Presentation on theme: "Engaging and Motivating Learners"— Presentation transcript:
1 Engaging and Motivating Learners Aim:To identify practical approaches to teaching and tutoring to engage and motivate learners
2 ObjectivesAwareness of a range of classroom or workshop management techniques to improve motivation and teaching and learningUnderstanding of how to work with individuals to build self-esteemUnderstanding of the use of motivational dialogue techniques
4 Being an assertive teacher “A teacher’s response has crucial consequences … it creates a climate of compliance or defiance, a mood of contentment or contention, a desire to make amends or to take revenge.”(Chesterton, 1924)
5 Classroom or workshop management self-assessment questionnaire Please complete the questionnaire answering YES or NO.We will return to the questionnaire and the action points at the end of this session.
6 Low expectations for learner behaviour Teaching styles and learner behaviour High expectations for learner behaviourAssertive StyleAuthoritarian StyleHigh sensitivity to learners’ needsOver-indulgent / Permissive / Submissive StyleNeglectful / Passive StyleLow sensitivity to learners’ needsLow expectations for learner behaviour
7 Ground rules for life Share Play fair Don’t hit Remember to flush Hold hands in trafficTidy up after your own messPut things back where you found themDon’t take things that aren’t yoursSay sorry when you hurt someone
8 Ground rules of behaviour Behaviours unacceptable to STAFFBehaviours unacceptable to LEARNERSBehaviours unacceptable to BOTHBehavioural expectations of STAFFBehavioural expectations of LEARNERSBehavioural expectations of BOTHGround rules should be discussed by the teaching team and then by the learner group.Areas of common agreement form the ground rules.Have them typed or written up as a poster.Some ground rules are non-negotiable.This is an important exercise in social problem-solving (Kohn, 1996)
9 A cycle of classroom management Bill Rogers (1998) produced this framework of key principles for successful classroom management.Prevention (of disruptivebehaviour)Encouragement (of positive behaviour – correcting as necessary)Repair and rebuild (the relationship following correction)Consequences (for unacceptable behaviour – certainty rather than severity)Exercise:Work in four groups, each group taking one of the areas of the cycle above.Each group will develop strategies for their area of the cycle.Write up the strategies on a flip chart and report back.
10 Prevention Teach and establish rights, rules and responsibilities. Have a major focus on positive relationships and self-esteem.Build rituals and routines for starting and ending lessons and for gaining attention.Consider learner states and styles – play to their strengths – differentiate.Develop scanning – intervene early and quietly.
11 Encouragement Create a relaxed, peaceful environment. Have high expectations of all learners.Achieve a 6:1 ratio of encouragement : correctionUse verbal and non-verbal encouragement.Give clear instructions, positive feedback and set realistic targets.Frequently ask yourself: “Why would learners want to return to my class?”
12 Consequences Discuss when establishing ground rules Should be fair, reasonable and related to appropriate behaviourEmphasise they are in direct response to learner’s choiceCertainty rather than severityOffer some negotiation and opportunity to make restitution where appropriate
13 Repair and rebuildCorrection can erode relationships and damage self-esteem.It’s our job to develop and manage positive working relationships.A simple acknowledgement of improved behaviour is often enough.A friendly and courteous word as learners leave goes a long way.
14 LearnersLearners are the most important visitors on our premises – think of them as guests.We are dependent on them.They are our core business.Always acknowledge their presence – smile, make eye contact, say hello, talk to them, make them laugh, offer help and advice where appropriate.Treat learners as you would like to be treated.
15 Aristotle’s challenge “Anyone can be angry – that is easy. But to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way – this is not easy.”Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics
16 Anger: four questions Is anger the same as aggression? Is there anger without aggression?Is there aggression without anger?How do you deal with your anger?Work on anger-management strategies for angry learners.
17 Assertiveness training People adopt different response styles depending on the circumstances. It is unlikely that anyone is wholly one type or another.RESPONSE STYLESNON-ASSERTIVE/SUBMISSIVEWhen you allow your boundaries to be invaded; I lose - you winAGGRESSIVE/DOMINANTwhen you invade or attack someone else’s boundaries; I win - you loseASSERTIVEstanding up for your rights without violating the rights of others; I win - you winBASIC SKILLSdeveloping confidence and rightsESSENTIAL SKILLSwhat to say; non-verbal behaviour; what to think; how to integrate these elementscomprising:++SPECIALIST SKILLSHandling: disagreementcomplaints criticism aggression
18 Social skills Model and teach: social communication skills social interaction skillsself-awarenessrelationship skills.
