4 Morse Code by Flashing Light Non Directional Flashing is Morse Code sent from the mast head light, and is used when you want to send a message to more than one ship.Directional Flashing is Morse Code sent from a and is directed at one ship.FRX (Flash Receiving Exercises) and FTX (Flash Transmitting Exercises) use Tactical Voice Procedure and Tactical (Alpha Numeric) Call signs.Audible Morse is no longer used in the Royal Navy, but a good Tactical Communicator will be able to transmit and receive both visual and audible Morse Code.
5 Morse Code A .- B -… I .. J .--- Q --.- R .-. Y -.-- Z --.. 7 --... C -.-.D -..K -.-LS …T -E .FM --N -.U ..-V …-Long BreakErrorG --.H ….O ---P .--.W .--X -..-
6 Flag RecognitionThe International Code of Signals, British Ensigns, and Parts of a flag.BACK
7 Flag Recognition - Alphabet I have a diver down; keep well clear at slow speed.BravoI am taking in, discharging, or carrying dangerous cargo.Charlie"Yes" or "affirmative".DeltaI am manoeuvring with difficulty; keep clearEchoI am directing my course to starboardFoxtrotI am disabled; communicate with me. On aircraft carriers: Flight Operations underway
8 Flag Recognition – Alphabet cont. GolfI require a pilot.I am the Leader, follow me.HotelI have a pilot onboard.IndiaI am directing my course to port.I am coming alongside.JulietI am on fire and carrying dangerous cargo; stay clear.KiloI wish to communicate with you.
9 Flag Recognition – Alphabet cont. LimaYou should stop your vessel immediatelyMikeMy vessel is stopped; making no way.NovemberNo or negative.OscarMan overboardPapaAll personnel return to ship; proceeding to seaQuebecShip meets health regs; request clearance into port.
10 Flag Recognition – Alphabet cont. RomeoPreparing for RAS. Duty Ship.SierraMoving AsternConducting flag hoisting drills.TangoKeep clear, engaged in trawling.Do not pass ahead of me.UniformYou are running into danger.victorI require assistance.WhiskeyI require medical assistance.
11 Flag Recognition – Alphabet X-RayStop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signalsYankeeI am dragging anchor.Ship has Visual Communication Duty.ZuluI require a tugCode / AnswerMessage understood.5 in a Relative Bearing.Flag that follows is from international code of signals
12 Flag Recognition - Substitutes 1st SubstituteSubstitutes for the 1st flag in the hoist.Absence of flag officer2nd SubstituteSubstitute for the 2nd flag in the hoist.Absence of Chief of Staff.3rd SubstituteSubstitute for the 3rd flag in the hoist.Absence of the CO.
14 Flag Recognition - Other SpeedCorpen(Course Pennant)Form(Formation)PortStarboard
15 Flag Recognition - Flag Officers Admiral of the FleetAdmiralVice AdmiralRear AdmiralCommodore
16 Parts of a FlagUpper HoistUpper FlyLower FlyLower Hoist
17 Ensigns St George’s cross with Union flag in upper hoist Used by the Royal NavyRed flag with Union Flag in top upper hoistCivil ensign of UK, by pleasure boats & merchant shipsBlue flag with Union Flag in upper hoistUsed by government bodies, defaced with their emblemMade up of the crosses of Saints Patrick, Andrew & GeorgeFlown on the Jack Staff of all RN Ships when alongside, when the ship is dressed, in the presence of a Fleet Admiral, or when a Court Martial is in progression.
18 Church PennantHoist – St. George’s CrossFly – Dutch Flag
19 Commissioning Pennants Royal NavySea CadetsFlown at the Masthead, indicates that a ship is in commission. When a ship enters harbour for the last time, it will hoist the Paying Off Pennant, which is the same as the Commissioning Pennant, except it is as long as the ship itself!
