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Beath High School - Int 1 Physics1 Intermediate 1 Physics Radiations Questions and Answers.

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Presentation on theme: "Beath High School - Int 1 Physics1 Intermediate 1 Physics Radiations Questions and Answers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics1 Intermediate 1 Physics Radiations Questions and Answers

2 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics2 Intermediate 1 Physics Radiations Light Q 1 to 10 X-rays Q 11 to 19 Gamma Rays Q 20 to 28 Infrared Q 29 to 37 Ultraviolet Q 38 to 44

3 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics3 1.A spotlight gives a bright, narrow beam of light. What makes the light from a laser different from the spotlight beam? A laser is made up of one single colour. A spotlight beam is made up of many colours A laser beam does not spread out - this means its energy is concentrated into a very small spot. Light

4 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics4 2.The concentrated light from a laser means that it is very useful in all manner of industrial applications. Describe one application of the laser. Lasers are used to send information at high speed between businesses over the length of the country. Lasers are used to repair damage to the retina at the back of the eye. A short pulse welds the retina back into place. Lasers are used to vaporise cancer tissue without scarring surrounding healthy tissue.

5 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics5 3.Laser light can also be switched on and off very rapidly. Give an example of the use of laser light in: a) shops Bar code readers. CD and DVD players. Optical fibre links. b) the home c) telecommunications d) medicine Bloodless surgery.

6 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics6 4.Light can be completely reflected from the inside surface of glass. What condition needs to be met for this to happen? This is an effect called total internal reflection and happens when light reflects at large angles (above the critical angle).

7 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics7 5.Flexible strands of glass can also completely reflect light. This makes these fibres very useful in medicine. Give an example of the use of optical fibres in medicine. Explain how your example works. Example: The fibrescope or endoscope. It has two separate bundles of fibres. One bundle takes the light from a lamp down inside the patient using total internal reflection. The other bundle brings the light out using total internal reflection so the doctor can see inside the patient.

8 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics8 6.There are two basic lens shapes. Name them and draw a diagram to show each shape. ConvexConcave On a second diagram show the effect these lens shapes have on parallel rays of light and label any important feature. focus

9 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics9 7.Describe the eye defect called "short sight". You should use a diagram of the eye in your description. Someone who has short sight cannot see far away objects clearly without glasses. The eye brings rays from distant objects to a focus too early and the rays form a blurred image on the retina. retina

10 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics10 8.Joanne can see the cables clearly when she is wiring a plug. Joanne cannot see clearly the number plate on a far away car. (a) Would Joanne be described as long sighted, normal sighted or short sighted? Short sighted Concave lens (b) What kind of lens would Joanne need in her glasses, to correct her eye defect?

11 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics11 9.A man has to strain to read a newspaper. From which eye defect does he suffer? Long sight Convex lens He decides he wants glasses to help him. What type of lens should be in the glasses?

12 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics12 10.An endoscope, using two bundles of optical fibres, may be used by a doctor to inspect the bronchial tubes of a patient. (a) The diagram below represents one section of an optical fibre in the endoscope. Show how the ray of light passes along the fibre.

13 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics13 10.(continued) (b) Explain how the optical fibres allow the doctor to see inside the patient's bronchial tube. One bundle of fibres takes the light from a lamp down inside the patient using total internal reflection. The other bundle brings the light out using total internal reflection so the doctor can see inside the patient.

14 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics14 11.An X-ray tube is thought to be faulty. Why is it unlikely that looking into the tube will find out if it is working? Why should you advise against this? X-rays are invisible to the naked eye. This means that even if they enter your eye, you cannot detect them. X-rays are dangerous because they can damage living cells. X-rays

15 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics15 12.Give one way in which X-rays differ from light. X-rays are invisible to the naked eye X-rays are dangerous since they can damage living cells.

16 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics16 13.Write short notes describing two uses of X-rays. Industry. X-rays are used to study the welds in pipes to make sure there are no cracks. An X-ray source is placed outside the pipe and an X-ray detector is placed inside the pipe. Any cracks in the weld allow X-rays to pass through and show up as darker areas on the detector. Medicine: X-rays can pass through muscle much easier than they can pass through bone. The X-rays pass through the body and hit a photographic plate on the other side. Bones show up as lighter areas. A break in a bone lets X-rays through and shows up as a dark crack.

17 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics17 14.At large airports, passengers must pass through an X- ray machine for security reasons. Signs warn travellers not to carry camera film when they pass through. Why can the film be damaged? Photographic film is affected by X-rays. When developed, the film shows dark patches where the X-rays have reached it.

