5 The new conditions insecurities unsustainability uncertainty dense interdependencestressesglobalisationcomplexityecosystem degradationinequity
6 Whole systems thinking “When we limit ourselves to fragmented approaches to dealing with systemic problems, it is not surprising that our solutions prove inadequate. If our species is to survive the predicaments we have created for ourselves, we must develop a capacity for whole-systems thought and action.”- David Korten, 1995, 11
7 Mismatch ‘The world is a complex, interconnected, finite, ecological-social-psychological-economic system. We treat it as if it were not, as if it were divisible, separable, simple, and infinite. Our persistent, intractable, global problems arise directly from this mismatch.’- Donella Meadows, 1982
9 ‘To live in the third millenium we shall need more than incremental improvements on our current rationality; we shall need new thinking joined with new ways of perceiving and visioning ourselves, others, nature and the world around us.’- Ervin Laszlo 1997
10 Thinking differently‘…proper understanding of the way the world works requires people to learn how to think systemically, holistically, integratively, and in a futures mode.’Lester Milbrath ‘Envisioning a Sustainable Society’New Thinking for a New Millenium, 1996
11 Challenge and ‘response - ability’ Reorientation… part 2Challenge and ‘response - ability’Why a change of educational culture?
12 The ability to respond… SUSTAIN – ABILITYRESPONSE – ABILITY
13 ‘Daunting agenda…exciting possibilities’ Power civilisation by sunlightGrow food and fibre sustainablyDis-invent the concept of wastePreserve biodiversityRestore ruined ecologiesReduce materials, water and land use per headRethink the political basis of modern societiesDevelop economies that can be sustained withinnature’s limitsDistribute wealth fairly within and between generations- Prof David OrrNine challenges(
14 Re-learningThis century may well be one of relearning on a grand scale…This learning…needs to be a core part of learning across society, necessitating a metamorphosis of many of our current education and learning constructs.- Sea Change –Learning and education for sustainability, NZ Parliamentary Commission for the Environment, 2004
15 Learning levelsdifferent levels and qualities of learning.
16 From accommodation to systemic change ‘The biggest challenge for educationalistsis the proposition thateducation for sustainable developmentcannot simply be added onto existing learning,but requires a systemic changeto the learning processand priorities in education’.- From Here to SustainabilityThe Real World Coalition, Earthscan, 2001
17 Metaphysics/cosmology Levels of knowingActionsIdeas/theoriesNorms/assumptionsBeliefs/valuesParadigm/worldviewMetaphysics/cosmologyActionsIdeas/theoriesNorms/assumptionsBeliefs/valuesParadigm/worldviewMetaphysics/cosmology
18 Levels of educational thinking PracticeProvisionPolicyPurposeParadigm
19 Towards sustainable education Reorientation… Part 3Towards sustainable educationHow do we underpin a collaborative culture?
20 A different way of looking at education? Possible characteristics… integrative/relational/holistichuman-scale and participativelearner-centredcritical and systemicreal-world and future orientedexperientialvalues-basedtransformative
21 ‘Sustainable Education’ Does sustainabilityrequire:‘Re-Visioning Learning and Change?
22 Sustainable education? Sustaining - people, communities, ecosystemsTenable - ethically defensible, working with integrity, fairness, respect, inclusivenessHealthy - systems and subsystemsI
24 Learning ‘as’ sustainability Sustainable development valuesself-organisationdevelopment and conservation of potentialresiliencecommunityEducational valuesautonomycapacity-buildingparticipationcollaboration