19 A sequenced repertoire of strategies for the management of disruptive behaviour Core skills – these are powerful skills, useful in all discipline transactions.Low level strategies – these are low key but assertive interventions.Medium level strategies – these are direct and assertive interventions.High level strategies – consequences for inappropriate behaviour are applied.
20 ABCA – ANTECEDENTSevents that prompt, precede or trigger behaviourB – BEHAVIOURthe specific actions of an individualC – CONSEQUENCESsubsequent events that make the behaviour more or less likely to occurThe model is powerful in that it offers the possibility of altering behaviour by changing either antecedent or consequence.
21 Talk strategies Don’t say “don’t”. Use “maybe…… and”. Use calming tone of voice that conveys respect.Emphasise you will hear them out when they have calmed down.Preface your statement with an understanding of their point of view, then say, “however, I feel …” then say, “and I suggest” or “and I would like”.State your request in positive behavioural terms.Repeat your statement up to three times.If negative behaviour continues, state the consequence and emphasise it is their choice.
22 Non-verbal techniques Take-up or face-saving timeMirroringMood matchingUsing calming gesturesNon-confrontational positioningBody buffer zoneWalking away with an angry personMaintaining normal eye contact
23 Classroom or workshop management self-assessment questionnaire Return to the questionnaire.In view of what we have learnt, identify key action points.
25 Thinking about learners’ behaviours In relation to a task, learners may show:commitmentcompliancedisaffection.
26 What is motivation?The probability that a person will enter into and persist with a process of behaviour change.
27 Motivational strategies Advice How to give it? When to give it?Barriers Help learners to remove the obstacles to change.Choice Provide it in the face of the necessity of change.Determination Increase their desire to change.Empathy Communicate your desire to understand.Feedback Provide clear, accurate assessment of the current situationGoals Help THEM to clarify their aims.Helping “Active helping” is NOT “enabling”.
28 Motivational dialogue A directive, learner-centred style of interviewing which helps people to1. identify risks and goals2. explore ambivalence3. set targets4. maintain behaviour change.
30 Teacher’s task at each stage of change Learner stageTeacher’s motivational taskPre-awarenessRaise doubt: increase the learner’s perception of risksContemplationTip the balance: evoke reasons to change, risks of not changingDecisionHelp to determine the best course of actionActive changeHelp to take steps towards changeMaintenanceHelp to identify and use strategies to prevent relapseRelapseHelp to renew the process
33 Effective questions Open questions Do not elicit a short answer Do not predetermine the replyEncourage the learner to talkOpening phrasesIn what way . . .How does this . . .Tell me about . . .*Give me anexample of *
34 NVC: non-verbal communication Reflective listeningA form of active listeningUseful for:1. checking meaning2. clarifying meaning3. building empathy4. selective reinforcementAlways end reflection in a down tone of voiceCan involve:1. repeating key word or phrase2. paraphrasing a key idea3. reflecting NVC as wellNVC: non-verbal communication
35 Closing the communication loop What the learner saysWhat the tutor hearsWhat the tutor thinks the learner meansWhat the learner meansREFLECTION
36 Reflective statements It sounds like you…You’re feeling…It seems to you that…So what you’re saying is…The pronoun YOU is usually the subject of the sentence.
37 Aspects of non-verbal communication PostureOrientationEye contactUse of silence
38 Summarising Drawing together what has been said and presenting it to the learner Don’t make it too longAsk for approval at the end, for example;Is that about right?Is that more or less how you see things?Have I understood you correctly?Useful for:1. getting the learner to take stock2. checking or changing the direction of the conversation3. bringing other information into the frame4. Stalling while you think of the next step
39 Summarising for change One way of changing the learner’s perceptions Spend more time on the reasons for change (or the reasons against staying the same) and less time on the reasons for not changing.Use tone of voice and pace of speech to emphasise the seriousness and benefits of change.Order the summary by putting the argument in favour of change in the latter part.After asking for approval for your summary, ask “Where do you think you should go from here?”
40 Self-motivational statements or “change talk” Another way of changing the learner’s perceptions “People are generally better persuaded by the reasons which they themselves discovered than by those which have come into the minds of others.”Pascal in the 17th century
41 Types of self-motivational statements 1. Statements of problem recognition2. Expressions of concern3. Statements of intention to change4. Expressions of optimism about changeIncreasing significance