Presentation on theme: "E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 1 Excreta Disposal in Emergencies Session 8 Operation & Maintenance."— Presentation transcript:
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 1 Excreta Disposal in Emergencies Session 8 Operation & Maintenance
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 2 Operation & maintenance What does O&M cover? North Sudan, Medair
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 3 Operation & maintenance Cleanliness Hygiene promotion Participation and ownership Supervision Hand washing Menstrual hygiene Fly control Anal cleansing material Access & lighting Fill rate & life span Desludging.
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 4 Latrine Attendants –Over 60,000 people –95 attendants –3 attendants per block, working 3 shifts a day –Clean area and slabs –Provide water for handwashing –Light lamps for ease of access at night Photos: Kalma Camp, Darfur: Alun McDonald, Oxfam. Kalma Camp Darfur example
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 5 Try to implement / allocate latrines for groups of related families or at least allocate to specific families – e.g. Afghanistan: Latrines were allocated on a case by case basis to groupings of related families Exact site of the pit was decided together with the users Due to the families being related, men/women were able to share the same pit Non-allocated communal latrines that are randomly spaced within a camp will have ownership problems and therefore cleaning / hygiene problems Latrine allocation
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 6 Latrine cleaning FamilyCommunal Why is this important? How will it be organised?
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 7 Don’t forget to plan ahead Latrines become full sooner or later, and you should have a plan in place to re-dig new pits, or to get families to take the responsibility from the outset To plan ahead, you need to know how long a latrine will last for.... Latrine sizing
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 8 Volume = (N x S x D) + 0.5A Pit volume Leave top 0.5 metre…so 1 x 2.5 = 2.5 m3 useable pit volume Volume = N x S x D 2.5 = 50 x 90 x D 1000 D = 2.5/(50 x 0.09) = 0.55 years Volume = (N x S x D) + 0.5A 1000 N = Number of users S = Sludge accumulation (l / person / year) D = Design life (year) A = Pit base area (m 2 ) Note: 0.5A is your allowance of 0.5m unused at the top of the pit. Pit size example
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 9 Sludge Disposal A full pit latrine can be: Covered with soil, and re-dug elsewhere Emptied manually (to be avoided if possible) e.g. Katale refugee camp, Goma. Desludged with a vacuum tanker e.g. Mozambique floods, 2000.
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 10 HP Enables people to take action to prevent or mitigate water, sanitation, and hygiene related diseases. Consult with affected men, women, and children on design of facilities, hygiene kits, and outreach system Establish a voluntary system of cleaning and maintenance, or train latrine attendants Identify, organise, and train water and sanitation committees Monitor acceptability of facilities and health impact Promote key hygiene messages such as hand washing Hygiene Promotion: Action & Dialogue
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 11 Other O&M Issues: Anal cleansing Culturally appropriate cleansing material (wet or dry) What’s available locally Hygiene promotion messages (e.g not putting plastic bottles down latrine)
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 12 Menstrual Hygiene Screened toilet and bathing unit, Pakistan, 2005. Women need space to wash privately and cleanse/dry menstrual cloths Washing area Soap provision Water drainage Drying lines From Oxfam, 2005.
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 13 Other O&M Issues: Fly control Flies and other insect vectors spread pathogens from faeces Physical barriers needed between flies and faeces – keep the lid on! Faeces to be covered with soil, ash or other barrier (or spray with diesel) Paint latrine walls (lime & salt) to discourage larvae growth Keep the latrine dark inside Use fly traps and screens
E8 WASH Cluster – Emergency Training E 14 Other O&M Issues: Handwashing Where there is no tap Use of soap Location Promotion messages From Harvey, P., Ed., (2006), EDIE manual. WEDC.