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OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2566.2.1 OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2566 part 2 Exercise and.

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Presentation on theme: "OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2566.2.1 OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2566 part 2 Exercise and."— Presentation transcript:

1 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2566 part 2 Exercise and Sport Physiology and the integration of knowledge of principles and concepts across different areas of Physical Education

2 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module INDEX 32 - FOOD FUEL UTILISATION DURING STRENGTH TRAINING 33 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING 34 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING 35 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING MUSCLE CELL 36 - LONG-TERM ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - ATP / PC STORES 37 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING 38 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING 39 - FLEXIBILITY 40 - FACTORS AFFECTING FLEXIBILITY 41 - EVALUATING FLEXIBILITY - FLEXIBILITY TESTS 42 - EVALUATING FLEXIBILITY - GONIOMETER 43 - MOBILITY TRAINING 44 - PHYS. ADAPTATIONS CAUSED BY MOBILITY TRAINING 45 - FLEXIBILITY AND YOUR PPP 46 - OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS 47 - OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS - MOTOR COMPONENTS 48 - OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS 49 - OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS - BODY COMPOSITION 50 - PHYSICAL ACTIVITY READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE - PARQ 51 - COMPONENTS OF FITNESS AND YOUR PPP 52 - ERGOGENIC AIDS 53 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - CARBOLOADING 54 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - EXAMPLE OF CARBOLOADING 55 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - CARBOLOADING 56 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - PRE / DURING / POST COMPETITION 57 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - DIETARY MANIPULATION 58 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - CREATINE / GLUTAMINE / CAFFEINE 59 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - BLOOD DOPING / rEPO 60 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - ALTITUDE TRAINING 61 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - MECHANICAL 62 - ERGOGENIC AIDS - ILLEGAL PHARMACEUTICAL Index max 3 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - OXYGEN UPTAKE - VO 2 / VO 2 max 4 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - FACTORS AFFECTING VO 2 max 5 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - FACTORS AFFECTING VO 2 max 6 - AEROBIC CAPACITY ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING 7 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - AEROBIC FITNESS TESTS 8 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - IMPORTANCE 9 - TYPES OF TRAINING USED TO DEVELOP AEROBIC CAPACITY CONTINUOUS / INTERVAL / FARTLEK TRAINING 10 - MONITORING EXERCISE INTENSITY - TARGET HEART RATE 11 - FOOD FUEL USAGE FOR AEROBIC ACTIVITY 12 - FOOD FUEL USAGE FOR AEROBIC ACTIVITY - FUEL SOURCES 13 - FOOD FUEL UTILISATION DURING AEROBIC EXERCISE GLYSOGEN SPARING 14 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - ADAPTATIONS 15 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - VASCULAR / CARDIAC RESPONSES 16 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - TRAINING / RESPIRATORY / RECOVERY 17 - CELLULAR ADAPTATION PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING 18 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - MUSCLE / NEURAL RESPONSES 19 - STRENGTH 20 - STRENGTH - MAXIMAL / ELASTIC / STATIC / DYNAMIC EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH / STRENGTH ENDURANCE 21 - STRENGTH OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION - FACTORS AFFECTING 22 - FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH - MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE 23 - FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH - MUSCLE CSA / GENDER 24 - FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH - TYPE OF TRAINING 25 - FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH - TYPE OF CONTRACTION 26 - FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH - REGRESSION 27 - FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH - AGEING 28 - TRAINING METHODS - DEVELOPING STRENGTH 29 - TRAINING METHODS - INTERVAL TRAINING 30 - EXAMPLES OF TRAINING METHODS - STRENGTH 31 - EXAMPLES OF TRAINING METHODS - STRENGTH

