, hours, days or weeks after they have been sent. The day (15 th ) The time (15.45) The month (July) The year (2008) ZULU Time Every message you take should have a DTG for easy filing and future reference!!

69 Prosign’s AA – All After AB – All Before AR – End of transmission AS – Wait B – More to follow BT – Long break C – Correct or Correction DE – This is EEEEEEEE – Error FM – From (call sign) G – Read back GR – Group Count HM HM HM – Emergency Silence II – Short break SA – Say again INFO – Information (call sign follows) INT – Interrogative K – Invitation to transmit (I require a reply) O – Immediate P – Priority R – Roger R - Routine T – Relay TO – Action (call sign) WA – Word After WB – Word Before XMT – Exempt Address Z - Flash

70 Precedence's A Message should come with a precedence to show its importance: Flash (Z) – Not used by the SCC – emergency, for example enemy sightings. Flash (Z) – Not used by the SCC – emergency, for example enemy sightings. Immediate (O) – e.g. Require immediate medical assistance. Immediate (O) – e.g. Require immediate medical assistance. Priority (P) – e.g. Require a new left propeller for when ship comes into port. Priority (P) – e.g. Require a new left propeller for when ship comes into port. Routine (R) – e.g. Need to order size 14 working boots from stores. Routine (R) – e.g. Need to order size 14 working boots from stores.

71 Remember PRACTISE everything in this power point as often as possible. PRACTISE everything in this power point as often as possible. This power point is only intended to lightly cover the main topics of the Radio Operator (Tactical) 2 nd Class course, not teach it!!! This power point is only intended to lightly cover the main topics of the Radio Operator (Tactical) 2 nd Class course, not teach it!!! If you thought RO2(T) was good fun, encourage others to do it, and go for your RO1(T)!! If you thought RO2(T) was good fun, encourage others to do it, and go for your RO1(T)!! BACK


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