20 Hoisting ProceduresReading a Mast, Colours, Evening Colours, Half Mast, and Dressing Overall.BACK
21 Hoisting Procedures Tack line – Break between flags GaffMast headYardarmStarboard OuterPort OuterStarboard InnerPort InnerHalyardTack line – Break between flagsBend on – Clipping on flagsExecute – Pull the signal down fastHoist – to haul a flag upDip – to bring 1/3 downClose up – Bring the flags to the top
22 Hoisting Procedures – Half Mast ColoursEnsign is hauled to the top of the mast in 20 seconds. Break for 2 marching paces, then slowly lower the ensign between 1/3 and ½ of the way down the mast.Evening Colours / SunsetEnsign is slowly raised to the top of the mast head. Break for 2 marching paces, then ensign is lowered fully in 40 seconds.
23 Dressing ShipAccession Day 6th FebCommonwealth Day - 2nd Monday in MarchQueens birthday - April 21stQueens Official Birthday - Date PublishedCoronation Day - 2nd JunePrince Phillips Birthday - 10th JuneShips are to be dressed overall when in a foreign port on a day that the county would dress ship, like 4th of July in the USA
24 Manoeuvring Definitions & Procedures Relative Bearings, True Bearings, The Guide and Movement Restrictions.BACK
25 Manoeuvring Definitions Formation – The way a group of ships are organised to operate as.Corpen – “Course Pennant” - WheelingTurn – Turning fully.Speed – The speed at which the formation should be operating at.Guide – The ship flying “Golf”, ship is the leader, and all are to form on, or take a bearing off this ship.
26 Bearings A true bearing of 315 A true bearing of 090 A TRUE BEARING has 3 figures and is displayed on a compass rose.A RELATIVE BEARING has 1 or 2 figures, and “ANS” if it is .5. For example, if a ship was facing a true bearing of 000, to turn to starboard 45*, the relative bearing would be “STBD 4ANS” - STBD 45000315045A true bearing of 315A true bearing of 090270090135225180
27 The GuideThe Guide Ship will usually have the OTC (Officer in Tactical Command) onboardThe Guide will ALWAYS hoist flag GOLF to show it is guide.When a formation wheels using Corpen, the pivot ship will become guide.If the Guide sheers from formation, the next ship in sequence number becomes Guide.
28 Movement Restrictions When in Column, ships can wheel up to 180°.When in Line Abreast, ships can wheel up to 90°.When on a Line of Bearing, ships can not wheel.Ships can turn 180° to Port or Starboard.
29 Distances between Ships A Large Ship is a ship over 450 feet in length.A Small Ship is a ship under 450 feet in length.The distance between 2 large ships should be 1000 yards.The distance between 1 large ship and 1 small ship should be 1000 yards.The distance between 2 small ships should be 500 yards.The distance between ships is measured from foremast to foremast.
31 Formations Form 1 – Ships form column in order of sequence numbers. Form 2 – Ships form column in reverse order of sequence numbers.Form 3 – Ships form line abreast to starboard in order of sequence numbers.Form 4 – Ships form line abreast to port in order of sequence.
36 Types of Communications and Types of Call signs BACK
37 Types of Communication Radio’sPyrotechnics (fire, flares etc.)Visual (flags, semaphore, Morse by Light)Audible (bells, whistles, talking, audible Morse)Can you think of any more?
38 Types of Call signInternational – used mainly in Admin Voice, an international callsign will be unique depending on your country and area. MFK58 is an International Call sign.Tactical – used for Tactical Voice, these are Alpha Numeric (one letter, one number). A3 is a Tactical Callsign.Visual – used in flaghoists, directional and non directional Flashing Morse Exercises. These are the pennant numbers found on the side of ships, for example, RO7 is HMS Illustrious, D23 is HMS Bristol etc.
39 Communications Safety Fire Extinguishers and hazard awareness.BACK
40 Isolator SwitchIf you walk into a Comms Room and discover somebody on the floor, DO NOT touch them.A switch should be located on the same wall as the door to the Comms Room, called an Isolator Switch.Hit this switch, and all electronics in the room are cut off.Only once the isolator switch has been used should you attend the casualty.
41 Fire ExtinguisherA CARBON DIOXIDE fire extinguisher should be located near the isolator switch of the Comms Room.A CO2 Extinguisher will not damage your equipment.Be careful when handling a CO2 extinguisher, because they will cause Cold Burns, so handle them correctly.
42 Hazards Tripping Hazards (cables, chairs, feet etc) Radiation Hazards (from radio aerials and equipment)Electrocution Hazards (by drinking in Comms Rooms)Can you think of any more?