3 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity OXYGEN UPTAKE - VO 2 amount of oxygen consumed per unit of time (usually 1 minute) expressed as VO 2 mean value at rest = 0.2 to 0.3 l min -1 VO 2 increases proportionally to work intensity up to a maximum value - called VO 2 max VO 2 max mean values are : males (20 yo)= 3.5 l min -1 = 40 ml kg -1 min -1 (for average male body mass 87.5 kg) females (20 yo)= 2.3 l min -1 = 35 ml kg -1 min -1 (for mean female body mass 66 kg) endurance athletes = 4 to 6 l min -1 = 75 ml kg -1 min -1 (for mean body mass 66 kg)

4 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity AEROBIC CAPACITY the ability to do physical work which is dependant on the aerobic mechanism of energy supply STEADY STATE the demands of the body for oxygen is balanced exactly by oxygen uptake FACTORS AFFECTING VO 2 max availability of O 2 in the tissue –whether haemoglobin arriving at tissue is fully saturated with O 2 –the limitations of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems which varies from individual to individual –whether myglobin in muscle cells is fully saturated with O 2 (has sufficient recovery time elapsed?) reduction in VO 2 max will cause decline in aerobic performance

5 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY FACTORS AFFECTING VO 2 max VO 2 max reduces at about 10% per decade during ageing - for sedentary people Aerobic Capacity women have greater reductions in VO 2 max from late teens onwards probably because of the tradition of less physical activity for women VO 2 max reduces less for active sportspeople as they age aerobic training can cause VO 2 max to be improved by %

6 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING cardiovascular system becomes more efficient heart becomes bigger and stronger and pumps more blood per pulse more haemoglobin is available in blood for oxygen transport capillary system in muscle bed is utilised better and developed pulmonary systems become more efficient musculature of torso becomes stronger and more efficient lung volumes increase slightly, greater volumes of air can be breathed per breath efficiency of alveoli improves, and more alveoli are utilised more myoglobin and mitochondria are created in muscle cells

7 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity AEROBIC FITNESS TESTS PREDICTED VO 2 max PWC 170 test –predicts the power output of a subject at a HR of 170 bpm –by measuring HR at a 100W cycle ergometer rating and 150W rating –when the subject is at a steady state –then projecting the results for power to a HR of 170 Cooper Run Test –measures the distance run in 12 minutes –and correlates this (as direct proportionality) to the VO 2 max NCF multistage shuttle run test (bleep test) –the subject runs a progressively quicker shuttle run to exhaustion –each step in the progression is numbered –the step reached by the subject is correlated to the VO 2 max the FITECH step test Queen’s College step test ACTUAL VO 2 max test a treadmill protocol which is a progressive test to exhaustion –the VO 2 is measured at each stage measuring exhaled air oxygen consumption

8 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity IMPORTANCE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY TO ENDURANCE PERFORMERS useful as an indicator showing athletes’ maximal physiological capacity repeated tests would show the effects of endurance training on VO 2 max GENDER DIFFERENCES sociocultural females carry more body fat females have lower Hb counts therefore less O 2 carrying capacity males produce more testosterone thereby increasing strength and efficiency of myocardial muscle PREDOMINANT MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE athletes with more slow twitch fibres can utilise O 2 more efficiently EXAMPLE OF SPORTING ACTIVITIES swimming (>200m) running (>800m) cross country skiing games lasting longer than a few minutes

9 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module TYPES OF TRAINING USED TO DEVELOP AEROBIC CAPACITY CONTINUOUS TRAINING exercise regimes lasting longer than 60 seconds involving low forces where breathing is comfortable and the activity is aerobic examples : –jogging, swimming, step aerobics Aerobic Capacity INTERVAL TRAINING characterised by sets, repetitions and rest relief example : –swimming : 2 sets of 10 at 50m at 70% effort with 30 seconds rest relief between repetitions, and 3 minutes rest between sets –circuit training, weight training FARTLEK TRAINING fartlek means ‘speed play’ pace is varied from sprinting to jogging this is a combined form of continuous and interval training normally performed in the countryside over 45 minutes or longer can include all round body exercises between running bouts helps develop VO 2 max and the recovery process

