Presentation on theme: "AS Religious Ethics Revision Deontology & Kant. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS based on the idea that an act’s claim to being right or wrong is independent of the."— Presentation transcript:
AS Religious Ethics Revision Deontology & Kant
DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS based on the idea that an act’s claim to being right or wrong is independent of the consequences of that action.
As opposed to
TELEOLOGICAL ETHICS bases its judgements on the outcome of the action or its consequences.
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY Based on rationalism and empiricism
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY BUT
thought that the rationalists claimed too much for reason, and the empiricists emphasised sense experience too much
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY So, he went for a compromise!
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY all our knowledge of the world comes from sensation
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY BUT
Reason determines how we perceive the world around us!
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY We perceive the world initially in time and space
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY These two ‘ forms of intuition’ precede any experience that we might have
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY People are aware of a moral law at work within them
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY NOT as a vague feeling of something being right or wrong
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY But as a direct experience of something powerful
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe the oftener and more steadily we reflect on them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY We have a moral obligation to act in a certain way
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY DUTY
His exploration of what is good began with the good will
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY The attributes of the mind that are considered desirable can also be subverted into something bad
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY These desirable mental attributes (intelligence, wit, and so on) and the desires of most people for fame and fortune are held in check by the good will.
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY Thus, the good will is essential for happiness
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY Kant rooted the moral choice in the will of the agent – we are each responsible for our own actions!
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY The exercise of a person’s free will in an action becomes the basis on which that action is judged.
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY He believed that the senses (happiness or pleasure) could not be the source of moral choice (and thus rejected teleological theories)
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY He considered the reasons a person might have for carrying out an act
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY Which is why you have to learn his example of the ‘honest’ shopkeeper!
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY Kant argued that we follow a moral command because we feel that it is our DUTY
KANT’S PHILOSOPHY But how do we know what our duty is?