18 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics18 15.An X-ray photograph of part of an arm is shown. (a) Why does the bone appear as a lighter area and the muscle as a darker area in the photograph? (b) What difference would be seen on the photograph if there was a break in the bone? X-rays can pass through muscle much easier than they can pass through bone, so more X-rays reach the film when they pass through muscle. The film shows dark patches at the break, where the X-rays have reached it.

19 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics19 16.Industry also uses X-rays which tend to be much more energetic than those used in medicine. a) Describe an example of the use of X-rays in industry and explain why powerful X-rays are required. X-rays are used to make sure there are no cracks in the welds in steel pipes. An X-ray source is placed outside the pipe and an X-ray detector is placed inside. Any cracks in the weld allow X-rays to pass through and show up on the detector. Powerful X-rays are needed to penetrate the metal.

20 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics20 16.b) Give two reasons why such powerful X-rays are not used in medicine. X-rays are dangerous since they can damage living cells. Radiographers and doctors who work with X-rays all day must be protected and exposure to X-rays must be kept to a minimum.

21 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics21 17.Why are X-rays dangerous? X-rays are dangerous since they can damage living cells.

22 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics22 18.Martin was in an accident and breaks a bone. To find the position of the break a doctor has a choice of: (A) ultraviolet rays; (B) X-rays; (C) gamma rays. (i) Which of the above should the doctor use? (ii) Explain why each of the other rays would not have been suitable. X-rays. Ultraviolet cannot penetrate the body to find the break. Gamma rays are more dangerous to living cells than even X-rays.

23 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics23 19.X-rays are used to take photographs of bones in the human body. To take a photograph of an arm bone (B), an X-ray machine (X) and a photographic film (F) are needed. In the boxes below, place B, X and F in the correct order to show their positions so that the photograph may be taken. XBF

24 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics24 20.Gamma rays can be used in the treatment of cancer and in the sterilisation of medical materials. In each case the same effect of gamma rays is being used. What is that effect? Gamma Rays The ability to damage living cells.

25 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics25 21.Great care is needed when handling gamma sources. a) Explain why sources must only be handled with long forceps. b) Operators wear special film badges. What is the purpose of these badges? This reduces the amount of radiation that you absorb. The further away from the source, the lower the amount of radiation. Photographic film is darkened when exposed to gamma radiation. The darkness of the film can indicate the amount of gamma ray exposure the operator has had.

26 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics26 22.Only very thick steel or lead offer any protection as a shield against a gamma radiation. Why do other materials not offer much protection? The penetrating power of gamma rays is very great. Gamma can pass through most materials – only lead and steel are dense enough to offer any protection.

27 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics27 23.In medicine, chemicals which emit gamma rays are used to trace paths through the inside of the body. a) Why are gamma rays used for this purpose? b) Describe how doctors can map out the path taken by the chemical? Gamma rays can pass through the body and be detected. As it moves through the body the radioactive chemical emits gamma rays that can be followed by using a detector.

28 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics c) The strength of a gamma source decreases with time. Why is this essential in this case? Gamma rays can kill or damage living cells. The body should only be exposed to gamma rays for a short time.

29 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Why is it not necessary to go to hospital or visit industry to be exposed to gamma rays? There is gamma radiation present in our surroundings.

30 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics What is meant by the term "background radiation"? We are all exposed to radiation all around us. It is called background radiation: (50% is from radon and thoron gases in our houses; 10% from our food, drink and breathing; 10% from outer space).

31 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics The table below gives the dose of radiation received by a patient in different medical examinations. (a) In which examination does the patient receive the largest dose of radiation? The thyroid scan

32 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics (b) The maximum allowed dose in one year for a member of the public is 5000 units. How many barium meals can a patient be allowed in a year? Number of meals = Maximum dose Dose for one meal Number of meals = Number of meals = 5

33 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics (c) Why is the maximum dose a member of the public can receive limited by law? To try to protect the public from too high a dose which could damage their cells.

34 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics (d) One thyroid scan is much greater than the maximum dose allowed for a member of the public. Why are hospitals allowed to give such a large dose to one person? It is worth the risk of harm to try to help the patient’s disease.

35 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Two students are investigating the measured count rate from radioactive sources. They wish to find out how the measured count rate for a radioactive source changes with time. Their results are shown below. All the sources started with the same measured count rate.

36 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics (a) Construct a new table, with headings and units, to show the results which the students should use to be able to make a conclusion for their investigation. (b) What conclusion should the students make from their investigation? Name of sourceTime since start (min) Measured count rate (counts per min) Radon Radon7 500 Radon10 70 As the time increases, the measured count rate decreases.

37 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics A doctor injects a radioactive tracer into the blood stream to check the supply of blood reaching a patient's lungs. A radiation detector is used to build up a picture of the position of the tracer in the lungs. The diagram shows the picture obtained for a patient who has a healthy and a diseased lung.