10 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module MONITORING EXERCISE INTENSITY TARGET HEART RATE a specific heart rate (HR) to be achieved and maintained during exercise if aerobic adaptations are to occur, training must take place at a HR above the aerobic threshold this theory is based on the fact that VO 2 is proportional to HR Aerobic Capacity AEROBIC TRAINING ZONE this is shown on graph which shows a range of HR values at which aerobic training should occur this will enable adaptations to occur which improve VO 2 max HR ESTIMATION HR will depend on fitness of athlete maximum HR HR max = age aerobic threshold (Karvonen) HR= HR rest + 0.6(HR max - HR rest ) example : –age = 20, HR rest = 70 bpm –HR max = = 200 bpm –aerobic threshold HR = ( ) = x 130 = = 148 bpm

11 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FOOD FUEL USAGE FOR AEROBIC ACTIVITY FOOD FUEL USAGE this depends on : –EXERCISE INTENSITY –EXERCISE DURATION AT REST ATP utilisation is slow a mixture of fats and carbohydrates is used to resynthesise ATP FOR LOW INTENSITY LONG DURATION AEROBIC ACTIVITY usage of a variety of fuels but mainly the oxidation of a mixture of CHO and fats the longer the exercise the bigger the proportion of ATP resynthesis provided by fats Aerobic Capacity

12 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FOOD FUEL USAGE FOR AEROBIC ACTIVITY SOURCES OF FUELS main source of CHO for muscular energy during exercise is glucose derived from stored muscle and liver glycogen lack of CHO fuel is the limiting factor for aerobic endurance performance main source of fat for muscular energy during exercise is free fatty acids (FFA) derived from triglycerides stored as adipose tissue under the skin and in muscle tissue triglycerides break down into FFA for entry into the aerobic energy system proteins become a significant source of energy only in extreme conditions when CHO and fats are depleted Aerobic Capacity

13 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FOOD FUEL UTILISATION DURING AEROBIC EXERCISE Aerobic Capacity GLYCOGEN SPARING AS A LONG-TERM ADAPTATION TO AEROBIC TRAINING for the person who has undertaken sustained aerobic training an adaptation is produced where fats are used earlier on in exercise thus conserving glycogen stores (respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indicates greater use of fats) the graph shows a higher proportion of fats utilised by the trained person thereby releasing CHO for higher intensity work

14 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING CARDIAC RESPONSE blood plasma volume increases with training therefore increased blood plasma volume enters left ventricle increasing the stretch of the ventricular walls by the Frank-Starling mechanism cardiac hypertrophy – heart becomes bigger and stronger (mainly left ventricle) increased ventricular muscle mass and stronger elastic recoil of the myocardium causes a more forceful contraction during ventricular systole therefore stroke volume increases and HR decreases (bradycardia) and hence providing more oxygen per pulse the net effect is up to 20% bigger stroke volume and greater oxygen delivery to muscles

15 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING cardiovascular system becomes more efficient VASCULAR RESPONSE more haemoglobin is created and is available in blood for oxygen transport capillary system in muscle bed is utilised better and developed there is increased capillarisation of trained muscle and improved dilation of existing capillaries due to increased blood volume increased elasticity and thickness of smooth muscle of arterial walls makes walls tougher and therefore less likely to stretch under pressure hence a more effective blood distribution this maintains blood pressure forcing blood through capillary network during ageing arteries lose muscle and hence stretch more under pressure hence greater BP required to force blood through capillary system heart has to work harder BLOOD VESSELS IN THE HEART blood flow to heart decreases because heart muscle is more efficient hence decrease in resting HR and increase in diastolic HR during maximal workloads