43 Practises and Responsibilities Forbidden Practises and Visual Operator ResponsibilitiesBACK
44 Forbidden PractisesThe following practises are specifically forbidden on Sea Cadet Circuits. Many are forbidden on the vast majority of other Radio Frequencies around the world. Infringement may result in the removal of an operator from the circuit, withdrawal of a Permit to Transmit and even, in some cases, criminal prosecution:
45 Forbidden Practises Transmission on a directed net without permission. Excessive tuning and testing.Unauthorised transmission of Place, Unit or Personal Names in Clear.Use of profane, indecent or obscene language.Use of excessive or unauthorised transmitting power.Transmitting at speeds beyond the capabilities of the receiving operator.Operation on a circuit by any person not holding a valid Permit to Transmit, except under the supervision and with the express permission of an Authorised Person.Use of unauthorised Callsigns, except where local Callsigns have been approved.Use of precedence Flash by SCC stations.
46 Visual Operator’s Responsibilities Ensuring no unauthorised transmissions are made.Giving an immediate answer to a call.Observing the following rules:Practices specifically FORBIDDEN -Unofficial conversation between operators.Transmitting an operator’s personal sign.Unauthorised use of plain language in place of authorised Prosigns or operating signals.Use of profane, indecent or obscene language.Practises to be AVOIDED –Use of too wide a beam or too bright a light.Transmitting too fast for the receiving operator to read.
48 Saying the Delayed Executive Method If you wanted to make all ships turn 90° to starboard, you would SAY over the radio the following:The orderZ0, this is A1, execute to follow, turn starboard 9, B2 over.Call sign for all shipsMeans you await a receiptYour CSMeans “await another message before executing it”Z0, this is A1, standby EXECUTE, C3 over.Means “Carry out the order......now”
49 So the radio transmission would go: Z0, this is A1, execute to follow, turn starboard 9, B2 over.This is B2, roger out.Z0 this is A1, standby execute, C3 over.This is C3, Roger out.
50 Writing the Delayed Executive Method You also have to log that transmission, so you would write:StarboardYour CSCS you want a receipt offTurnZ0 de A1 IX Tu STBD 9 B2 KoverAll shipsThis isRelative Bearing 90°Execute to followZ0 de A1 SB IX C3 KStand by Execute
51 So the log would look like: Z0 de A1 IX Tu STBD 9 B2 KDe B2 R +Z0 de A1 SB______IX C3 Kde C3 R +
52 Saying the Immediate Executive Method Basically, it is spoken nearly the same as the Delayed, however it is done immediately with no chance to respond, like so:Z0, this is A1, immediate execute, speed 30, I say again, speed 30, standby execute overAs you can see, it is all done in one message. It is vitally important you repeat the order, so everybody hears it. If by the time you have reached “standby” and your Captain is not ready to action the order, you continue saying “standby”. Standby....standby....standby......Execute. Everybody should receipt the order afterwards.
53 So the radio transmission would go: Z0, this is A1, immediate execute, speed 30, I say again, speed 30, standby execute over.This is B2, roger out.This is C3 roger out.ZO this is A1, roger out.
54 Writing the Immediate Executive Method Written in the same way as the delayed method, but all together:Speed 30Standby ExecuteZ0 de A1 IMIX SP30 ISA SP30 SB____________ IX KOverI say againImmediate ExecuteCall signs
55 So the log would look like: Z0 de A1 IMIX SP30 ISA SP30 SB____________ IX Kde B2 R +de C3 R +Z0 de A1 R +
56 Admin Voice ProcedureTransmitting priority messages, test transmission, radio check and time check.BACK
57 Radio CheckTo ensure your radios are all working, it is necessary to do a Radio Check before transmitting:GALL this is GCON, Radio Check overthis is GLEA, roger overthis is GSYL, roger overthis is GTOR roger overGALL this is GCON roger out.