38 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics (a) What information does the light area in the picture of the diseased lung give the doctor? (b) Most of the radiation from the tracer passes through the body to the detector. Name the type of radiation emitted by the tracer. (c) What will have happened to the activity of the tracer some time after the picture was taken? No blood is reaching part of the diseased lung. Gamma radiation. The activity will decrease.

39 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics A Bunsen gauze is heated until it is red hot. How would you prove to someone that the red glow is not infrared radiation but light? Infrared You can see the red glow but infrared radiation is invisible.

40 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Hot objects emit infrared radiation. a) How can you tell if an iron is hot without actually touching it? b) In what way are our bodies sensitive to infrared radiation? Splash a small amount of water onto it. You can feel infrared radiation with your skin as heat.

41 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Firefighters often have to enter smoke filled rooms to save people. Light is blocked completely by thick smoke. Describe how infrared sensing equipment can be used by the firefighter to detect unconscious people in such circumstances. The infrared radiation given off by the warm bodies can be picked up by special cameras called thermal imaging cameras.

42 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics People who suffer from sore backs or who strain a muscle often use a heat lamp at home to relieve the pain. How does this work? The heat lamps give off infrared radiation which is absorbed by the muscles and help the muscles to relax and repair. This helps to relieve the pain.

43 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics The heating effect of infrared radiation is often used in industry. Give one example of its use. In industry IR is used to dry things e.g. biscuits, glues, paint on newly sprayed cars.

44 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics How is a thermogram different from what is seen in a night sight? A thermogram is a heat photograph, designed to show to show up small temperature differences in the body. The different temperatures appear as different colours in the thermogram. Colder areas often mean poor blood supply while warmer areas are often the sign of a site of infection. A night sight is more like a thermal imaging camera, designed to show warm bodies in the dark

45 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Describe a use of infrared heaters in kitchens and restaurants. Infrared heaters can be used in kitchens and restaurants to keep food warm while it is waiting to be served.

46 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Some surfaces absorb infrared radiation better than others. The table below shows the percentage of infrared absorbed by different surfaces.

47 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics (a) Draw a bar chart showing the percentage of infrared radiation absorbed and the surface Red brick wall Polished aluminium Tar Whitewashed wall % of irabsorbed

48 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics (b) Which surface absorbed most infrared radiation? (c) Which surface would you choose for the outer wall of a house in a very sunny country? (d) Explain your answer to (c). Tar. Polished aluminium. Polished aluminium absorbs the least infrared radiation so the house would be cool.

49 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Read the passage in the workbook. (From "Come on in, Chris," to "Do you know how it is used?" ). (a) Name the type of radiation given out by the human body. (b) How does the wavelength of this radiation compare with that of light? (c) Answer the doctor's last question to Chris by naming another type of radiation used in medicine and state its use. Infrared radiation Infrared has a longer wavelength than light. X-rays – to check for broken bones. Gamma – to destroy cancer cells or act as a tracer.

50 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Although we cannot see ultraviolet radiation with our eyes, we are sensitive to it. Explain. When the skin is exposed to UV, it becomes tanned (suntan). If you spend too long in the sun or exposed to UV, your skin burns (sunburn). Ultraviolet

51 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics When some chemicals absorb ultraviolet radiation they glow or emit visible light. a) What name is given to this effect? b) Describe how this effect is used in security markings (i) at home (ii) in shops Fluorescence Name and post code can be written on valuables and only shows up when viewed under UV light. Credit cards and banknotes all have codes marked on them that cannot be seen in normal light but glow under a UV lamp.

52 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics There is ultraviolet radiation present in the radiation from the Sun. a) What effect does low level exposure have on us? b) What is a possible effect of over exposure? When the skin is exposed to UV, it becomes tanned (suntan). If you spend too long in the sun or exposed to UV, your skin burns (sunburn). If you keep on exposing your skin to UV over several months, you may develop skin cancer.

53 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Ultraviolet radiation can help skin conditions. Describe how doctors can use it to help serious skin conditions. Psoriasis is a severe form of rash which can be treated by chemicals which can harm healthy skin. Ultraviolet radiation shone over the affected areas switches on this chemical only where it is needed.

54 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics How do sun tan creams work to help protect your skin? Sun tan creams reduce the amount of UV reaching the skin. Over-exposure to UV can result in skin cancer.

55 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Why is it not possible to get a tan indoors, even if sitting at a window? Ultraviolet radiation cannot pass through glass.

56 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics Why do scientists fear more cases of skin cancer if any more of the ozone layer is destroyed? As the ozone layer gets thinner, more UV reaches the Earth's surface. Over-exposure to UV can result in skin cancer.

57 Beath High School - Int 1 Physics57 Intermediate 1 Physics Radiations End of Questions and Answers


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