16 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING pulmonary systems become more efficient RESPIRATORY RESPONSE musculature of torso becomes stronger and more efficient lung volumes increase slightly, greater volumes of air can be breathed per breath increase in VC at the expense of RV hence decrease in breathing rate (f) at submaximal workloads and increase in breathing rate (f) at maximal workloads hence large increase in volume of air breathed per minute (VE) increase in pulmonary blood flow and plasma volume efficiency of alveoli improves, and more alveoli are utilised hence increased gaseous exchange and VO 2 max RECOVERY improved oxygen recovery with better muscle capillarisation and efficient cool-down, lactic acid removal is improved hence reduction in DOMS

17 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module CELLULAR ADAPTATION PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING Aerobic Capacity glycogen fats oxygen uptake glycogen fats oxygen uptake AFTER SEVERAL WEEKS OF AEROBIC TRAINING = SLOW TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type I) = FAST TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type II) (do not increase in size) BEFORE TRAINING

18 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic Capacity ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE more myoglobin is created in muscle cells more and bigger mitochondria in muscle cells increased oxidative enzymes glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, lipoprotein lipase hence increased activity of Kreb’s cycle and electron transport chain and increase in stores and utilisation of fat increase in stores of glycogen in muscle which enables more fuel to be available for aerobic work conversion of type IIb to type IIa fibres NEURAL RESPONSE better recruitment of slow twitch fibre motor units making muscle usage more efficient

19 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module STRENGTH Strength

20 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module STRENGTH Strength EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH the ability to apply as large a force as possible at speed measured using : standing long jump, vertical jump MAXIMAL STRENGTH force exerted by a muscle group (or combination) during a single maximal contraction (1 repetition maximum - 1RM) measured using : hand grip dynamometer STRENGTH ENDURANCE the ability to sustain powerful muscular contractions over a short period of time measured using : Wingate 30 second cycle ergometer test ELASTIC STRENGTH the ability to apply as large a force as possible using an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction measured using : rebound jump from a 0.3m box STATIC STRENGTH the ability to apply as large a force as possible without movement measured using : back dynamometer DYNAMIC STRENGTH the ability to apply as large a force as possible within a dynamic movement measured using : weight lifting movement (snatch)

21 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module STRENGTH OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION FACTORS AFFECTING THE STRENGTH OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION Strength

22 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH Strength MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE people inherit a tendency to have a majority of fast twitch or slow twitch fibres therefore strength is affected by fibre type distribution examples : –sprinters tend to have a majority of fast twitch type II –endurance athletes tend to have a majority of slow twitch type I percentage of fast and slow twitch muscle fibres compared to sporting activity % type I% type II malesfemalesmalesfemales distance runners cross country skiers cyclists m runners javelin throwers shot putters sprinters untrained

23 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH Strength MUSCLE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA gender is a significant factor because females in general have muscles with smaller cross section than males hence a smaller muscle mass on average for females by about 20% compared with males there is less total phosphagen available for maximal muscle contractions hence peak power on average 20% less for females compared with males apart from gender, muscle mass differences between individuals is a large factor when accounting for strength GENDER females have lower levels of lactic acid in their blood following maximal exercise compared with males this suggests that female capacity for utilising glycolysis is lower females tend to have a higher proportion of body fat than males hence females would have a lower strength to weight ratio because of this factor

24 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH Strength TYPE OF RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMME USED the following table shows a comparison of the effect of different types of resistance training on the possible effects produced criterionisokineticisometricisotonic rate of strength gainexcellentpoorgood rate of endurance gainexcellentpoorgood strength gain over range of motionexcellentpoorgood time per training sessiongoodexcellentpoor expensepoor excellentgood ease of performancegoodexcellentpoor ease of progress assessmentpoorgoodexcellent adaptability to specific movement patternsexcellentpoorgood least possibility of muscle sorenessexcellentgoodpoor least possibility of injuryexcellentgoodpoor skill improvementexcellentpoorgood