25 Reorientation… Part 4 Realising paradigms What are the implications for change?
26 Levels of educational thinking PracticeProvisionPolicyPurposeParadigm
28 Choose your metaparadigm… MechanismObjectivistReductionist, dualistic ReductiveEcology/living systemsParticipativeHolistic, integrativeSystemicMetaphor:Epistemology:Ontology:Methodology:
29 Choose your metaphor…. Mechanistic view of educationReductionist view of knowledgeDeficit view of learnerTransmissive model of pedagogyEcological (relational) view of educationHolistic view of knowledgeAppreciative view of learnerTransactional or transformative view of pedagogyI
30 Choose your approach… Mechanistic Ecological instrumental values prescriptiveoutputs and fixed outcomescontrolEcologicalintrinsic values firstindicativeemergence and open outcomesparticipationI
31 Purposes of education Vocational - preparing for economic life Socialisation - reproduction of culture, promotion of citizenshipLiberal - developing individual’s potentialTransformative - education for change, for a better world
32 ‘Where we are’ (dominant ideas) Purpose - education as preparation for economic lifePolicy education as product (courses/qualifications)Practice - education as instruction
33 ‘Where we need to go’ (newer ideas) Purpose - education for sustainable society, economy and ecologyPolicy education as process of individual and social capacity buildingPractice - education as participative learning
34 From control to participation Overspecialisation and fragmentationSingle issue managementTop-down policy makingDisciplinarityGoal oriented planningTOWARDS:More integrated structuresIntegrated decision-makingParticipative approachesInter and trans disciplinarityAdaptive management
35 Shifts in curriculum, content and process Curriculum as top-down ‘product’Fixed knowledgeAbstract knowledgeTeaching/instructionFew learning stylesPassive learningCurriculum as experience/situated learningProvisional knowledgeReal world knowledgeParticipative learningMultiple learning stylesReflective/active learning.
36 Shifts in structures and policy DisciplinaritySpecialisationExternal assessmentTeaching systemFormal educationInter and transdisciplinarityBroadness and flexibilityContinous internal assessment and reflectionLearning system(As part of) life-long education
37 Towards sustainable institutions Systemic coherence and synergyHuman scaleOpen communityLearning organisationMicrocosm of sustainable societyFROMIncoherence and fragmentationLarge scaleClosed communityTeaching organisationMicrocosm of unsustainable society.
39 Reorientation… Part 5Getting there...Journeying with inspiration…
40 Significant change depends on... a) A deeper critique - of current trendsb) A broader vision - of necessary alternativesc) An effective strategy - of systemic change
41 Learning responses to the challenge of sustainability No response - no changeAccommodation - green ‘gloss’Reformation - serious reformTransformation - whole system redesign
42 Different levels of engagement Education about sustainability: content and/or estate emphasis. Fairly easily accommodated into existing system. Learning about change.Education for sustainability: values and skills emphasis. Greening of institutions. Deeper questioning and reform of purpose, policy and practice. Learning for change.Sustainable education: Capacity building and action emphasis. Sustainable institutions/communities. Learning as change.
43 Learning points from AFANet Sustainability is imprecise.Integrating sustainability requires the re-thinking of institutional purposes.Sustainability is complex and multifaceted.Teaching it requires the transformation of mental models.Programming sustainability requires a rethinking of teaching and learning.There is no universal blueprint for educational change towards sustainability.
44 Two sorts of change Piecemeal change Systemic change changing parts of a systemno consideration of system as a wholeoften imposedoften short-livedSystemic changechange with effect on whole system in mindchange with emergence in mindby purposeful, collaborative designoften long-lived
45 Ingredients of systemic change Endorsement from the topInclusionCollaborative ethosAction research and feedbackEncouraging reflectionHigh levels of connectivity and communication‘Champions’ and keeniesActive alliances outside systemExemplarsLeadershipChannels and publicity to spread innovationAppreciative cultureResources/supportRewardsAND…?
46 Designing fulfilling learning environments…eg. reflective learning for individuals and the institutioncooperation and shared purposethe enjoyment of learningservice and creating opportunity for servicetreading lightly and living simplythe intrinsic value of work of all kindscelebrating diversityrecognising limitationsa good experience for everyone- Schumacher College values
47 Sustainability values EfficiencySufficiencyEquity and justiceCommunityDiversityInclusionDemocracySubsidiaritySelf-relianceParticipationFuturity and trusteeshipResilience and durabilitySystem health
49 Guiding principles Extension - inclusive boundaries Linking - understanding connectionsIntegration- towards systems health
50 Implement strategies eg… Regarding what we do now:What is of value that we need to keep?What might need modification?What do we probably need to abandon?What new ideas, principles, methodologies, working methods, or policies are needed?
51 Reasons to be cheerful? HEFCE Policy Sustainable Development in HE HEA research on ‘Embedding ESD’ and 5 yr programmeThree ESD-related CETLs and networkNational networks: Forum’s HEPS, DEA, EAUCEducation Commissioner - Sustainable Development CommissionUN Decade of ESDInternational networks and agreements eg Global HE for Sustainability Partnership (GHESP), IAU
52 ‘Vision is absolutely necessary to guide and motivate action ‘Vision is absolutely necessary to guide and motivate action. More than that, vision, when widely shared and firmly kept in sight, brings into being new systems’. - Donella Meadows, Beyond the Limits to Growth, 1992