58 Radio CheckIf the signal you receive is not “loud and clear” (which is demonstrated by replying ROGER), then you can replace ROGER and use the following:Signal StrengthLoudGoodWeakVery WeakFadingReadabilityClearReadableDistortedWith InterferenceIntermittentSo a radio check could go:GLEA this is GCON Radio Check overthis is GLEA, fading and distorted overGLEA this is GCON roger out
59 Time CheckSometimes it is necessary to check the time over radio. Done like so:GLEA this is GCON request time check, overthis is GLEA wait out.GCON this is GLEA time check at 1812Z seconds seconds TIME 1812Z overthis is GCON roger outYou must wait until the countdown is in time with the clock.
60 Test TransmissionStations may want to test transmissions between another station. You can do this by doing the following:GLEA this is GCON Request test transmission, overthis is GLEA Testing overthis is GCON roger out
61 Submitting Priority Messages You should now fill in a Message form as shown by your instructor. Then the following will happen:GALL this is GCON, This is a directed net, I am control, of what precedence and for whom are your messages? OverThis is GLEA, priority for GTOR overThis is GTOR, no traffic overThis is GSYL, routine for GLEA over.From the above, each operator should create a traffic list, showing which call sign has what message for whom.
62 Next stageOnce you have created your traffic list, control will request for messages to be sent, going in priority of precedence:The receiver of the message must receipt here to show the sender you are listening.GLEA this is GCON send your priority overthis is GTOR overthis is GLEA, priority for GTON.(here you go through your message; DTG, From, To, Info, // unclass. SIC: Message //) Overthis is GCON roger outthis is GTOR roger outIf you didn’t hear a section of the message, you transmit “Say again all after/before ....” here
63 Practical Rigging (Aerials) Safety Checks and Maintenance on AerialsBACK
64 Safety ChecksAerials shouldn’t be more than 15m high if you are within one mile of an airfield.Remember to check the ground beneath you for pipes and wires, and check the area above you for pylons and extended cables or branches.Make sure that everybody on your team is paying attention while you erect and aerial.Make sure you are wearing hard hats at all times.
65 Maintenance on Aerials ALWAYS tell somebody that you are working on an aerial.Put a “Persons aloft” sign up.Take a buddy to help you out.Take the Safe to transmit keys out of the radios!!If there are no keys, remove the fuses.Wear the appropriate safety equipment.Cadets are discouraged to work on aerials. Your Unit Communications Instructor should do all necessary work.
66 The Basics, Pro Words, Precedence's and DTG’s Message HandlingThe Basics, Pro Words, Precedence's and DTG’sBACK
67 The BasicsA good communicator should always have the following at hand:A Pen (NEVER write in red!!)Pencil (Cross out mistakes, DON’T erase them!)Paper (Lined preferably, and lots of!)Carbon Paper (Makes copying messages easy!)Clipboard (Always handy, elastic band will stop paper from flapping!)Message Forms, Radio Operator Logs and Message Handling Logs
68 Date & Time GroupsDTGs, or Date and Time Groups are used to identify individual messages minutes, hours, days or weeks after they have been sent.151545zJUL08The year(2008)The day (15th)The month(July)The time(15.45)ZULU TimeEvery message you take should have a DTG for easy filing and future reference!!
69 Prosign’s AA – All After AB – All Before AR – End of transmission AS – WaitB – More to followBT – Long breakC – Correct or CorrectionDE – This isEEEEEEEE – ErrorFM – From (call sign)G – Read backGR – Group CountHM HM HM – Emergency SilenceII – Short breakSA – Say againINFO – Information (call sign follows)INT – InterrogativeK – Invitation to transmit (I require a reply)O – ImmediateP – PriorityR – RogerR - RoutineT – RelayTO – Action (call sign)WA – Word AfterWB – Word BeforeXMT – Exempt AddressZ - Flash
70 Precedence'sA Message should come with a precedence to show its importance:Flash (Z) – Not used by the SCC – emergency, for example enemy sightings.Immediate (O) – e.g. Require immediate medical assistance.Priority (P) – e.g. Require a new left propeller for when ship comes into port.Routine (R) – e.g. Need to order size 14 working boots from stores.
71 Remember PRACTISE everything in this power point as often as possible. This power point is only intended to lightly cover the main topics of the Radio Operator (Tactical) 2nd Class course, not teach it!!!If you thought RO2(T) was good fun, encourage others to do it, and go for your RO1(T)!!BACK