25 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH Strength TYPE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION TAKING PLACE the following graph show the relationship between force produced during eccentric, static and concentric contraction against rate of muscle contraction eccentric work exceeds the isometric maximum by about 30% this is because the body is able to mobilise a greater number of motor units and hence muscle force the extra force attempts to prevent full lengthening of the muscle which would reduce injury risk caused by stretching a muscle under full tension this large force acts to brake and control the movement

26 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH Strength REGRESSION OR DETRAINING there is evidence that once training stops, there is a reduction in strength adaptations (and other training adaptations) the amount and rate of regression depends on the length of time training has occurred hence short term gains in strength are quickly lost after ceasing training

27 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH Strength AGEING maximal anaerobic power for both males and females decreases after 25 years

28 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module TRAINING METHODS Strength TRAINING METHODS FOR DEVELOPING STRENGTH

29 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module TRAINING METHODS Strength INTERVAL TRAINING this is a training method in which bouts of training are separated by periods of rest-relief during the bouts of training exercises are repeated (repetitions) and grouped into blocks (sets) with rest relief between sets the exercise type and loading, number of repetitions and sets, and length of rest relief governs the strength effect produced : –maximum strength –explosive strength –elastic strength –static strength –dynamic strength –strength endurance

30 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module EXAMPLES OF TRAINING METHODS Strength TRAINING FOR : MAXIMUM STRENGTH choose weight training strength exercises sets of low repetitions ( 85% of 1 RM) up to 10 minutes rest relief between sets EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH choose exercises which utilise this feature (sprint start, standing long jump, overhead shot throw) single efforts at 100% effort (but operated at speed) with full recovery rest relief (1 to 10 minutes) ELASTIC STRENGTH choose plyometric exercises (jumping, bounding, medicine ball exercises)which utilise eccentric movements at 100% effort sets of repetitions with medium recovery (1-3 minutes)

31 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module EXAMPLES OF TRAINING METHODS Strength TRAINING FOR : STATIC STRENGTH single repetition static exercises at maximum (100%) intensity for efforts of 10 seconds with 60 seconds rest relief between efforts DYNAMIC STRENGTH choose weight training movements made at full speed - near sport demand (but at % of 1RM) sets of repetitions with short recovery (1 - 2 minutes) STRENGTH ENDURANCE use any exercises which can be performed for many repetitions weight training / circuit training / stage training / resistance training (running uphill or towing a tyre) repetitions at % of 1RM single or multiple sets with short or zero rest-relief

32 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FOOD FUEL UTILISATION DURING STRENGTH TRAINING Strength ENERGY SYSTEMS HIGH INTENSITY MAXIMAL WORK FOR LESS THAN 8 seconds the PC alactic energy system provides the majority of ATP resynthesis for this period food fuels used are direct use of PC stored in the muscle cell then those involved in the oxygen recovery phase after exercise which is an aerobic process, and inputs food fuel from mostly CHO and some fats HIGH INTENSITY WORK FOR UP TO 60 seconds (STRENGTH ENDURANCE) the lactic acid energy system provides the bulk of ATP for this period food fuels used directly are muscle glycogen via glycolysis then those involved in the oxygen recovery phase after exercise

33 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING Strength

34 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module Strength ATP CP glycogen glycolytic enzymes lactic acid ATP CP glycogen glycolytic enzymes lactic acid AFTER SEVERAL WEEKS OF STRENGTH (ANAEROBIC) TRAINING = SLOW TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type I) (starts small gets smaller) = FAST TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type II) (starts big gets bigger) MUSCLE CELL BEFORE TRAINING ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING

35 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING Strength MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE (FAST TWITCH FIBRES) muscle hypertrophy (of fast twitch fibres) increases cross sectional area of existing fibres by increasing : –number of myofibrils within each muscle cell –sarcoplasmic volume –contractile proteins : actin and myosin –mass of fast twitch fibres –number of fast twitch fibres (hyperplasia) hence % of type II increases and % of type I decreases increase in muscle cell stores such as ATP, PC, and glycogen increase in anaerobic enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK), PFK, GPP, and LDH increase toleration of lactate in fast twitch fibres improved ability to remove lactate from muscle cell into blood therefore enhancement of alactic / lactate and lactate / aerobic thresholds - delay in OBLA hence improved capacities of alactic and lactic acid systems to resynthesise ATP and ability to maintain maximal power output for longer decrease in DOMS, particularly following eccentric training

