2“Three Worlds Meet” Outline Peopling the AmericasComing to AmericaEmpires FlourishNorth American Societies to 1492Native Americans and Diverse SocietiesNative American Societal StructureWest African Societies to 1492Connecting with the WorldAfrican Culture and SocietyThree Major KingdomsEuropean Societies to 1492Social OrderEuropean ReligionChanges in EuropeThe Age of ExpansionThe EncounterChristopher ColumbusMajor ImpactsA New Society
3Coming to AmericaOver 12,000 years ago, people began crossing the Beringia Land Bridge from Asia into North AmericaNomadic (traveling) societies following food8,000 B.C. – Groups begin hunting smaller game and gathering fruits, berries, etc.Agricultural societies begin to emerge
4Empires Flourish1,200 B.C. – First Americans begin to create larger communitiesThree major regions: Central/South America, Southwest N. America, and Eastern N. AmericaOlmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca all empires in Central and South AmericaHohokam and Anasazi emerge in Southwestern North AmericaAdena, Hopewell, and Mississippian claim Eastern North AmericaWhat would be some challenges to living in these regions?
5North American Societies to 1492: Native American Societal Structure Trading NetworksSpanned Mexico to the Atlantic CoastBrought native groups into contact with each otherRegional tribes were known for specific goodsLand UseSaw land as a part of nature that could not be bought or soldRevered for bringing food to native groups
6Native American Societal Structure Cont’d ReligionNatural world was filled with spirits (living and non-living things)Social OrganizationKinship (strong family ties) helped ensure continuation of tribal customsSocial order was divided by division of labor, or assignment of tasks based on gender, age, or status
7Exit SlipWhat major change occurred between 12,000-10,000 years ago for early groups in the Americas?Explain the importance of trade to Native Americans.What role did religion play in the daily lives of Native Americans?
8West African Societies to 1492: Connecting with the World TradeThe Sahara Highway connected West and North AfricaThrough ports, Europe and Asia connected as wellIslam also spread into AfricaPortuguese ArrivalLooking for gold, Portuguese arrive in mid-1400sPortuguese eventually enter slave tradeSlaves first used to man sugar cane plantations off coast of Africa
9African Culture and Society Family and GovernmentClose ties amongst people of the same lineageAge influenced rank within familyReligionVaried amongst tribes, but most worshipped spirits (present in living and non-living things)Muslim and Christian faiths also spread into area
10African Culture and Society Cont’d LivelihoodFarming, herding, hunting, fishing, mining – all sources of labor for those in West AfricaBelief of collective ownership of landUse of Slave LaborAge, gender, and social status divided laborSlaves at the bottomSlaves in Africa could work to gain their freedom
11Three Major Kingdoms Songhai Benin Kongo A.D. – Gained power through control of Saharan tradeWealth from trade meant more money for soldiers, weaponsBeninRose to power in 1400sAnother empire built on trade, dealt heavily with Portuguese when they arrivedKongoA group of villages ruled by one individualMining civilization, traded metal goods
12European Societies to 1492: Social Order Social HierarchyMonarchs, nobility and clergy, and peasants made up social structurePeasants worked land owned by nobles through system of feudalismCould not move out of class you are born intoFamily in SocietyLife centered around nuclear family, or mother, father, and childrenAge and gender still played a role in labor division
13European Religion 1096-1270 - Crusades Three consequences: Military expeditions into the Middle East in the name of ChristianityEuropeans motivated by desire to spread their faithThree consequences:Increase in trade with Holy Land and AsiaWeakened nobles (lost $$$ and lives through fighting), while strengthening monarchsDecline in power of the Pope
14Changes in Europe Economic and Population Growth Rise of Nations New markets established through CrusadesMore money + more jobs = more peopleRise of NationsWeakening of nobles led to strengthening of monarchs and merchantsFour nations beginning to emerge at end of 1400s: Portugal, Spain, France, and EnglandThe RenaissanceHumanism – focus on the ability of the individualQuestioning of Church policy made people more secularMotivation for exploration bc it called for people to have confidence in their accomplishments
15The Age of Expansion New Technology Portugal Compass and astrolabe allow sailors to travel furtherNew sail designs better harnessed windPortugalPrince Henry the Navigator pushed to bring these inventions to Portugal1488 – Bartolomeu Dias rounded southern tip of AfricaWithin 10 years, Vasco da Gama reaches IndiaPortuguese, rich off of gold and trade from travels, begin to look for a quicker path to India
16Exit Slip Define the term Feudalism Describe one of the three consequences of the CrusadesWhat types of technology led to the Age of Expansion?
17The Encounter: Christopher Columbus An Italian, Columbus sailed for SpainAugust 3, 1492 – Columbus sets sailOctober 12, 1492 – Land spottedThree motivations for exploration:“God, Glory, and Gold”Columbus would return on 3 separate voyages – not as an explorer, but as an “empire builder”
18Impact on Native Americans ColonizationEstablishment of distant settlements controlled by a parent countryLand taken, inhabitants used as source of labor or pushed outResistanceSome native groups resisted, fought backMost were easily taken by EuropeansDiseaseNatives had never been exposed to European diseasesMeasles, mumps, chicken pox, small pox – examples of diseases that would kill millions of Native Americans
19Impact on Europeans Columbian Exchange National Rivalries Trading of crops native to Europe, Asia, and Africa for those native to AmericasMore $$$ for merchantsNational RivalriesCountries began fighting over colonial landsWith Spain and Portugal on verge of war, Pope Alexander VI negotiates Treaty of TordesillasSplit Americas into “East” and “West” with Portugal owning East and Spain owning West
20Impact on Africans Slave Trade Native Americans either refused to work or died due to diseaseNeed for workers in Americas had Europeans turn to AfricansSlave trade “ended” in 1800s after 12 million were taken from Africa
21A New SocietyNew societies would emerge from European colonies in the AmericasU.S. History begins with a look at these 3 major peoplesNative Americans, Africans, EuropeansWhat kind of impact will this mulitculturalism have on the United States?