36 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module LONG-TERM ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING Strength LONG-TERM ADAPTATIONS TO AN ANAEROBIC TRAINING PROGRAMME increases in stores of ATP and PC and amounts of anaerobic enzymes such as creatine kinase result in more energy to be available more rapidly and therefore increases in maximum possible peak power and a delay in the ATP/PC to lactic threshold

37 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING Strength NEURAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSE increased rate of response of CNS (Central Nervous System) recruitment of additional fast twitch fibre motor units improved coordination of fast twitch fibre motor units toughening of proprioceptors so that more force is required to stimulate inhibitory signals CONNECTIVE TISSUE RESPONSE increase in thickness and strength of tendons increased flexibility of ligaments thickening and improved elasticity of cartilage strengthening of bone tissue due to increased depositing of calcium therefore reduced risk of injury

38 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING Strength INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE adaptive response depends on individual –fitness –cultural differences –gender –psychological factors –maturation SWEATING improved ability to sweat more efficient heat loss REGRESSION when training stops, adaptive responses cease the longer the training the more stable the adaptation

39 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FLEXIBILITY Flexibility

40 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FACTORS AFFECTING FLEXIBILITY Flexibility FACTORS AFFECTING FLEXIBILITY bony features of a joint length and position of tendons and ligaments elasticity of muscle tissue elasticity of skin muscle temperature –warm-up improves flexibility gender differences –females are generally more flexible then males ageing –flexibility decreases with age body composition –the proportions of muscle and fat

41 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module EVALUATING FLEXIBILITY Flexibility FLEXIBILITY TESTS in the diagrams, the red arrow shows the distance measured to assess flexibility

42 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module EVALUATING FLEXIBILITY Flexibility THE GONIOMETER a device containing a 180 o protractor for measuring the maximum angle turned through by the bones at a joint which is then a measure of the flexibility of the joint the centre of a goniometer is positioned at the axis of rotation of the joint the arms of the goniometer are aligned with the long axis of the two bones which articulate at the joint

43 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module MOBILITY TRAINING Flexibility

44 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS CAUSED BY MOBILITY TRAINING Flexibility ADAPTATIONS limited stretching of soft tissues : –ligaments –tendons increase in resting / residual length –skeletal muscle tissue inhibition of stretch reflex as muscle spindles lengthen –the stretch reflex limits flexibility –therefore this inhibition would improve flexibility

45 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module FLEXIBILITY AND YOUR PPP Flexibility YOU SHOULD INCLUDE IN YOUR PPP evidence of mobility training undertaken to improve flexibility lists of exercises and their place in your schedule –duration of exercise –numbers of repetitions plans for flexibility training as part of your overall training plan for your chosen activity analysis of your chosen needs for flexibility

46 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS Body Composition etc

47 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS Body Composition etc AGILITY the ability to rapidly change body position and direction in a precise manner measured using : Illinois agility run improved using : agility circuits COORDINATION ability to perform smooth and accurate motor tasks measured using : juggling improved using : –training practices in which new skills are presented and learnt –new motor programmes are being developed REACTION TIME time interval between presentation of a stimulus and the muscular response measured using : –stick drop test –computer timing programme improved using : –new tests which will assist recruitment of motor-unit firing patterns –particularly fast twitch units –reaction time computer games –practice with electronic timing of starts from blocks

48 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS Body Composition etc SPEED the maximum rate at which a person can move his / her body measured using : –30m sprint improved using : –speed training using timing devices –improvements in the technical sprinting model –exercises whose aim is to move more rapidly as opposed to strong but slow –this improves the recruitment of fast twitch motor-units to enable the learning of rapid movements BALANCE ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support STATIC BALANCE ability to hold a stationary balance measured using : –length of time a beam balance can be held improved using : –wobble board drills in which the aim is to vary balance postures under control of the performer DYNAMIC BALANCE balance under changing conditions of body movement, shape and orientation

49 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module OTHER COMPONENTS OF FITNESS Body Composition etc BODY COMPOSITION relative percentage of muscle, fat and bone measured using : –skinfold measurements using the J-P nomogram –body composition scales using bioelectrical impedance analysis –underwater weighing improved using : –a balanced diet –consideration of energy balance –a weight control programme A BALANCED DIET has low fat, high carbohydrate intake a balance of minerals, vitamins sufficient protein for your activity ENERGY BALANCE when balanced : energy input = energy output (from food) (using exercise) negative energy balance : energy output > energy input leads to weight loss, reduction in body fat positive energy balance : energy input > energy output leads to weight gain, increase in body fat A WEIGHT CONTROL PROGRAMME exercise of at least 30 min duration low to moderate intensity an aerobic HR = 70% of HRmax promotes use of fat as a secondary food fuel long term

50 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module PHYSICAL ACTIVITY READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE - PARQ YOUR PARQ you should administer to yourself a questionnaire which establishes on medical grounds whether you should undertake demanding fitness tests SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE answer the questions carefully and as accurately as you can have you recently experienced breathing difficulties? have you experienced any chest pain recently? has your doctor ever indicated to you that you may have heart trouble? have you ever experienced back pain? have you recently been absent from college / school with illness? are you aware of any possible problems with high blood pressure? have you any muscle injury condition which may require further rest before exercising? have you any bone or joint injury or problem which might be made worse with exercise? have you any other condition which might affect your performance in your proposed tests? use common sense when deciding whether or not you should undertake a test Components of Fitness

51 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module COMPONENTS OF FITNESS AND YOUR PPP RECORDING YOUR FITNESS TESTS you should make time to undertake a series of fitness tests and record the results in your PPP consult your PARQ beforehand, and take care with maximal tests this should be done several times during your course to enable you to assess the effectiveness of your personal training and any physiological adaptations induced by training elements which could be assessed (students are not expected to do tests unless they are relevant to their sporting activity) : –strength –flexibility –body composition –speed –endurance –agility –power –balance –reaction time –coordination Components of Fitness

52 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement

53 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION CARBOLOADING aims to raise muscle glycogen stores above their normal resting levels prior to endurance competitions with over 90 minutes continuous activity suitable for activities with low anaerobic and high aerobic components based on : depletion - prolonged exercise to reduce levels of liver and muscle glycogen stores - at least seven days before event repletion - a high CHO diet in the period (three to four days) before activity combined with light exercise or rest also suitable for activities lasting minutes with a two day high CHO diet beforehand ERGOGENIC AID any substance or method which enhances performance

54 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION - AN EXAMPLE OF CARBOLOADING Carbohydrate loading (new technique after Williams 1998) Endurance tapertapertapertapertapertaper trainingtraining training training trainingtraining training day 1day 2day 3day 4day 5day 6day 7race normal moderate  high  dietCHO diet CHO diet this technique omits the glycogen depletion phase associated with earlier methods

55 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS - CARBOLOADING Performance Enhancement CARBOLOADING THE IMPORTANCE OF HIGH GLYCOGEN CONTENT IN MUSCLE BEFORE A MARATHON RACE the graph shows that a runner’s time would increase by more than 10 minutes in a 2 hour run if muscle glycogen is at 50% of its maximum possible the effect of reduced muscle glycogen begins to be felt at the 1 hour mark

56 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION PRECOMPETITION NUTRITION fluids for hydration light complex CHO such as pasta / wholemeal bread at least 3 hours before activity fruit (banana) contains complex CHO and small amounts of glucose effect is to provide the slow release of blood glucose and reduce hunger sensations FOOD / FLUID INTAKE DURING OR IN BETWEEN EXERCISE water loss of as little as 2% to 3% can reduce performance hence an isotonic sports drink including very diluted sodium and glucose content prevents dehydration and supplements energy reserves or just take water POST COMPETITION / TRAINING NUTRITION hypertonic sports drink immediately after exercise has finished begins replenishment of blood glucose and glycogen store a high CHO meal within 15 minutes of exercise ending continues glycogen replenishment

57 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION the following graph shows the influence of dietary carbohydrate on muscle glycogen stores repeated daily exercise of 2 hours is followed by a either a high CHO or low CHO diet

58 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION creatine is a substance found in skeletal muscle stored as phosphocreatine (PC) supplementation increases PC levels to enhance the ATP-PC system of ATP resynthesis thereby delaying the alactic / lactic threshold GLUTAMINE is an amino acid forming part of skeletal muscle and immune cells supplementation after exercise therefore reinforces the immune system and reduces the risk of infection CAFFEINE stimulates the CNS but acts as a diuretic - this can lead to dehydration illegal in large quantities ALCOHOL a relaxant in quite small quantities absorbed into the body as an alternative to water therefore causes dehydration quite small quantities of alcohol can cause a drastic loss of performance

59 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement ILLEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL BLOOD DOPING involves the removal of athlete’s own blood which is then stored the athlete’s body then remanufactures blood to replace that taken then the stored blood is reinfused this temporarily increases red blood cell count (polycythemia) problem of mis-matching can lead to a transfusion reaction increases VO 2 max and hence energy delivery to enhance aerobic performances rEPO involves infusion of hormone recombinant erythropoietin 6 weeks prior to major event stimulating erythrocytes (up to 10% more) - red blood cells increases VO 2 max and hence energy delivery to enhance aerobic performances but elevates red blood cell production that can reach toxic life-threatening levels other risks are blood clots, strokes / coronary thrombosis, very low resting heart rates

60 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement LEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTITUDE TRAINING a predominantly endurance-based exercise programme used by elite endurance athletes from a range of sports consisting of 2 visits of at least two weeks duration per visit, to altitude (normally between metres) second visit just prior to major competition training at altitude uses the fact that the body will create more haemoglobin to compensate for the reduction in oxygen available benefits : reversible physiological adaptations –increased Hb concentration –increases in myoglobin mitochondria and oxidative enzymes hence on return to sea level we have an increased VO 2 max and tissue cell respiration leading to enhanced aerobic performance risks : hypoxia, altitude sickness PSYCHOLOGICAL imagery / hypnosis stimulate mental rehearsal of relevant skills by activating neural pathways that reinforce skill THERAPIES physiotherapy / acupuncture / herbal medicines used in injury treatment reduce muscle soreness and aid recovery of local damaged tissue

61 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement MECHANICAL NASAL STRIPS use of sticky plaster placed over bridge of nose to enlarge nasal cavity enables easier breathing SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT carbon fibre bike frames are lighter and aerodynamically more efficient specialist training machines –concept II ergo rower –swimming ergo –flumes for rowing / swimming / canoeing –treadmill SPECIALIST CLOTHING cycling helmets and lycra sports clothing reduces air resistance Denise Lewis one shoulder javelin suit, bench press and squatting suits –provide extra force in required directions

62 OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module ERGOGENIC AIDS Performance Enhancement ILLEGAL PHARMACEUTICAL AMPHETAMINES act as CNS stimulants to increase arousal levels BETA BLOCKERS reduce HR and BP thereby reducing tension, but can lead to heart failure HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH) stimulates bone growth and increased lean body mass give artificial increased strength / power outputs ANABOLIC STEROIDS increase lean body mass, but reduce natural secretions of gonadotrophins females acquire masculine features such as facial and body hair and deep voices give artificial increased strength / power outputs


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